This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
An engine is motor which converts chemical energy into mechanical energy
• Otto Cycle: Dr. Nicolaus Otto -1876
On January 29. .that's why it is also called as “Otto cycle engine”. In 1885.History One of the most important landmarks in engine design by Nicolaus August Otto in 1876 who is invented as effective four stroke engine.1886.Karl Benz designed and built the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an internalcombustion engine.German mechanical engineer.
History • 2-Cycle Engine. Du gal Clerk -1878 .
Dr. Rudolph Diesel -1895 .History • Diesel Engine.
It consist of 4 stroke .one cycle operation is completed in 4 stroke of the piston.of crankshaft rotation and hence a cycle consist of 720°.Four Stroke Engine Four stroke engine was first demonstrate by Nikolaus Otto in 1876.hence it is also known as Otto cycle. . Each stroke consist of 180°.of crankshaft rotation. That is one cycle is completed in every 2 revolutions of the crankshaft.
Working principle of four Stroke Engine Following are the four strokes 1 – Intake/Suction stroke 2 – Compression stroke 3 – Expansion stroke 4 – Exhaust stroke .
Outlet valve will be closed and inlet valve will be open to allowing the fresh charge of mixed fuel & air into the cylinder.1 – Intake stroke In suction stroke piston starts at Top Dead Center (TDC) of the cylinder and moves to the Bottom Dead Center (BDC). .
It compress air fuel mixture inside the cylinder & compression takes place.Once piston reaches BDC & moves back TDC.inlet valve will be closed.Hence it is called compression stroke.As the piston moves towards TDC. .2 – Compression stroke In compression stroke.
3 – Expansion stroke In expansion stroke.Hence it is known as expansion stroke. .When piston reaches top of its stroke the fuel mixture is ignited by spark plug due to spark high temperature & pressure generated inside the cylinder & push down the piston to BDC.Both the valves are closed.
Hence called exhaust stroke & the engine is ready to begin the cycle again. Piston pushes out the burnt gases to the atmosphere through the exhaust valve.when piston reaches to BDC & moves to upward.4 – Exhaust stroke In this stroke exhaust valve is opened. .
Parts of an engine .
Various Parts of Engine • Cylinder Block • Cylinder Head • Inlet valve & Exhaust valve • Piston • Piston Rings • Connecting Rod • Gudgeon Pin • • • • • • Crankshaft Crankcase Crank Pin Camshaft Spark plug Fuel pump .
Usually it is made up of iron or aluminum. also called as engine block is the main bottom end structure.Cylinder Block The cylinder block.compressed by piston. . Function: In the bore of the cylinder the fresh charge of air-fuel mixture is ignited.
It is the key to performance of the internal combustion chamber. .Top of head contains rocker arm & push rod to transfer rotational mechanic from the crankshaft to linear mechanic to operate the valves.Cylinder Head The cylinder head is flat plate of metal bolted to the top of cylinder block with head gasket in between.
.Inlet valve & Exhaust valve Inlet valve:Its function is to intake the fresh air-fuel mixture into the cylinder. Exhaust valve:Its function is to exhaust is the burnt gases by the force of piston.
Piston Piston is connected to the crankshaft through the connecting rod.when piston moves downward sucks fresh air-fuel mixture in suction stroke & ignited inside the cylinder due to this high temperature and pressure generated. .thus expanded gas force down to piston.
regulate the engine oil consumption.support heat transfer & finally.Piston Rings A piston ring is an open ended ring that fits into a groove or outer diameter of the cylinder. . Piston rings have three major functions which are to seal the expansion chamber.
Its function is to transmit the reciprocating motion of piston to the to the rotary motion of crankshaft.Connecting Rod & Gudgeon Pin A small end of connecting rod is connected to the piston and other end is connected to the crankshaft. Gudgeon pin is used to connect the piston & connecting rod. .
it typically connects to flywheel.Crankshaft Crankshaft is the part of an engine which translates the reciprocating linear motion of piston into rotation.the crankshaft has “crank pin”. To convert the reciprocating motion into rotation. .to reduce the pulsation characteristics four stroke cycle.
