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# CHAPTER 1

## FORCES ON THE MATERIAL

Strength of Materials :

- Its ability to withstand an applied stress
without failure (tensile, compressive and
shear)
- Deals with loads, deformations and the
forces
acting on a material.
Effective Forces
Force on an object can have the following
effects-
What happens to the balloon after the force is no
longer applied?
Tacoma Narrows Bridge
7 Nov 1940 Washington

Balloon Stretch
Elasticity and Plasticity
All materials will behave elastically or
plastically-
For elastic behaviour when a force is
applied the change in length is
proportional to the force. The object will
return to its original shape when the force
is taken away.
For plastic behaviour the force and the
change of length are not linked. A
permanent deformation occurs when the
force is taken away.
Terminology
Extension- change in length
Extended length- total length with
load applied
Force
Applied
Natural length
Extended length
Extension
Elasticity and Plasticity
Elastic Limit
1.
2.
Force
Extension
1. Elastic region (any force applied below the elastic limit)
2. Plastic region (any force applied above the elastic limit)
Fill out the table for the
springs
4 cm
4 cm
4 cm
10
cm
2 N
4 N
6 N
Force Applied
(N)
Extended Length
of spring (cm)
Extension of
spring (cm)
10
14
18
22
0
2
4
6
0
4
8
12
Types of load and its impact
Static
loading
- A non
varying load
- The effect of
gravity on an
object or
structure

Types of load and its impact
Dynamic
loading - The
forces that
move or
change when
acting on a
structure

Types of load and its impact
Impact loading
- A force
delivered by a
blow, as
opposed to a
force applied
gradually and
maintained
over a long
period.

Types of load and its impact
Fatigue
loading
- a varying load
superimposed
on a constant
load
- only occur at
certain times
(spring)

Types of load and its impact
Alternating
loading
- place on the
shaft which was
used in power
transmission

Force
Effect
Types of force
Direct Force
- A layer which
experiences a force is
perpendicular to the
direction of the force
acting such as the tensile
force (positive) and
compression (negative)

Shear Force
- A strain produced
when the layers of an
object are subjected to
opposing forces.

An applied force or system of forces that tends to
strain or deform a body. "the intensity of stress is
expressed in units of force divided by units of area"
STRESS
TENSILE
STRESS
COMPRESSIVE
STRESS
SHEAR STRESS
Example 1a:
Figure 1a shows a steel bar having a rectangular
cross section measuring 25 mm x 20 mm.
Calculate tensile stress in this section if the bar is
loaded with an axial tensile load worth 30 kN.
Solution 1a:
Bar cross-sectional area, A = 25 x 20 = 500 mm
2

= 500 x 10
-6
m
2

Area
Force
Stress Tensile =
The ratio of the change in length caused by the
applied force, to the original length.
STRAIN
o
o f
L
L L
Strain

= c ,
Example 1b:
Determine the strain that occurs over a long bar
where the end is 50.03 mm if the original length is
50 mm.
4
o f
10 60

50.00
50.00 - 50.03

L

L -

=
=
A
=
=
x
L
L
L
Strain
o
c
Hookes Law
The extension of the objects length will be
proportional to the load causing that
extension provided the elastic limit is not
exceeded
E.g. if the force is doubled, the extension
is doubled
If a material is loaded
beyond its elastic limit
then Hookes Law no
longer applies.
*Robert Hooke*
Hookes Law
Hookes Law :-
Stress () strain ()
or
/ = constant
Young's Modulus or Modulus of
Elasticity

A measure of the stiffness of an elastic
material and is a quantity used to
characterize materials
The slope of the stress-strain curve at
any point
c
o
=
=
E
Strain
Stress
Modulus s Young'
Young's Modulus or Modulus of
Elasticity

o = P/A and c = AL/ L , so:-
AE
PL
L
L A
PL
E
= A
A
=
L A
PL
L
L
A
P

A
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= E
Stress Strain Diagram
Proportional Limit

Elastic Limit - The elastic limit is the limit beyond
which the material will no longer go back to its original
shape when the load is removed, or it is the maximum
stress that may e developed such that there is no
permanent or residual deformation when the load is
entirely removed.
Yield Point - Yield point is the point at which the
material will have an appreciable elongation or
yielding without any increase in load.
Rapture Strength - Rapture strength is the strength
of the material at rupture. This is also known as the
breaking strength

UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE
TENSILE TEST
TENSILE TEST
TENSILE TEST
TENSILE TEST
TENSILE TEST
COMPRESION TEST
Compression test
specimen
COMPRESION TEST
Compression test graph
Example 1c
Working Stress - the highest allowable stress in a
component / beam to allow the material to respond
to the force applied
Proof Stress - The stress that will cause a specified
small, permanent extension of a tensile test piece.
This value approximates to the yield stress in
materials not exhibiting a definite yield point.
Factor Safety
Stress oof
Stress Working
Pr
=
Safety Factor - the ratio of the working stress of a
structure to the estimated maximum stress in
ordinary use

The value of the safety factors used depend on the
following factors:-
i) the possibility of overload
ii) type of load (static/dynamic/impact/alternating)
iii) the possibility of a defect in the materials used
iv) for a specific purpose or due to failure
Stress Working
Stress Maximum
F S = .
Strain Energy - work done by a load / force on a
component to produce a strain in the component.
Unit : Joule
Poisson Ratio a measure of the elastic properties
of a material expressed as the ratio of the fractional
contraction in breadth to the fractional increase in
length when the material is stretched. Symbol
or
the ratio between lateral strain to longitudinal
strain produced by a single stress.
E
v
v
E
X Y X
o
c c
o
c
=
= =
( )
0
,
L
L
length Original
length in Change
direction x x in strain tensile The
X
A
= = c
( )
0
,
d
d
diameter Original
diameter in Change
direction y y in strain tensile The
Y
A
= = c
where
t
avg
= average shear stress at the section
V = internal resultant shear force at the section
A = area at the section
A
V

avg
=
4
2
rivet
rivet in avg
d
P
A
V
t
t = =
Lw
P
A
V
glue in avg
= = t
4
2
2
rivet
rivet in avg
d
P
A
V
t
t = =
Lw
P
A
V
glue in avg
2
= = t
Example 1d
Three plates are connected by two rivets as shown
in Figure below. If the shear stress t = 40 N/mm
2
.
Calculate a suitable diameter rivets.

Example 1d
A bar with a diameter 35 mm is subjected to a
compressive force of 150 kN. This load causes a
reduction in length of 0.17x10
-3
m. the original
length of the bar is 200 mm. determine the
Modulus of elasticity of the material.
Solution:

150kN
150kN
D=35mm
Example 1d
Example 1e
A bar with a 30 mm diameter and 80 mm length is
subjected to a tensile force of 100 kN. The ultimate
stress is 230 MN/m
2.
as a result of this force, the
bar elongates by 0.0585 mm and the diameter
becomes 29.994 mm. Determine:
i. the tensile stress
ii. The tensile strain in x-x direction
iii. The tensile strain in y-y direction
iv. Modulus of elasticity
v. strain energy
vi. Safety factor
vii. Poissons ratio
Example 1e
Example 1e