BIOLOGY

C0NTENT : (form 4)
• Introduction to Biology • Cell structure and cell organisation • Movement of substances across plasma membrane • Chemical composition of the cell • Cell division • Nutrition • Respiration • Dynamic ecosystem • Endangered ecosystem

CONTENT : (FORM 5)
• • • • • • Transport Locomotion and support Coordination and response Reproduction and growth Inheritance Variation

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY

1.1 THE STUDY OF BIOLOGY

1.2 SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIO N

Importance of biology

Fields of study in Biology

Careers related to Biology

STRUCTURE AND CELL ORGANISATION Structure & function Types Types of organism Unicell Nonorganelle Organelle Multicell Animal cell Plant cell .

MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBARANE The need for movement of substances across the membrane Structure and characteristics of the plasma membrane Types of transport across the membrane Application Passive transport Active transport Differences between passive transport and active transport .

PASSIVE TRANSPORT Simple diffusion Osmosis Facilitated diffusion .

OSMOSIS Hypertonic solution Isotonic solution Hypotonic solution .

4.5 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL 4.1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL 4.3 ENZYMES PROTEINS 4.6 THE IMPORTANCE OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN CELLS CHAPTER 4 4.4 LIPIDS .2 CARBOHYDRATES 4.

1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL list chemical compound in cell Importance of organic compound in cell .State the element in the cell 4.

Elements of carbohydrates 4.2 CARBOHYDRATES Type of carbohydrates Formation & breakdown of disaccharides 7 polysaccharides .

Element in protein Various structures of proteins 4.3 PROTEINS Formation and breakdown of dipeptides and polypeptides Essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids .

4 LIPIDS Compare & contrast saturated fats and unsaturated fats Formation & breakdown of fats and oils Components of fats and oils .Elements in lipids Main type of lipids 4.

CELL DIVISION MITOSIS Cell cycle MEIOSIS COMPARISON BETWEEN MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS The regulation of cell cycle The application of mitosis knowledge in cloning APPRECIATION THE MOVEMENT OF CHROMOSOSMES Tissue culture Cloning .

Types of nutrition Classes of food Balanced diet Food digestion Plant nutrition Food technolog y NUTRITION .

Types of nutrition Autotrophic nutrition Heterotrophic nutrition Photosynthesis chemosynthesis Holozoic nutrition saprophytism Parasitism .

CARBOHYDRATE ROUGHAGE PROTEIN MINERAL CLASSES OF FOOD LIPID WATER VITAMIN .

Balanced diet Need for a balanced diet Effects of intake of unbalanced diet .

lipid and protein digestion Absorption and assimilation of digested products Ruminants Rodent Defaecation .Food digestion Digestion in human Digestion in herbivore Carbohydrate.

Plant nutrition Elements required by plants photosynthesis Macronutrient Micronutrient Adaptive characteristics of the leaf for photosynthesis Mechanism of photosynthesis Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis .

Food technology Technology in food production Technology in food processing .

RESPIRATION EXTERNAL RESPIRATION RESPIRATION IN PLANT INTERNAL/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION .

INSECTS. HUMANS GASEOUS EXCHANGE & TRANSPORT OF GASES IN HUMANS BREATHING CONTROL MECHANISMS RESPIRATORY ADAPTATIONS & BREATHING MECHANISMS REGULATORY MECHANISM OF CARBON DIOXIDE & OXYGEN CONTENTS IN THE BODYS BREATHING RATE & HEARTBEAT RATE UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS TISSUE CAPILLARIES & BODY CELLS LUNGS & BLOOD CAPILLARIES . AMPHIBIANS. FISH.EXTERNAL RESPIRATIONS RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES & SURFACES PROTOZOA.

INTERNAL RESPIRATION COMPARISON .

RESPIRATION IN PLANTS COMPENSATION POINT ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION AEROBIC RESPIRATION COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE PROCESSES OF RESPIRATION & PHOTOSYNTHESIS .

DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM ECOSYSTEM POPULATION ECOLOGY BIODIVERSITY Classification of microorganism Biotic Colonisation and succession The role of microorganisms Abiotic APPRECIATING BIODIVERSITY .

Effects of unplanned development and mismanagement of the ecosystem Human activities that endangered ecosystem Pollution ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM Greenhouse effect Thinning of the ozone layer Maintaining the balance of nature .

POLLUTION Air pollution Thermal pollution Water pollution Noise pollution Effects of pollution .

Maintaining the balance of nature Ecosystem management Management of development activities .

TRANSPORT involves PLANTS CIRCULATORY SYSTEM in HUMANS 04/07/2013 ANIMALS .

HUMANS COMPOSITION OF HUMAN BLOOD FUNCTION OF BLOOD involves TRANSPORT BLOOD CLOTTING 04/07/2013 DEFENCE AGAINST DISEASES Leads to IMMUNITY AND IMMUNISATION .

ANIMALS Consists of OPEN SYSTEM CLOSED SYSTEM Divided into SINGLE CIRCULATION COMPLETE 04/07/2013 DOUBLE CIRCULATION INCOMPLETE .

PLANTS involves XYLEM TISSUES Role in PHLOEM TISSUES Role in TRANSPIRATION 04/07/2013 TRANSLOCATION .

SUPPORT AND LOCOMOTION The function of cartilage and sinovial fluid at the joint Consequences of impaired musculoskeletal system on support and locomotion Support and locomotion of human and animal Support in plant The function of muscle. Movement of animal Appreciating healthy musculoskeletal system . ligament and tendon in movement.

Stimulus and response Nervous coordination Chemical coordination COORDINATION AND RESPONSE homeostasis Practising a healthy lifestyle Disease related to the nervous system .

Stimulus and response Voluntary action Involuntary action Reflex action .

Cranial nerve .Spinal nerve Central nervous system Transmission of nerve impulses neurones Brain Neurone structure Type of neurone Spinal cord Synapse .Nervous coordination Nervous system Peripheral nervous system .

Chemical coordination Endocrine system Plants response Types of hormone Hormone function Uses of hormones .

Practising a healthy lifestyle Effects of drug abuse Effects of alcohol consumption .

HUMANS PLANTS REPRODUCTION REPRODUCTION & GROWTH GROWTH 04/07/2013 .

REPRODUCTION IN HUMANS SPERMATOGENESIS DEVELOPMENT OF ZYGOTE Failure may use OOGENESIS Connected to MENSTRUAL CYCLE 04/07/2013 TECHNOLOGY IN REPRODUCTION .

REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS involves SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Formation of POLLEN GRAIN Leads to EMBRYOSAC DOUBLE FERTILISATION 04/07/2013 .

GROWTH Characteristic of GROWTH CURVE in ANIMALS PLANTS involves 04/07/2013 PRIMARY GROWTH SECONDARY GROWTH .

INHERITANCE Characteristic and trait MENDEL’S FIRST LAW MENDEL’S SECOND LAW INHERITANCE GEN DAN ALELLE Dominant and recessive allelle The Rhesus factor Human Karyotype Gender determination GENOTYPE DAN PHENOTYPE Sex linked inheritance Genetic disorder Gene and chromososmes DNA Application of genetic knowledge in human daily life Genetic engineering .

Variation Types of variation Sources of variation Continuous variation Discontinuous variation Environmental factors Genetic factors .

Genetic factors Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes Genetic recombination during crossing over in prophase I Random fertilisation mutation Types of mutagen Chromosomal mutation Gene mutation .

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