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outermost layer Thickness nearly 40 kM at
Thicker and denser layer below Major contents are Silicates and Metals The temp. at lower part is about 22000C
continents Thickness nearly 20 kM below oceans
0 20-40 kM 2900 kM 5000 kM 6370 kM Crust Mantle Outer Core Inner Core Cetre
Central part Classified into outer and inner cores Outer is molten and at around 50000C Inner part is thought to be solid
Crust is naturally got partitioned Partitions are called tectonic plates Plates move vary slowly under the forces from interior of earth Vertical-continent building-epeirogenic Horizontal-mountain building-orogenic-cause synclines & anticlines – leads to faulting of rocks
How Earthquakes occur?
Earthquake are caused by abrupt motions and rupture of rocks separated by a geological fault. Sudden release of accumulated strain energy generate vibrations that can be felt, and, if sufficiently strong, can cause damage to houses.
begins with a sudden noise, or roar, and is followed by vibrations or a swaying sensation. vertical movement (up and down) and horizontal movements (side to side) are caused Horizontal movements generate more damage. vibrations can last for mere seconds or for several minutes, depending on the size of the earthquake and the distance from the epicenter
DIP-SLIP FAULTS STRIKE-SLIP FAULTS OBLIQUE-SLIP FAULTS
DIP-SLIP FAULTS a) Normal Fault
In a normal fault, the block above the fault moves down relative to the block below the fault. This fault motion is caused by tensional forces and results in extension. [Other names: normalslip fault, tensional fault or gravity fault]
DIP-SLIP FAULTS b) Reverse Fault
In a reverse fault, the block above the fault moves up relative to the block below the fault. This fault motion is caused by compressional forces and results in shortening. A reverse fault is called a thrust fault if the dip of the fault plane is small. [Other names: thrust fault, reverse-slip fault or compressional fault]
2. STRIKE-SLIP FAULT
In a strike-slip fault, the movement of blocks along a fault is horizontal. If the block on the far side of the fault moves to the left, as shown in this animation, the fault is called left-lateral. If the block on the far side moves to the right, the fault is called right-lateral. The fault motion of a strike-slip fault is caused by shearing forces. [Other names: transcurrent fault, lateral fault, tear fault or wrench fault]
3. OBLIQUE-SLIP FAULT
Oblique-slip faulting suggests both dip-slip faulting and strike-slip faulting. It is caused by a combination of shearing and tension of compressional forces.
Focus, Center, Hypofocus or Hypocenter
› Point in the earth's crust where calculations indicate
that the first seismic waves originated. Epicenter › Vertical projection of the focus on the earth's surface. Magnitude › a measure of the energy released during an earthquake. › calculated using an equation proposed by Charles F. Richter in 1958. › An earthquake of magnitude greater than 8 (M8) represents a very severe earthquake.
Arabian Euresian Indian
a geophysical event
• measured in magnitude of energy released and in duration
and intensity of ground shaking.
an event affecting human beings
• measured in loss of life and property
scale of human event is not always proportional to that of the seismic event
• casualties and property damage depend upon
population density type of structures type of construction stability of geologic foundations time of occurrence magnitude, duration and focal distance of the earthquake.
Logarithm to the base 10 of the maximum amplitude of ground motion as recorded in mm at a distance of 100kM from the epicenter on a Wood Anderson type Torsion Seismograph having 80% of critical damping, natural period of 0.8 seconds and magnification 2800.
measure of the degree of damage caused by an earthquake at a given place Scale varies from I to XII Another intensity scale
› Medvedev, Sponheuer and Karnik (MSK or MSK-
all intensity scales are subjective, that is, qualitative. There is absolutely no correlation between magnitude and intensity of an earthquake
P-Waves (Primary waves)
› Fast, longitudinal wave › Travel through crust, mantle & core › Velocity of travel depends on density of medium
S-Waves (Secondary waves)
› Slower than P › Transverse wave › Travel through crust & mantle only
L-Waves (Long waves or surface waves)
› Transverse wave › Travel through surface of crust alone
Magnitude of the event Mechanism at source Characteristics of travel path of shock waves Local soil conditions Topography of the site
How to reduce the extensive loss of life and property caused by earthquakes? • adopt and implement
improved design ‘siting’ construction procedures
• ascertain the user acceptance of new designs
and non-traditional building materials and construction techniques
› › › › ›
related to the type of structural
Masonry walls with timber floors or tiled roofs Masonry walls with RCC floors or roof for single and multiple stories RCC framed structure with infill masonry walls RCC shear wall construction Steel frames with infill wall
› Random Rubble Stone Masonry in Mud
› Un-reinforced Brick Masonry
Reinforced Brick Masonry
Reinforced Concrete Framed Structures / Steel Structures
Poor material and workmanship
Long walls Openings in walls to large > 50% of length
Openings too close to corners of walls
Lack of structural integrity Unsymmetrical plan of building.
Soil should have proper combination of clay, sand and fiber
Reinforce with wood/bamboo, mesh with cane and plaster
Provide frequent buttresses and pilasters at corners Roof and Lintel bands, corner bands
Use plinth masonry
Overturning of walls due to out of plane inertia forces
Separation and bulging of the two leaves of stone walls due to absence of bond stones stone rotation
Collapse of roof due to very heavy self weight.
No mortar to weak mortar in stone walls,
No continuity at the joints of the walls in horizontal plane,
Lack of through stone between the outer and inner leaves of stone wall, Very heavy roof of stone slates, Lack of interconnection in roof and walls.
