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MOHAMAD ADIB BIN RAHMAT MUHAMMAD AIMAN BIN AZMAN SIVARAJ A/L RAVICHANDRAN 2 CEMERLANG PN. JUNAIDAH BT. HASSAN
Science~Biodiversity 1

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What is Biodiversity?
•The wide variety of organisms on Earth in known as biodiversity or biological diversity. •The Variety of organisms can be classified using an appropriate classification method.

Classification of Organisms
•A classification system is required to group living things methodically because of their large number and types. •Although they possess common characteristic, organisms from the same species still have distinctive characteristics which differentiate them from other species. •Classification is important to enable more in-depth scientific studies to be carried out for the improvement of the species themselves.

Classification of Animals
•Groups of animals can be classified according to similarities in characteristics, features and structures. •Common characteristics are characteristics that are possessed by two or more types of species. •Common characteristics in animals include methods of reproduction, types of food habitats and physical features. •Classification of animals by common characteristics:

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Animals Vertebrates (with backbones)
Amphibians Fish Birds Mammals Reptiles

Invertebrates (without backbones)

Characteristics of animal Live in water Live on land Live in water & on land Reproduces by laying eggs Reproduces by giving birth Herbivorous Carnivorous Omnivorous Body covered with hair Body covered with feathers Body covered with scales

Examples
crab, fish, shrimp, oyster, squid, cockle, jellyfish dog, chicken, cat, squirrel, mouse, elephant, tiger, deer Crocodile, frog, turtle, seal, otter Hen, fish, bird, crab, duck, goose, cockroach Whale, dolphin, porcupine, pangolin, bat, rabbit, cow Rabbit, cow, goat, giraffe, squirrel, snail, grasshopper Lion, tiger, piranha, crocodile, snake, frog Chicken, duck, cat, cockroach, mouse, bear Cat, dog, cow, rabbit, bear, bat Bird, penguin, chicken, duck Fish, pangolin, lizard, snake, monitor lizard

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Animal Kingdom
•Animal can be divided into vertebrates and invertebrates. •Differences between vertebrates and invertebrates are as follows:
Vertebrates aspects Invertebrates

With backbones

Presence of backbones

Without backbones

Main support is endoskeleton Body Support which consists of bones

Main support is exoskeleton such as hard skin and fluid pressure

Vertebrates
•Vertebrates can be divided into five groups, namely fish, amphibians, reptiles birds and mammals. •The characteristics of vertebrates as follows:

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Fish ( Pisces )
backbone

Pectoral finDorsal fin scalesTail fin eye nostril Gill cover Ventral fin Sensory line Anal fin

Characteristics:
1. Live in the water 2. Cold-blooded (poikilothermic) 3. Streamlined body, covered with slimy scales 4. Breathe with gills 5. Most lay eggs. A few such as sharks and seahorses give birth to young 6. Move using fins and tail

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Amphibians

backbone

eye nostril mouth Front leg Rear leg

tympanic Soft, moist and exposed skin

Characteristics:
1. Can live on land and in the water the young live in water 2. Cold-blooded (poikilothermic) 3. Body is covered with moist skin 4. Breathe with lungs 5. Lay eggs 6. Move using limbs and tail

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Reptiles
backbone

eardrum eye mouth Front leg

tail

Rear leg

Characteristics:
1. Live on land and in the water 2. Cold-blooded (poikilothermic) 3. Have dry, hard scaly skin 4. Breathe with lungs 5. Lay eggs 6. Move using limbs and tail

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Birds
eye beak wing

tail

Hard scaly legs Sharp claw

Characteristics:
1. Live on land 2. Warm-blooded (homoeothermic) 3. Body is covered with feathers 4. Breathe with lungs 5. Lay eggs 6. Move using wigs and legs 7. Have beaks

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Mammals

ear eye tail leg nail

Characteristics:
1. Some live on land and some live in water 2. Warm-blooded (homoeothermic) 3. Body is covered with hair or fur 4. Breathe with lungs 5. Give birth to young except platypuses and anteaters 6. Move using limbs 7. Young feed milk from the mother’s mammary glands

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Invertebrates
•Invertebrates are animals without backbones. •The support system of invertebrates consists of:
Exoskeleton such as hard shell. Examples are crabs, prawns and centipedes. Hydrostatic frame. Examples are earthworms, caterpillars are •Generally, the physical characteristics of invertebrates and planarians. simpler than

Classification of Plants

vertebrates •Most microorganisms are invertebrates. For examples, coelenterates (Hydra and jellyfish) and protozoa (Paramecium and Amoeba).

•Plants too can be classified according to their common characteristics. •Common characteristics of plants include propagation method, habitat and physical features. •Classification of plant by common characteristics: Characteristics of plants Examples Grow in water Grow on land Woody stem Shrub Flowering Non-Flowering Have seeds Have spores Net-Veined leaves Parallel-Veined leaves
Water lettuce, lemna, water lily, algae Banana tree, durian tree, angsana tree, orchid, maize Casuarinas tree, pine tree, angsana tree, rambutan tree. Crotons, rose, orchid, chilly, screw-pine. Maize, grass, wild grass, sunflower Fern, moss, algae Papaya, orchid, maize, watermelon, hibiscus Fern, moss Hibiscus tree, yam, sweet potato, African violet, rose Wild grass, sugar cane, maize, paddy

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Plant Kingdom
•Different scientists classify plants by different characteristics. •Plants can also be grouped by the presence or absence of seeds as follows: Plants With seeds Flowering Non-Flowering (Conifers) Monocotyledons Dicotyledons Without seeds (ferns, mosses, algae)

•Plants can also be divided into flowering and non-flowering plants.

Flowering Plants
•Flowering plants are plants that can produce flowers. •Flowers are reproductive organs of flowering plants. •Flowering plants can be divided into groups, the monocotyledons and the dicotyledons, depending on the number of cotyledons in the seeds. •Cotyledons is the main seed leaf for the germination of new seedlings. •Cotyledons contains starch as food for the seeds that are unable to make their own food. Science~Biodiversity 11

Monocotyledons

Dicotyledons

One Cotyledon

Two Cotyledons

A maize grain cut in half

A green bean (split into two)

Example: Maize

Example: Balsam plant

Characteristics:
•Seed has one cotyledon •fibrous root system, which consists of many roots of equal size. •Leaves have parallel veins. •Stem is non-woody and soft. •Examples: wild grass, orchid plant, maize, sugar cane, palm trees, paddy.

Characteristics:
•Seed has two cotyledons •Tap root system, which consists of small roots that branch out of one main root. •Leaves have net veins •Stem is woody and hard. •Examples: rose tree, bougainvillea, angsana tree, balsam plant, guava tree.

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Non-Flowering Plants
•Non-flowering plants are plants that do not produce flowers. •Non-flowers plants need to reproduce by other means, for example, through spores •Non-flowering plants can be divided into four groups, namely algae, mosses, conifers, and ferns.

Benefits of Biodiversity
•Source of food •Source of materials •Source of medicine •Clean water •Air to breathe

Human Activities That Cause Animals & Plants Become Endangered
•African elephants are hunted for their ivory tusks to make jewellery and ornaments. •Sharks are killed for their fins to make special delicacies. •Seabirds have been killed by oil spills. •Gorillas are killed and served as food. Their palms are used to make ashtrays.

Ways to Protect Endangered Wildlife
•Setting up natural reserves. •Enforcing legislation: banning hunting, collecting or trading of these wildlife. •Protecting their habitats. •Breeding them in zoos to increase their number . •Increase awareness regarding the importance of biodiversity to the environment through education and campaigns. Science~Biodiversity 13

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