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INEQUALITIES

INTRODUCTION

If a and b are real numbers then we can compare their positions

by the relation…

Less than <

Greater than >

Less than or equal to ≤

Greater than or equal to ≥

For example: if x > 3 , it means x can be any value more than 3

Shade

up

Shade

down

Solid

line

Dashed

line

> s

>

<

WHERE :

1

2

3

– 1

– 2

– 3

3 2 1 – 1 – 2 – 3

y = x

y = x

y > x

1

2

3

– 1

– 2

– 3

3 2 1 – 1 – 2 – 3

y > x

y s x

1

2

3

– 1

– 2

– 3

3 2 1 – 1 – 2 – 3

y s x

y = x + 1

1

2

3

– 1

– 2

– 3

3 2 1 – 1 – 2 – 3

y = x + 1

y > x + 1

1

2

3

– 1

– 2

– 3

3 2 1 – 1 – 2 – 3

y > x + 1

y s x + 1

1

2

3

– 1

– 2

– 3

3 2 1 – 1 – 2 – 3

y s x + 1

y > x + 1

1

2

3

– 1

– 2

– 3

3 2 1 – 1 – 2 – 3

y > x + 1

y < x + 1

1

2

3

– 1

– 2

– 3

3 2 1 – 1 – 2 – 3

y < x + 1

x > 2

1

2

3

– 1

– 2

– 3

3 2 1 – 1 – 2 – 3

x > 2

1

2

3

– 1

– 2

– 3

3 2 1 – 1 – 2 – 3

4

WRITE THE EQUATION

1

2

3

– 1

– 2

– 3

3 2 1 – 1 – 2 – 3

4

WRITE THE EQUATION

PROPERTIES OF INEQUALITIES

If ‘a’ is greater than ‘b’

If we add ‘c’ (any real number) then which one is greater

A + c or b + c

Solution: (a + c) is greater than b + c

You know 8 is greater than 4 or 8 > 4

Add 2 on both sides

8 + 2 > 4 + 2

10 > 6

TRUE

EXAMPLE

If ‘a’ is greater than ‘b’

If we subtract ‘c’ (any real number) then which one is greater

a – c or b – c

Solution: (a – c) is greater than b – c

PROPERTIES OF INEQUALITIES

You know 8 is greater than 4 or

8 > 4

Subtract

2

from both sides

8 – 2 > 4 – 2

6 > 2

TRUE

EXAMPLE

If ‘a’ is greater than ‘b’ i.e. (a > b)

If we multiply by ‘c’ (any real number) then which one is

greater

ac or bc ?

Depends upon ‘c’ because c can be a positive or negative real

number

PROPERTIES OF INEQUALITIES

You know 8 is greater than 4 or

8 > 4

Multiply by

2

both sides

8(2) > 4(2)

16 > 8

TRUE

EXAMPLE

You know 8 is greater than 4 or

8 > 4

Multiply by

– 2

both sides

8(– 2) > 4(– 2)

– 16 > – 8

FALSE

EXAMPLE

If ‘a’ is greater than ‘b’

WHICH IS GREATER

ac or bc

If c is positive then ac > bc

If c is negative then ac < bc

REMEMBER

If ‘a’ is greater than ‘b’

WHICH IS GREATER

or

Is Greater than

a

1

b

1

b

1

a

1

REMEMBER

We know that 8 is greater than 4 or

8 > 4

Take reciprocals

on both sides

4

1

8

1

<

REMEMBER

• Transitive: If a < b and b < c, then a < c

• Addition of inequalities: If a < b and

c < d, then a + c < b + d.

• Addition of a constant: If a < b, then

a + c < b + c.

• Multiplication by a constant:

• If a < b and c is positive real number, then: ac < bc

and if c is negative real number, then ac > bc

• Taking Reciprocals: If a < b and a, b ≠ 0, then

PROPERTIES OF INEQUALITIES

b

1

a

1

>

Inequality

notation

Real number line graph

3 < x

3 s x

5 2 s < ÷ x

3 > x

3 > x

INTERVAL NOTATION

You solve linear inequalities in the same way as you would solve

linear equations, but with one exception.

Property: If in the process of solving an inequality, you multiply

or divide the inequality by a negative number, then , you must

switch the direction of the inequality.