Crankshaft The crank-connecting rod is first fully developed by Arab inventor Al-Jazari in (1136-1206).Similar crankshaft late described by Conrad Keyser in 1405. It also drives the camshaft which actuate the valves of the engine. .The main function of crankshaft is receives the oscillating motion from connecting rod and gives rotary motion to main shaft.
. The camshaft were invented in Iraq (Mesopotamia). described by Al-Jazari in 1206.The relationship between camshaft rotation & crankshaft rotation is of critical importance. It consists of cylindrical rod with cams.Camshaft Camshaft is a part which is used in piston engine to operate valves.
via a gear mechanism. or indirectly via belt/chain called a timing belt or timing chain.Camshaft Since valves controls the flow of air-fuel mixture intake & exhaust burnt gases.For this reason . the camshaft rotates at the same rate of crankshaft.the camshaft is connected to the crankshaft either directly. Valves must be opened & closed at appropriate time during the stroke of piston. .
.Spark Plug Spark plug is used in petrol engine only which is help to ignite the airfuel mixture for combustion.
.Two Stroke Engine Two stroke engine is first described by Du gal Clerk in 1878.In two stroke engine one cycle is completed in every revolution of crankshaft.
easy for manufacturing and simple in operation.Working principle of two Stroke Engine Two stroke engine is widely used employed where small power required for motor cycle like auto rickshaw. . scooter. This type of engine is compact in size. In two stroke engine there are no inlet or exhaust valve as in four stroke engine.
Working principle of two Stroke Engine But only inlet & exhaust ports used .Due to which suction & exhaust stroke is eliminated in two stroke cycle engine. .
Compression Stroke When piston moves from BDC to TDC.it first closes the transfer port & then exhaust port. . At the same time.The charge of airfuel mixture in the chamber is pressurised & creates high temperature.
As the piston moves towards TDC .so the fresh charge of fuel mixture is being drawn into the crankcase from the carburettor.a high voltage discharge from the spark plug & ignites the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber.Compression Stroke a vacuum is developing in the crankcase. .
the pressure in the crankcase is already rising.Very shortly after that the . Later in down stroke exhaust port will be open & forced out the burnt gases.Combustion Stroke In this stroke both the ports still closed condition.the pressure of the expanding gases forces the piston towards BDC.
and engine is ready to start of the cycle. .Combustion Stroke Inlet / Transfer port will also open to intake the fresh charge of fuel mixture.
• Easy to manufacture & low cost. • It is more compact.Advantages & Disadvantages of Two Stroke Engine Advantages : • One cycle completed in every revolution of crankshaft. • The design & construction is much simpler than four stroke engine. .required less space and lighter in weight than four stroke engine.
.camshaft and rocker arm etc.hence no need of cam. • Gives less torsional oscillation. • Easy for maintenance.Advantages & Disadvantages of Two Stroke Engine Advantages : • There is no suction and exhaust valve used. • Requires less spare parts.
• More wear & tear of moving parts hence it gives loud noise. • Compression ratio and thermal efficiency is less than that of four stroke engine of the same dimension. • Consumes more lubricating oil. .Advantages & Disadvantages of Two Stroke Engine Disadvantages : • High fuel consumption.
Difference between 4-Stroke Engine & 2-Stroke Engine 4-Stroke Engine • One cycle completed in every 2 revolution of crankshaft • More moving parts • More maintenance • Heavy in weight • More expensive 2-Stroke Engine • One cycle completed in every revolution of crankshaft • Less moving parts • Less maintenance • Light in weight • Less expensive .
Difference between 4-Stroke Engine & 2-Stroke Engine 4-Stroke Engine • Produce more pollution • Long engine life • Not required • Complex design 2-Stroke Engine • Less pollution • Short engine life • Required a mix of oil to lubricate the crankshaft • Simpler design .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.