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Outline Introduction What is 4G? New in 4G? What's 3G vs. 4G 4G Network Features How 4G works Challenges Summary .
Plans on releasing the first commercial network in 2010. Enables seamless roaming between technologies. NTT DoCoMo Company is testing 4G communication at 100 Mbps while moving. Called "3G and Beyond". and 1 Gbps while stationary. .What is 4G? A wireless access technology and is the successor of 3G.
What's New in 4G? Entirely packet-switched networks. Tight network security. Higher bandwidths to provide multimedia services at lower cost (up to 100Mbps). . All network elements are digital.
g.Features of 4G Networks 4G networks are all-IP (Internet Protocol) based heterogeneous networks This will allow users to: Select any system at any time and any where Use Multiple systems at the same time (e. GPS and WLANs and CDMA) A wide range of applications using only one 4G integrated terminal .
Wider bandwidths. Low cost. . higher bit rates. Global mobility and service portability. wireless Internet.Features of 4G Networks (cont. etc. Scalability of mobile networks (>10 times the capacity of 3G).) Support interactive multimedia services: teleconferencing.
4G 3G (including 2.mobileinfo. software multiband and wideband radios All IP (IP6.5G) 4G Major Requirement Driving Architecture Network Architecture Speeds Frequency Band Predominantly voice driven data was always add on Wide area cell-based 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps Dependent on country or continent (1800-2400 MHz) Converged data and voice over IP Hybrid . 1xRTT. including IP 5. 1/3 100 MHz (or more) All digital with packetized voice OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) Concatenated coding scheme Component Design Optimized antenna design. Bluetooth) and wide area 20 to 100 Mbps in mobile mode Higher frequency bands (2-8 GHz) Bandwidth Switching Design Basis Access Technologies Forward Error Correction 5-20 MHz Circuit and Packet W-CDMA.0) IP From : www.com .0 multi-band adapters Smarter Antennas. Edge Convolution rate 1/2.Integration of Wireless LAN (WiFi. multi-band adapters A number of air link protocols.3G vs.
9 .229 .37.129.How 4G works (working principle) The IP address is based on IPv6.X.168.X example: 216.178.X. 65.9 IPv6: example: 4 × IPv4 (32 bits) (128 bits) 216.120 home address care-of address mobile IP address local network address .198.5.23. IPv4: X.10 . 192.129.37. 79.2.
and mobile fun. IPv6 IPv4 Structure Security Function 32 bits Poor security Addressing 1.IPv4 vs. IPv6 128 bits Enhance security Multi-fun. 2. are built-in Plug & Play (Auto-Configuration) .
Care-of Add. UMTS Content Bluetooth WLAN ADSL Home Add. OFDM Unspecified TDMA FDD WCDMA TD-CDMA OFDM TDD Direct Sequence Frequency Hopping Very wide area Wide area Metropolitan area Local area Personal area . IP Add.The 4G mobile network(s) HAPS Satellite Wireline or Wireless Networks (Internet) Services GSM Care-ofMobile Add.
4G Systems Challenges To migrate current systems to 4G with the features mentioned previously. researchers are facing a number of challenges These challenges are grouped into the following different aspects: Accessing Different Networks: Multimode Devices Overlay Network Terminal Mobility Location Management Handoff Management .
4G Wireless Networks Challenges First Challenge: Accessing Different Networks One of the most challenging problems facing deployment of 4G technology is how to access several and different mobile and wireless networks There are two possible architectures Multimode Devices Overlay Network .
First Challenge: Accessing Different Networks 1. Multimode Devices Architecture A single physical terminal with multiple interfaces to access the different wireless networks Advantages: Improve call completion Expand coverage area Reliable coverage in case of network. link or switch failure Disadvantages: Complexity in the hardware of the device Handoff Mechanism: Performed by the user. device or network .