If – x > a, then x < – a.

SOLVING LINEAR INEQUATIONS

Solve x + 3 < 2.

Graphically

SOLVING LINEAR INEQUATIONS

CASE-1

When the equation was "x + 3 = 2“ type,

We normally subtract 3 from both sides.

Then the solution is: x < –1

X + 3 < 2

- 3 -3

-------------------------

Solve 2x < 9.

Like inequality divide by 2

CASE-2

5 . 4

2

9

x

2

9

2

x 2

9 x 2

= s

s

s

What happens when the number is negative?

27 x 3 < ÷

If you divide both sides by – 3,

3

27

3

x 3

÷

>

÷

÷

9 x ÷ >

(The inequality will change if we multiply or divide with a

negative number on both sides.)

CASE-3

Solve the followings:

1. 3x – 4 > 8

2. – 6x – 18 < – 24

Answers: 1. x > 4 2. x > 1

EXAMPLE

SOLVING QUADRATIC INEQUATIONS

When we have an inequality with "x

2

" as the highest-

degree term, it is called a "quadratic inequality".

Solve x

2

– 3x + 2 > 0

Step 1: Change the inequality to an equation. Find x- intercept

x

2

– 3x + 2 = 0

(x – 1) (x – 2) = 0

x = 1 or 2

Step 2: Plot the points ( x = 1, 2) on the number line

÷ 3 ÷ 2 ÷ 1 0 1 2 3

The number line is divided into the intervals (- ∞, 1), (1, 2),

and (2, ∞).

1 2

x

2

– 3x + 2 > 0 or (x – 1) (x – 2) > 0

The number line is divided into the intervals (- ∞, 1), (1, 2),

and (2, ∞).

1 2

Test-point method: Pick a point (any point) in each interval

x = 3

(x - 1) is positive (x - 1) (x - 2) is positive (x - 3) is positive POSITIVE

x = 1.5

(x - 1) is negative (x - 1) (x - 2) is negative (x - 3) is positive NEGATIVE

x = 0

(x - 1) is negative

(x - 1) (x - 2) is positive

(x - 2) is negative POSITIVE

(x – 1) (x – 2) is positive when x > 2 or x < 1

1 2

SOLVING QUADRATIC INEQUATIONS

x

2

x or

You can’t say

Lets find the interval

where x

2

is greater than

x

WHICH ONE IS GREATER?

For what value of x ? x

2

– x ≥ 0 or (x) (x – 1) ≥ 0

Step 1: Change the inequality to an equation. Find value of x

x = 0, 1

x

2

– x = 0

Step 2: Plot the points

0 1

Step 3: Test point method

0 1

At x =2 At x =0.5 At x =-1

+ ─

+

0 1

Step 4: Solution x > 1 or x < 0

SOLUTION

You can solve some absolute-value equations

using logics. For instance, you have learned

that the equation |x| = 8 has two solutions: 8

and ÷ 8.

SOLVING ABSOLUTE-VALUE EQUATIONS

To solve absolute-value equations, you can use the fact

that the expression inside the absolute value symbols

can be either positive or negative.

Because I X I = + X if X > 0

- X If X < 0

0 if X = 0

SOLVING AN ABSOLUTE-VALUE EQUATION

Solve | x ÷ 2 | = 5

x ÷ 2 IS POSITIVE

| x ÷ 2 | = 5

x = 7 x = ÷3

x ÷ 2 IS NEGATIVE

| x ÷ 2 | = 5

| 7 ÷ 2 | = | 5 | = 5 | ÷3 ÷ 2 | = | ÷5 | = 5

The expression x ÷ 2 can be equal to 5 or ÷5.

x ÷ 2 = +5

x ÷ 2 IS POSITIVE

x ÷ 2 = +5

Solve | x ÷ 2 | = 5

The expression x ÷ 2 can be equal to 5 or ÷5.

SOLUTION

x ÷ 2 = ÷5

x ÷ 2 IS POSITIVE

| x ÷ 2 | = 5

x ÷ 2 = +5

x = 7

x ÷ 2 IS POSITIVE

| x ÷ 2 | = 5

x ÷ 2 = +5

x = 7

x ÷ 2 IS NEGATIVE

x ÷ 2 = ÷5

x = ÷3

x ÷ 2 IS NEGATIVE

| x ÷ 2 | = 5

x ÷ 2 = ÷5

The equation has two solutions: 7 and –3.

