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is 4G? New in 4G?


3G vs. 4G
4G Network Features How 4G works Challenges Summary

What is 4G?

A wireless access technology and is the successor of 3G.

Called "3G and Beyond". Enables seamless roaming between technologies. Plans on releasing the first commercial network in 2010. NTT DoCoMo Company is testing 4G communication at 100 Mbps while moving, and 1 Gbps while stationary.

What's New in 4G?

Entirely packet-switched networks.

All network elements are digital. Higher bandwidths to provide multimedia services at lower cost (up to 100Mbps). Tight network security.

Features of 4G Networks

4G networks are all-IP (Internet Protocol) based heterogeneous networks

This will allow users to: Select any system at any time and any where

Use Multiple systems at the same time (e.g. GPS and WLANs and CDMA)

A wide range of applications using only one 4G integrated terminal

Features of 4G Networks (cont.)

Support interactive multimedia services: teleconferencing, wireless Internet, etc.

Wider bandwidths, higher bit rates.

Global mobility and service portability.

Low cost.

Scalability of mobile networks (>10 times the capacity of 3G).

3G vs. 4G
3G (including 2.5G) 4G

Major Requirement Driving Architecture

Network Architecture Speeds Frequency Band

Predominantly voice driven data was always add on

Wide area cell-based 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps Dependent on country or continent (1800-2400 MHz)

Converged data and voice over IP

Hybrid - Integration of Wireless LAN (WiFi, Bluetooth) and wide area 20 to 100 Mbps in mobile mode Higher frequency bands (2-8 GHz)

Switching Design Basis Access Technologies Forward Error Correction

5-20 MHz
Circuit and Packet W-CDMA, 1xRTT, Edge Convolution rate 1/2, 1/3

100 MHz (or more)

All digital with packetized voice OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) Concatenated coding scheme

Component Design

Optimized antenna design, multi-band adapters

A number of air link protocols, including IP 5.0

multi-band adapters Smarter Antennas, software multiband and wideband radios

All IP (IP6.0)


From :

How 4G works (working principle)

The IP address is based on IPv6. IPv4: X.X.X.X example: IPv6: example: 4 IPv4
(32 bits)

(128 bits) , , ,

home address care-of address mobile IP address local network address

IPv4 vs. IPv6

IPv4 Structure Security Function 32 bits Poor security Addressing
1. 2.

IPv6 128 bits Enhance security Multi-fun. and mobile fun. are built-in Plug & Play (Auto-Configuration)

The 4G mobile network(s)

HAPS Satellite

Wireline or Wireless Networks (Internet) Services


Care-ofMobile Add. IP Add.

UMTS Content

Bluetooth WLAN


Home Add. Care-of Add.

OFDM Unspecified TDMA FDD WCDMA TD-CDMA OFDM TDD Direct Sequence Frequency Hopping

Very wide area

Wide area

Metropolitan area

Local area

Personal area

4G Systems Challenges

To migrate current systems to 4G with the features mentioned previously, researchers are facing a number of challenges These challenges are grouped into the following different aspects: Accessing Different Networks: Multimode Devices Overlay Network

Mobility Location Management Handoff Management

4G Wireless Networks Challenges First Challenge: Accessing Different Networks

One of the most challenging problems facing deployment of 4G technology is how to access several and different mobile and wireless networks There are two possible architectures Multimode Devices Overlay Network

First Challenge: Accessing Different Networks

1. Multimode Devices Architecture

A single physical terminal with multiple interfaces to access the different wireless networks Advantages: Improve call completion Expand coverage area Reliable coverage in case of network, link or switch failure Disadvantages: Complexity in the hardware of the device Handoff Mechanism: Performed by the user, device or network

Multimode Devices Architecture (cont.)

To reduce the complexity of the hardware in the device the most promising technology is to adapt the software radio approach

bandpass filter

Low noise amplifier

Analog/digital converter

reprogrammable Baseband DSP





An ideal software radio system

Multimode Devices Architecture (cont.)

Challenges in software radio technology

High number of antennas: Still It is impossible to have just one antenna and one LNA to cover the bands of all 4G wireless networks
The low speed of ADCs. the speed of the fastest current ADC is still two to three times slower than required

First Challenge: Accessing Different Networks

2. Overlay Network Architecture

A user accesses an overlay network consisting of several UAPs UAPs Functions: Select a wireless network based on availability and user choices Store IPs of user, network and devices Advantages: Simplify hardware of device Supports single billing Disadvantages: More network devices Handoff Mechanism between UAPs: Performed by overlay network rather than the user or device

4G Wireless Networks Challenges Second Challenge: Terminal Mobility

In order to provide wireless services at any time and anywhere, terminal mobility is a must in 4G infrastructure Terminal mobility allows mobile clients to roam across geographical boundaries of the wireless networks There are two main issues in terminal mobility:

location management handoff management

Second Challenge: Terminal Mobility

1. Location Management

The system tracks and locates a mobile terminal for possible connection
Location management involves handing all the information about

Roaming terminals such as original and current location cells Authentication information QoS capabilities

Second Challenge: Terminal Mobility

2. Handoff Management

Maintain ongoing communication when the terminal roams

IP changes during handoff :

IPv6 within the same cell:,,,

home address

care-of address

mobile IP address

local network address

Second Challenge: Terminal Mobility

2. Handoff Management

IPv6 when the terminal roams to another cell:,,,

home address

care-of address

mobile IP address

local network address

Handoff Management (cont.)

Handoff Management Challenges
Horizontal handoff is performed when the terminal moves from one cell to another within the same wireless system. Vertical handoff is performed when the terminal moves between two different wireless systems (e.g., from WLAN to GSM) .

Challenges in Handoff Management

Vertical & Horizontal handoff will increase System load (increasing control packets) Packet losses Handover latency
Hard correct handoff time: because measuring handoffs is done among different wireless systems


The key concept behind 4G systems is integrating their capacities with all of the existing mobile technologies through advanced technologies The IP address system used in 4G is based on the new technology IPv6.
4G networks is still in the development stage, and in order to utilize their new features too many challenges must be overcome


Upkar Varshney and Radhika Jain, Issues in Emerging 4G Wireless Networks, Georgia State Jain, Issues in Emerging 4G Wireless Networks, Georgia State University. Available: edia_2002/issues_in_emerging_4G_wireless_networks.pdf Erik Fledderus, Bingulac, Broadband Radio; a vision on 4G, KPN Research, The Netherlands. Available: Ibrahim,Jawad 4G Features, Bechtel Telecommunications Technical Journal (Vol.1 No.1), Dec. 2002 Yu Hui, Suk and Kai Hau Yeung, City University of Hong Kong: Challenges in the Migration to 4G Mobile Systems. Available: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

References (cont.)

Z. Theodore, Migration toward 4G Wireless Communications, IEEE Wireless Communication, June. 2004
U. Narumi, O. Toru, and M. Tatsuro Overview of Fourth-generation Mobile Communication System, NTT Technical Review (Vol.2 No.0), Sep. 2004