Limit wall dimensions
Use buttresses every 3m Avoid clay mud mortar Provide bond stones Reinforce in both directions
Diagonal cracks through masonry units, Overturning of walls due to out of plane inertia forces,
Vertical cracks in walls due to plate bending action,
Failure of wall connections, Collapse of roof ,
Un-reinforced gable end masonry walls are unstable and the strutting action of purlins imposes additional force.
(a) Over turning (b) Sliding
Enclosure Shear cracks Bending cracks Separation cracks Gable crack
FAILURE OF MASONRY
Poor material and workmanship
Poor tension and shear strength of mortar Long walls Openings in walls to large > 50% of length Openings too close to corners of walls Lack of structural integrity Unsymmetrical plan of building Poor soil or bad foundation.
Failure of Seven storied building in Turkey
• Roof Band • Lintel Band • Around Openings • Vertical Reinf.
Sliding of trusses, falling off of beams, floors etc. Instability of trusses, gables etc. Shear wall with openings one above another Falling off of roof tiles, chajjas etc. Arch thrust Low quality material and workmanship (mortar 1:6)
• Limit wall dimensions; width < 40t, height < 20t, t > 200 mm • Limit opening size and location, reinforce opening • Avoid toothed joint in one wall • Provide horizontal and vertical reinforcement bands,corner • Reinforce gables or use light sheeting
• helps make brick buildings resistant to earthquakes.
• vertical and horizontal steel bars are set into brickwork as the bricks are laid.
Typical failure patterns
• Diagonal cracks through masonry units • Vertical cracks in walls due to plate bending action • Failure of wall connections • Failure of short brick columns
Soft story failure Shear failure of column compression failure pullout failure of smooth main bars Weak axis failure of columns due to orientation problems Column hinging at beam-column junctions
Diagonal shear failure of shear wall Failure at openings of coupled walls
Severely damaged reinforced concrete building with shear walls at Sannomiya Station, central Kobe. The building consists of a relatively simple (structurally and architecturally) upper portion on top of a complex lower portion
Badly damaged concrete shear wall building
Shear wall failure Cobe
The January 17, 1995 Kobe Earthquake
Supposed to be the best for lateral resistance as well for adequate ductility. Welded structures might be affected due to breaking at welds in welded-flange moment connections
› Cracks across the column-flange thickness › Fractures at weld-metal/column-flange
interfaces › Cracks in fillet welds at shear connection plates › Cracks in beam shear connection plates along the bolt line or in the plate at the end of the fillet welds
Other common types of failures
oBuckling of bracings oDamage of riveted connections due to inadequate capacity oDamage to claddings oSpalling of covering concrete oPlastification at lower stress levels in case of fire associated with earthquake
Severe cracking of a steel building in Sannomiya
Steel buildings in the Nagata Ward. While the frames appear to be in good shape, the cladding was shaken off the building, posing a severe life-safety hazard.
Buckled diagonal brace in a parking garage.
• CONFIGURATION - Size, Shape, Location of Structural Elements, Non-structural Elements • REGULARITY - Uniform Distribution of Mass & Stiffness • ENVIRONMENT - Foundation, Adjacent Buld., Site
• Response in Elevation: Building as a Vertical Cantilever • Response in Plan : Centre of Mass & Rigidity
PLAN IRREGULARITIES 1) Reentrant Corners – Split into separate units
2) Un-symmetry - Avoid
PLAN IRREGULARITIES 3) Distribution of VLLR Elements – adequate ?
4) Diaphragm Openings – Symmetric and Small
5) Breaks in Columns or Beams
6) Staggered Levels
reinforced concrete building in Sannomiya. Much of the damage is concentrated at structural discontinuities Kobe
STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS 1) Rigid and Flexible Diaphragms
L L • Forces in VLLR proportional to their stiffness • (diaf) << (VLLR) • H>>L • Rigid body rotation • Cast-in-place concrete Precast+topping,
• Forces in VLLR –as in simple beam supports • (diaf) >> (VLLR) • H << L • No rigid body rotation • Ply-wood floor Precast
• A structure possess minimum strength to withstand minor earthquakes, which occur frequently, with some non-structural damage,
• Resist moderate earthquakes, which occur once in twenty five years or so, with minor structural damage and some non structural damage and, • Withstand a major earthquake, which is likely to occur once in a life time of the structure, without complete collapse.
Diagram of typical detailing of ductile versus nonductile reinforced concrete columns
An earthquake-resistant building has a number of special structural features.
shear walls, made of reinforced concrete, strengthen the structure and help resist rocking forces. Shear walls in the center of a building form a shear core. Crossbracing reinforces walls with diagonal steel beams. Base isolators act as shock absorbers, and a moat allows a building to sway.
use of eccentric braces are being used over concentric braces
Severely damaged steel-frame building in Sannomiya. This building illustrates the practice of bracing multiple bays
steel-truss elements forming a moment frame for the lateral-loadresisting structural system.
Detail of the truss elements Note the minimal damage to the concrete units. This photo shows the intersection of the vertical and horizontal frames
steel construction in Japan result in structures with higher degrees of redundancy than in the United States
These three-year-old wooden houses collapsed from excessive loads imposed by heavy tile roofs.
A similar wooden house on the block with a lightweight roof had minimal damage
A Replace unreinforced masonry or deteriorating concrete foundations with RCC. B Add concrete foundations under walls that lack support. C Add a steel frame or plywood panels to both sides of garage door and window openings. Secure frame to foundation with anchor bolts.
KOBE – FIRE FOLLOWED EARTHQUAKE
SANFRANSISCO - FIRE FOLLOWED EARTHQUAKE
Ground settlement in central Kobe.
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