=
=
A
=
=
x
L
L
L
Strain
o
c
Hookes Law
The extension of the objects length will be
proportional to the load causing that
extension provided the elastic limit is not
exceeded
E.g. if the force is doubled, the extension
is doubled
If a material is loaded
beyond its elastic limit
then Hookes Law no
longer applies.
*Robert Hooke*
Hookes Law
Hookes Law :
Stress () strain ()
or
/ = constant
Young's Modulus or Modulus of
Elasticity
A measure of the stiffness of an elastic
material and is a quantity used to
characterize materials
The slope of the stressstrain curve at
any point
c
o
=
=
E
Strain
Stress
Modulus s Young'
Young's Modulus or Modulus of
Elasticity
o = P/A and c = AL/ L , so:
AE
PL
L
L A
PL
E
= A
A
=
L A
PL
L
L
A
P
A
=

.

\


.

\

=
= E
Stress Strain Diagram
Proportional Limit
Elastic Limit  The elastic limit is the limit beyond
which the material will no longer go back to its original
shape when the load is removed, or it is the maximum
stress that may e developed such that there is no
permanent or residual deformation when the load is
entirely removed.
Yield Point  Yield point is the point at which the
material will have an appreciable elongation or
yielding without any increase in load.
Rapture Strength  Rapture strength is the strength
of the material at rupture. This is also known as the
breaking strength
UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE
TENSILE TEST
TENSILE TEST
TENSILE TEST
TENSILE TEST
TENSILE TEST
COMPRESION TEST
Compression test
specimen
COMPRESION TEST
Compression test graph
Example 1c
Working Stress  the highest allowable stress in a
component / beam to allow the material to respond
to the force applied
Proof Stress  The stress that will cause a specified
small, permanent extension of a tensile test piece.
This value approximates to the yield stress in
materials not exhibiting a definite yield point.
Factor Safety
Stress oof
Stress Working
Pr
=
Safety Factor  the ratio of the working stress of a
structure to the estimated maximum stress in
ordinary use
The value of the safety factors used depend on the
following factors:
i) the possibility of overload
ii) type of load (static/dynamic/impact/alternating)
iii) the possibility of a defect in the materials used
iv) for a specific purpose or due to failure
Stress Working
Stress Maximum
F S = .
Strain Energy  work done by a load / force on a
component to produce a strain in the component.
Unit : Joule
Poisson Ratio a measure of the elastic properties
of a material expressed as the ratio of the fractional
contraction in breadth to the fractional increase in
length when the material is stretched. Symbol
or
the ratio between lateral strain to longitudinal
strain produced by a single stress.
E
v
v
E
X Y X
o
c c
o
c
=
= =
( )
0
,
L
L
length Original
length in Change
direction x x in strain tensile The
X
A
= = c
( )
0
,
d
d
diameter Original
diameter in Change
direction y y in strain tensile The
Y
A
= = c
where
t
avg
= average shear stress at the section
V = internal resultant shear force at the section
A = area at the section
A
V
avg
=
4
2
rivet
rivet in avg
d
P
A
V
t
t = =
Lw
P
A
V
glue in avg
= = t
4
2
2
rivet
rivet in avg
d
P
A
V
t
t = =
Lw
P
A
V
glue in avg
2
= = t
Example 1d
Three plates are connected by two rivets as shown
in Figure below. If the shear stress t = 40 N/mm
2
.
Calculate a suitable diameter rivets.
Example 1d
A bar with a diameter 35 mm is subjected to a
compressive force of 150 kN. This load causes a
reduction in length of 0.17x10
3
m. the original
length of the bar is 200 mm. determine the
Modulus of elasticity of the material.
Solution:
150kN
150kN
D=35mm
Example 1d
Example 1e
A bar with a 30 mm diameter and 80 mm length is
subjected to a tensile force of 100 kN. The ultimate
stress is 230 MN/m
2.
as a result of this force, the
bar elongates by 0.0585 mm and the diameter
becomes 29.994 mm. Determine:
i. the tensile stress
ii. The tensile strain in xx direction
iii. The tensile strain in yy direction
iv. Modulus of elasticity
v. strain energy
vi. Safety factor
vii. Poissons ratio
Example 1e
Example 1e