Multimode Devices Architecture (cont.) To reduce the complexity of the hardware in the device the most promising technology is to adapt the software radio approach bandpass filter Low noise amplifier Analog/digital converter reprogrammable Baseband DSP User BPF Analogue LNA ADC Digital An ideal software radio system .
Multimode Devices Architecture (cont.) Challenges in software radio technology High number of antennas: Still It is impossible to have just one antenna and one LNA to cover the bands of all 4G wireless networks The low speed of ADCs. the speed of the fastest current ADC is still two to three times slower than required .
Overlay Network Architecture A user accesses an overlay network consisting of several UAPs UAPs Functions: Select a wireless network based on availability and user choices Store IPs of user. network and devices Advantages: Simplify hardware of device Supports single billing Disadvantages: More network devices Handoff Mechanism between UAPs: Performed by overlay network rather than the user or device .First Challenge: Accessing Different Networks 2.
4G Wireless Networks Challenges Second Challenge: Terminal Mobility In order to provide wireless services at any time and anywhere. terminal mobility is a must in 4G infrastructure Terminal mobility allows mobile clients to roam across geographical boundaries of the wireless networks There are two main issues in terminal mobility: location management handoff management .
Location Management The system tracks and locates a mobile terminal for possible connection Location management involves handing all the information about Roaming terminals such as original and current location cells Authentication information QoS capabilities .Second Challenge: Terminal Mobility 1.
10.2.Second Challenge: Terminal Mobility 2.229. 79.120 home address care-of address mobile IP address local network address .37. Handoff Management Maintain ongoing communication when the terminal roams IP changes during handoff : IPv6 within the same cell: 220.127.116.11.129.9. 192.178. 65.168.
Second Challenge: Terminal Mobility 18.104.22.168.178.120 home address care-of address mobile IP address local network address . 22.214.171.124.9. Handoff Management IPv6 when the terminal roams to another cell: 216. 65.198.129. 79.229.
from WLAN to GSM) . • Vertical handoff is performed when the terminal moves between two different wireless systems (e.) Handoff Management Challenges • Horizontal handoff is performed when the terminal moves from one cell to another within the same wireless system.Handoff Management (cont.. .g.
Challenges in Handoff Management Vertical & Horizontal handoff will increase System load (increasing control packets) Packet losses Handover latency Hard correct handoff time: because measuring handoffs is done among different wireless systems .
and in order to utilize their new features too many challenges must be overcome . 4G networks is still in the development stage.Summary The key concept behind 4G systems is integrating their capacities with all of the existing mobile technologies through advanced technologies The IP address system used in 4G is based on the new technology IPv6.
Georgia State University.ee.wikipedia.ieee. Dec.” Bechtel Telecommunications Technical Journal (Vol.org/iel5/35/28028/01252799. Suk and Kai Hau Yeung. KPN Research. Available:http://www. the free encyclopedia. Available: http://www. Georgia State Jain.References Upkar Varshney and Radhika Jain. Issues in Emerging 4G Wireless Networks.brabantbreedband.Jawad “4G Features.oulu. Broadband Radio. City University of Hong Kong: Challenges in the Migration to 4G Mobile Systems.pdf Wikipedia. Available: http://ieeexplore.pdf Ibrahim.1 No.pdf Erik Fledderus. Bingulac.fi/~skidi/teaching/mobile_and_ubiquitous_multim edia_2002/issues_in_emerging_4G_wireless_networks. a vision on 4G. http://en. The Netherlands. Issues in Emerging 4G Wireless Networks.org/wiki/4G . 2002 Yu Hui.nl/publications/URSIGA2002%20ER%20Fledderus.1).
References (cont. Narumi. 2004 U. Sep.” IEEE Wireless Communication. and M. Toru. Tatsuro “Overview of Fourth-generation Mobile Communication System.0).” NTT Technical Review (Vol. O.) Z. June. Theodore.2 No. 2004 . “Migration toward 4G Wireless Communications.
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