“It isn’t what you say but how you say it.”
“It is what you say and how you say it."

PARALANGUAGE Meaning is conveyed by the voice.

1.Loudness level 2.Rate of speech 3.How rapidly or slowly one speaks

Vocal quality of the speaker . The range of vocal pitches 6.4. The way silence is used 5.

connects the speaker and the listener .VOICE VOICE – vehicle by which people share/transmit ideas .

Elements: Volume – the intensity. the loudness or softness of the speaker’s voice .

rate .Rate – speed of speech Pitch – highness or lowness Variety – volume. pitch.

3. THIS IS NORMAL LOUDNESS.THIS IS VERY LOUD. 2. 1. This is soft.Read the following sentences. .

SPEECH LABORATORY. 1. HELLO THERE! HELLO THERE! 2. . SPEECH LABORATORY. Hello there. Speech laboratory.Read the following phrases and sentences.

WATCH OUT! WATCH OUT! . 4. Valentine’s Day.3. VALENTINE’S DAY. VALENTINE’S DAY. Watch out.

DICTION.articulation of speech sounds clearly and pronunciation of words correctly .

so they combine to produce an understandable word .forming individual speech sounds correctly with your mouth.Articulation .

Pronunciation stressing and accenting the right syllables in a word .


ARTICULATORS – tongue. RESONATORS .throat. uvula . teeth ridge.THE SPEECH MECHANISM 1. mouth. jaw 3. soft palate. POINTS OF ARTICULATION – upper lip. lower lip. nose 2. hard palate.

SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN LANGUAGE LEARNING  Each language has its own system. English has sounds not found in the Filipino’s mother tongue. .

.Further. the spelling of English words cannot be a guide for the pronunciation of the words.

“Englis” for “English” .Filipino learners may have errors through: Substitutions: : “paib” for “five”.

“ask” for “asked” Intrusions : “evening”. “business” .Omissions : “ak” for “act”.

The two steps in learning a language: Recognition of sounds: ear training to be able to distinguish the correct .

sound from the incorrect sound (“pried pis for “fried fish”) and to distinguish one sound from another (mom-mum-ma’am. tree-three) . mop-map.

Reproduction  Conscious reproductionthrough practice  Unconscious reproduction.after the speech habits have been formed. .

college .English v .speech j .CRITICAL SOUNDS OF ENGLISH Consonants f .fine sh .love ch .

Asia z .is ttime.three hard th . looked .zero.father zh .soft th .

seat closed o . raw o equals a .sit long i .hot.late short i .Vowels short a .map long a .no. row open o . God .law.

Short u or “schwa” sound cup. run In unstressed vowels diction teacher seven - pronunciation semester even .

effect.DRILLS Consonants f . .fine. perfect. fall. fifty. friend. face. four. Philippines. find.

difficult. laugh. safe. define. off. tough . life. half. proof. fifteen.

very. vote. never. favor. vital. visit. seven.v . value. vivid. . vase.

give. love. river. advice. convince. drive. receive . live.over. believe. serve.

sure. show. fashion. sharp. election. . shall.she.sh . vacation. champagne. cushion. share.

dish. conscious. crush.delicious. brush. fish. English. Spanish. crash .

virtue. teacher. chief.ch . champion. preacher. channel.chair. challenge. . chapter.

March.creature. rich. such . actual. reach. much. speech. teach. feature.

. jewel.j . joke. magic. genius. join. subject. June. enjoy. gentle. angel. general.job.

verge . edge. pledge. college. image. large.major. change. individual.

thirsty. nothing. birthday. . thank. Thursday. theme.three. mathematics. think. thing.soft th .

athlete. youth. teeth. mouth. month. south. author. bath.method. strength .

thus. . then. these. though. they. their. therefore.hard th . father. mother.this. the.

breathe.rather. other. clothe. either. further. soothe . with. loathe. bathe. brother.

zinc. zeal. zebra. freeze. zap.z . zipper.zero. . analyze. breeze. zealot. blaze. zoo.

egoism.criticize. lionize . plagiarism. heroism. verbalize. journalism.

