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Engineering Drawings and Symbols

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Material to be Covered

Chapter 16: Sections 1 5

Outline
In this chapter we will

Discuss the need for conventional


engineering symbols and drawings

Show how vital information for an object is


communicated to others using

Orthographic views Isometric views Sectional views

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Outline
In this chapter we will

Introduce basic rules of an engineering


drawing

Showing dimensions Specifying material size Indicating finished surfaces

Show some common symbols used in civil,


electrical, and mechanical engineering

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Objectives
The objectives of this chapter are to

Introduce engineering graphical


communication principles

To discuss why engineering drawings are


important

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Importance of Engineering Drawing

a picture is worth a thousand words In engineering, a good drawing is worth


even more than a thousand words

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Importance of Engineering Drawing

Engineering drawings are important in


conveying useful information to other engineers and machinists

Allow the readers to visualize what the proposed product would look like Provide information on dimensions and material used to make the proposed product Provide views from the top, the side, and the front

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Orthographic Views
Orthographic views show what an objects projection looks like when seen from the top, the front, or the side

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Orthographic Views
Relative locations of the top, bottom, front, back, right-side, and left-side view

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Orthographic Views

Views needed to fully describe an object


Top view Front view Right-side view

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Orthographic Views

Three types of lines used in orthographical


views

Solid lines represent Visible edges of the planes Intersection of two planes Hidden or dashed lines represent An edge of a plane Extreme limits of a cylindrical hole inside the
object Intersection of two planes not visible from the direction you are looking

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Orthographic Views

Centerlines represent Line of symmetry Center of holes Center of cylinders

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Orthographic Views
Some objects can be fully described with one view or two views

Washer can be described by 1 view and thickness


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This object can be described by 2 views: front and top


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Example 16.1 Orthographic Views


Given: object as shown Find: draw the orthographic views Solution:

Top view

Front view

Side view
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Dimensioning and Tolerancing

American National Standard Institute


(ANSI) sets the standards for the dimensioning and tolerancing practice for engineering drawings

Every engineering drawing must include


Dimensions Tolerances Materials from which products will be made Finished surfaces marked Other notes such as part numbers
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Dimensioning

Two concepts when specifying dimensions


Size Location Dimension lines Provide information on the size of the object Extension lines Lines that extend from the points to which the
dimension or location is to be specified Lines are drawn parallel to each other with dimension line placed between them

Basic dimensioning practice


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Dimensioning

Leaders Arrows that point to a circle or a fillet for the


purpose of specifying their sizes

Fillet Rounded edges of an object Size, radius of roundness must be specified Information box contains Name of person who prepared the drawing Title of the drawing Date Scale Sheet number and drawing number
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Dimensioning

leader

centerline dimension line extension line

Basics of dimensioning practice


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Example 16.2 Dimensioning


Given: an object and its dimensions are shown below Find: show dimensions in the orthographic views Solution:

Top view

Orthographic views

Front view

Side view
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Tolerancing

Engineered products generally consist of


many parts

Would everything fit correctly if the actual dimension of machine part is off from the specified value?

Must specify a tolerance on your drawing


regarding the machine part dimension

For example, 2.50 cm +/- 0.01 cm

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Isometric View

Isometric drawing shows the 3-dimensions


of an object in a single view

Use to visualize objects that are difficult to visualize in their orthographic views

Also called technical illustrations


Used to show parts or products in parts
manuals, repair manuals, and product catalogs

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Isometric Drawings Procedures


We will use the object shown to illustrate the steps of isometric drawings

Step 1 Draw width, height, and depth axes


Step 2 Measure and draw total width, height, and depth of object

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Isometric Drawings Procedures


Step 3 Create the front, top, and side work faces

Step 4 Complete the drawing as marked by the remaining line numbers

Original

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Isometric Drawings Procedures


Step 5 Erase unnecessary lines to yield final drawing

Step 5

Original

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Example 16.3 Isometric Drawings


Given: object as shown Find: draw isometric view of object Solution:
Step 1 Draw width, height, and depth axes

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Example 16.3 Isometric Drawings


Step 2 Measure and draw total width, height, and depth of object
Original

Step 3 Create the front, top, and side work faces

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Example 16.3 Isometric Drawings


Step 4 Complete the drawing
Original

Step 5 Erase unnecessary lines

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Sectional Views

Sectional views are used when objects


have complex interiors

Reveal the inside of the object Created by making an imaginary cut through the object The direction of the sight is marked using directional arrows

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Sectional Views
A sectional view of an object
Identifying letter

on solid section
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Sectional Views

Based on how complex the inside of an


object is, different methods are used to show sectional views

Common section types

Full section views Created when the cutting plane passes


through the object completely

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Sectional Views

Half-sectional views Used for symmetrical objects Draw half of the object in sectional view Draw the other half of the object as exterior view Can show interior and exterior views of an object
using one view

Rotated section views Used when the object has a uniform cross
section with a shape that is difficult to visualize Section is rotated 90o and is shown in the plane of view

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Sectional Views

Removed sections Similar to rotated section Rotated section views are removed from the
view itself and shown adjacent to the view Used for objects with a variable cross section Generally many cuts through the section are shown

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Sectional Views Illustrations

Rotated sectional view

Full sectional view

Half-sectional view
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Removed sectional view


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Example 16.4 Sectional Views


Given: object as shown on the right Find: draw sectional view of object as marked by the cutting plane Solution:

Solid material Original Sectional view


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Engineering symbols

Why do we need engineering symbols?

Symbols are language used by engineers to convey Their ideas Their solutions to problems Their analyses of certain situations

Conventional engineering symbols


Convey information Effectively communicate to other engineers

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Examples of Engineering Symbols

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Examples of Engineering Symbols

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Summary

You should have a good understanding of


the importance of engineering drawings in conveying information to other engineers, machinists, and assembly personnel

You should understand what is meant by


orthographic views, isometric drawing, and sectional views.

2011 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.

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Summary

You should understand basic rules for an


engineering drawing

You should know when to use isometric


views and finished surfaces You should be familiar with the different types of sectional views

Showing dimension Specifying material size Indicating finished surfaces

2011 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.

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Summary

You should know why we need and use


engineering symbols to communicate among ourselves

You should be familiar with some of the


common civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering symbols

2011 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.

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Engineering Drawing and Symbols

Questions?