Concrete process | Concrete | Architectural Elements




DEFINITION OF CONCRETE • Concrete is a construction material made of: – Cement – Course aggregate – Fine aggregate – Water – Admixture (sometimes being used) • It is mixed according in certain ratio and hardened to form a stone like mass. .

HISTORY OF CONCRETE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING -THE ROMAN CONSTRUCTION• Concrete structure was largely built in the Roman empire. – pozzolan ash from a nearby volcano – pieces of fist-sized rock. . • Roman concrete consisted of just three materials: – a pasty. hydrated lime. • It was found during this reign due to the discovery and usage of volcanic ash mixed with sands and rubbles which hardens with the presence of water.

PANTHEON OF ROME The huge dome stands at 43 metres high with the same span .


THE COLOSSEUM Concrete as a construction material has enabled the erection of a huge curvy walls such as this famous historical landmarks. .

.BEFORE CONCRETE WAS FOUND Walls opening/doors were mostly framed by bricks or stone which has limited shape and not perfectly arched.

dome and long span beams. Concrete technology has also enable engineers to build arch. .EXAMPLE OF MODERN CONCRETE STRUCTURES The invention of concrete has ever since change the landscape of construction . vaults.


Quality Of Concrete Mixture • The quality of a concrete mixture depends on: – – – – – – – – – the quality of materials used Mixing ratio / materials composition Volume of water Mixing method Transportation method Formwork quality Compaction method Placement/storage method Treatment method .

Commonly used in Malaysia. clay and lime) – Modified cement (commonly used in USA) – Rapid hardening cement (hardens in 3 days) – Low heat cement ( to avoid cracking caused by uneven heat release ) – Sulphate resisting cement (used for concrete structure in seaside) .Concrete Mixture • Cement : – Portland cement (hardens in 7 days. allumina. Made of sillica.

crushed stone.Concrete Mixture • Coarse aggregate: – Sand. .5mm sieve (usually. cement concrete of size 5mm. crushed hydraulic. gravel. sand is used) • Admixture: – A material used as an ingredient of concrete before or during the mixing operation to enhance certain properties of concrete workability or strength.50mm • Fine aggregate: – Aggregate passing 9.

Concrete Mix Ratio According To Its Use Mix Ratio Use 1:1 ½: 3 1:2:4 1:3:6 1:5:10 Pre-stressed concrete Reinforced concrete for column. beam and others Floor. concrete mass and others Base for hard soil foundation and concrete base for cantilever floor slabs .

CONCRETE TERMINOLOGY Water-cement ratio: The amount of water (by weight) absorbed by the aggregates. *Stated as decimal . to the amount of Portland Cement in a concrete mixture.

placed.CONCRETE TERMINOLOGY Workability The property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar which determines the ease and homogeneity with which it can be mixed. compacted and finished. .

CONCRETE TERMINOLOGY Concrete Setting Time The time required for a specimen of concrete to attain a specified degree of rigidity .

CONCRETE TERMINOLOGY Concrete Hardening Time The chemical reaction between water and cement in concrete paste binds the aggregates together and becomes hard. The time required for this process to reach its peak depends on the presence of moisture which adds up to the strength of the mixture. .

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