(s endings) -boys. wise. schools. use. propose . is. abuse. girls. does. because. lose. choose. please.

zh - pleasure, measure, treasure, vision, usual, leisure, seizure, Asia, corsage, garage, prestige, massages

t - time, today, tomorrow, talk, teach, test, tonight, ten, act, subject, perfect, correct, absent,

distract, rent, dropped, talked, stopped, liked, worked, packed, finished

cap. lamp. map. pass. bad. add. . math. subtract.VOWELS Short a . land. lack. man.Ma’am. fact. sad. blank. cash.

lab. exam.last. faculty. fast. crash. gather. grammar. answer. thank. catch. track. land. land. . ask. that. transfer. lack.

salad. practice. practical. canteen.example. finance. married. guarantee. satisfies. absent. actually. balance. sandwich. . personality.

channel. Spanish. applicant. program.anchor. parents. language. preliminary. . graduate. Saturday. anthem. talent.

capital. value. character. master. analyze. national .accident. happen. standard. personality. manager. matter. analysis.

Mum.mom.ma’am Hut-hot-hat Cup-cop-cap Luck-lock-lack .

Stuck-stock-stack Suck-sock-sack Mud-mod-mad Stump-stomp-stamp .

rung-rang sung-sang drunk-drank drug-drag fun-fan pot-pat rock-rack coughcalf .

begun-began flush-flash bug-bag block-black lust-last pus-pass ton-tan adoptadapt .

bee. each. leave. she. leap. teach.seat. receive. . speak.Long i . fever. see. read. meet. believe. even. eat.

breathe. repeat. field. cheese. least.teeth. feel . easy. free. deal. please.

baby. it. mountain. live. chip. many. fill. ready. sit. critic. captain.in. mister. . lady. women. fit. Miss. slip. fountain.Short i . ship. this.

graduate. curtain. knowledge. college. village. language. advantage. immediate . senate. climate.certain. sausage.

live-leave still-steal itch-each fit-feet sick-seek hill-heal sit-seat grin-green hit-heat .

Bit-beat pitch-peach hill-heel Fill-feel bitch-beach ship-sheep .

Closed o . stereo. potato. colon. video. so. radio. motto.no. zero. also. . though.

tallow. show. grow. local. . going.solo. vocal. know. slow.

only. cold. over. tomorrow. okay. old. . omit.follow. open.

October. November. vocabulary. notice. moment .bold. told.

audit. daughter.law. pawn.Open o . saw. slaw. dawn. author. lawn. . awesome. thaw.

taught.taut. warm. war. water. bald. laudable. broad . bought. warning.

Orator. operator. . comment. mop. progress.[a] hot. body.Letter o . office. object. opposite. God.

logic. color. contest. bottom. .Congress. dollar. apologize. common. sorry.

foreign. sponsor. commandant. philosophy. sociology. . biology.

comfort. double . October. comma. scholar. orange. doctor.economics.

favor. preacher. mother.“schwa” . . color. mentor. mental.the neutral sound in unstressed vowels father.

final. motor. vehicle. little. . title. example. distribute. contribute.

chicken. lecture. even. judgment. registrar. doctor.picture. rented . professor. eleven. similar. assignment. wanted. seven. moment. tenure.

our. hour . rubber band. a piece of paper. a sheet of paper. fax. people.WORDS OFTEN MISPRONOUNCED 1. pad paper. coupon bond.

depreciate. diabetic. scarce. sever. decade. prayer .2. millennium. [Є] centennial. prevalent.

[ə] culture. ultimate. journey . southern. country.3. fundamental. journalism. multi-lingual.

poem. renege. [ j ] education. nuisance. precedent (n). awry. precedent (adj) 5. graduate. gradual. president. unravel. soldier . privy.4.

due. duet. example. studio. audio. exist. audience.6. exotic. [gz] exam. [ d ] radio. video. exhort . exact. dual. duty. dew 7.

8. contrasting pairs: [ s ] and [ z ] ice-eyes precedent-president house (n)-house (v) face-phase .

price-prize use (n) .advise .use (v) rice-rise place-plays advice .

peace-piece loose-lose lice-lies lacy-lazy gross-grows cease-sees-seize .

heist . wise. cry. I’ll. icon. time. I’ve. why. right.DIPHTHONGS [aI] life. file. try. feisty. bright. apply. night. I’m.

now. cow. out.[au] how. hour. our. loud. oust. towel. town. brown. proud. abound . powder.

toy. poise. voice. join. soy. oil. joint. boil. coin. toil. joy.[‫כּ‬I] boy. point. noisy. anoint .