CHECK

Recall that x is the distance between x and 0. If x < 8, then

any number between ÷8 and 8 is a solution of the inequality.

÷ 8 ÷ 7 ÷ 6 ÷ 5 ÷ 4 ÷ 3 ÷ 2 ÷ 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

You can use the following properties to solve

absolute-value inequalities and equations.

Recall that | x | is the distance between x and 0. If | x | < 8, then

any number between ÷8 and 8 is a solution of the inequality.

Recall that | x | is the distance between x and 0. If | x | < 8,

then any number between ÷8 and 8 is a solution of the

inequality.

SOLVING ABSOLUTE-VALUE EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES

a x + b < c and a x + b > ÷ c.

a x + b s c and a x + b > ÷ c.

a x + b = c or a x + b = ÷ c.

a x + b > c or a x + b < ÷ c.

a x + b > c or a x + b s ÷ c.

| a x + b | < c

| a x + b | s c

| a x + b | = c

| a x + b | > c

| a x + b | > c

means

means

means

means

means

means

means

means

means

means

When an absolute value is less than a number, the

inequalities are connected by and. When an absolute

value is greater than a number, the inequalities are

connected by or.

SOLVING ABSOLUTE-VALUE INEQUALITIES

Solve | x ÷ 4 | < 3

x ÷ 4 IS POSITIVE x ÷ 4 IS NEGATIVE

| x ÷ 4 | < 3

x ÷ 4 < +3

x < 7

| x ÷ 4 | < 3

x ÷ 4 > ÷3

x > 1

Reverse

inequality symbol.

>

This can be written as 1 < x < 7.

The solution is all real numbers greater than 1 and less than 7.

EXAMPLE

2x + 1 s ÷9

| 2x + 1 | ÷3 > 6

| 2x + 1 | > 9

2x s ÷10

2x + 1 IS NEGATIVE

s

x s ÷5

Solve | 2x + 1 | ÷3 > 6 and graph the solution.

| 2x + 1 | ÷ 3 > 6

| 2x + 1 | > 9

2x + 1 > +9

2x > 8

2x + 1 IS POSITIVE

x > 4

SOLVING AN ABSOLUTE-VALUE INEQUALITY

Reverse

inequality symbol.

| 2x + 1 | ÷ 3 > 6

| 2x + 1 | > 9

2x + 1 > +9

x > 4

2x > 8

| 2x + 1 | ÷3 > 6

| 2x + 1 | > 9

2x + 1 s ÷9

2x s ÷10

x s ÷5

2x + 1 IS POSITIVE 2x + 1 IS NEGATIVE

÷ 6 ÷ 5 ÷ 4 ÷ 3 ÷ 2 ÷ 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

The solution is all real numbers greater than or equal

to 4 or less than or equal to ÷ 5. This can be written as

the compound inequality x s ÷ 5 or x > 4. ÷ 5 4.

SOLVING THE INEQUALITIES WITH

THE HELP OF OPTIONS

We can solve all the inequality questions by going with the

options.

Take an example:

x

2

– 7x + 10 < 0

(1) X < 2 (2) x > 5 (3) x < 5

(4) 2 < x < 5 (5) Both (1) and (2)

SOLUTION

Since the first option is x < 2, we take x = 1 and check whether

the given inequality is satisfying or not.

If x = 1, 1

2

– 7(1) + 10 < 0

4 < 0 (wrong)

Option (1), (3) and (5) are wrong.

Now take x = 6,

6

2

– 7 × 6 + 10 < 0

4 < 0 (wrong)

So, option (2) is wrong.

So, the answer is (4).

QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON

QUESTIONS

• 2 < x < 3 and - 6 < y < - 5

Which is greater?

x

4

y or xy

4

Column A will always be negative where B is always positive.

EXAMPLE

If |x – 3| > 2, which will be greater?

Column A Column B

|x| 2

|x – 3| > 2 means x > 5 or x < 1

If x > 5, |x| > 2

But if x < 1, we can’t say

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