[eI] day. prey. maid. lady. raid. train. play. angel. aim. . eight. brain. ate. stage. stale. April. mate. late. ache. stain. pray.

retain. abstain. bake. latent. apolitical. gauge. heinous. sale. amoral.away. remain. sachet. Amen . matinee.

.The bandage was wound around the wound. 1.SENTENCE DRILLS Read each sentence.

. The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.2.

3. . He could lead if he would get the lead out.

. The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert.4.

.5. The insurance was invalid for the invalid.

.6. After a number of injections. my jaw got number.

. Upon seeing the tear in the painting. I shed a tear.7.

8. . The wind was so strong to wind the sail.

testimony .The stressed syllable is given: more force.RHYTHM OF ENGLISH Word Stress. comfortable. higher pitch. and larger duration Example: teacher.

 A long word frequently has two stressed syllables. Example: E-du-CA-tion . a primary accent and a secondary accent.

unstressed vowels are obscured or deemphasized and given the sound of “schwa” or [I] Example: people. language . motor. seven.Generally.

Prefixes of negation should be stressed: Example: uneven, incoherent, disadvantaged

Commonly Mispronounced Words:

1.professor 2.semester 3.committee 4.honorable 5.distinguished

6. eligible 7. ceremony 8. circumstances 9. contribute 10. accuracy

talented 14. orator 15. condolence .11. amicable 12. negotiate 13.

16. appreciate 18.percentage . interpret 17. testimony 20. controversy 19.

21. education 23. pronunciation 22. manual . subsidiary 25. preliminary 24.

clarification 29. communication 28. differentiate . anniversary 30. actually 27.26.

Sentence Stress. . or words that have meaning in themselves are stressed.content words. adjectives and adverbs. These are nouns. verbs (except linking and auxiliary verbs).

Two others are given stress: demonstratives (this, that) and interrogatives (Who, What, Why, etc.).

Function words, like articles, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and linking and helping verbs are not stressed.

Phrasing and Pausing

Normally, all but the shortest sentences are divided into two or more parts or thought groups.

/ . such as phrase or clause.Generally pauses are made after a group of words which has an idea. Example: Phrasing/ depends upon the meaning/ of what you say.

Pausing is necessary in a sentence for the following reasons: To separate ideas and set them apart as units of thought to make the meaning clear. .

.Example:  He rose awkwardly/ looked about nervously/clutched his throat/ shifted his weight once or twice/ and finally began to speak.

 To point out an important idea to be expressed. . Example: The most dangerous force operating today is/ apathy of the people.

 To enable the speaker to catch his breath in a long sentence  To allow the speaker some time to organize his thoughts  To allow the audience to digest the words previously said .

especially when there are commas. semi-colons in the printed page  To signal change of ideas or change of mood . To serve as verbal punctuation marks in a sentence. colons.

” .“Ask not what your country can do for you: ask what you can do for your country.SENTENCES 1.

” .2. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal. I have a dream today.

Blending.an uninterrupted flow of breath within the thought group / lamateacher/ from the school of education/. .

Liaising vowel-vowel Rule: glide between 2 vowel sounds Go away [go(w)away] The others [the(y)others] .

Liaising T + Y = CH Spelling/ Pronunciation What’s your name? [Whacher name?] Can’t you do it? [Canchoo do it?] .

Don’t you like it? [Donchoo like it?] Actually [Achully] .

Liaising consonant-consonant Rule: connect ccs in similar posts I just didn’t get the chance [I jussdidn’t ge(t)thechance] .

I’ve been late twice. [äivebin la(t)twice] .

Liaising D + Y = J Spelling Pronunciation What did you do? [Whajoo do?] Would you help me? [Wüjoo helpme?] .

Did you like it? [Didja like it?] Graduation [graju(w)ation] .

Liaising Z + Y = ZH Spelling Pronunciation How’s your family? [howzher famly?] Who’s your friend? [hoozhier friend?] .

casual [kazhyoow’l] usual [yuzhoow’l] .

Liaising consonant-vowel Rule: glide consonant to vowel sounds Shut up Work out Look out Lay off Shame on you .

Intonation.is the tune of what we say I’d like: an apple a car to hear his answer to go home now Would you like to… .

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