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NiTiNOL

Kishore Boyalakuntla, National Technical Manager, Analysis Products.

NiTiNOL
Nickel Titanium Naval Ordnance Laboratory

55 wt % Ni; 45 wt % Ti
Shape Memory & Super Elastic Material
Unique phase transformation between Austenite and Martensite phases
Medical Instruments

Homer Mammalok biopsy marker

Biocompatible
Widely used in medical applications
Nitinol eyeglass frames

Putter with Nitinol Inset


Images taken from www.nitinol.com/4applications.htm

Hysteresis
Steel

Unloading Curve for Steel Parallels Elastic Modulus

Nitinol

Unloading Curve for Nitinol Follows Hysteretic Curve


Nitinol experiences little to no permanent deformation Steel is permanently deformed

Hysteresis / Biocompatibility

Hysteresis shown by Nitinol is more similar to biological materials than steel

http://www.memory-metalle.de/html/01_start/index_outer_frame.htm

Stress-Strain Curve
Steel

Elastic Limit for Steel = 0.3% Elastic limit for Nitinol = 8%


Plastic Deformation

Nitinol
Super Elastic Linear Elastic

0.3%

8.0%

NiTiNOL contains greater wt% Ni, but strong Ni-Ti bonds make Nitinol more chemically stable than steel.

Super Elasticity
Occurs when mechanically deformed above its Af (Austenite Finish Temperature) Deformation causes stressinduced phase transformation to Martensite Martensite is unstable at this temp, therefore when stress is removed will spring back to austenite phase in pre-stressed position

Stress-Induced Phase Transformation

Austenite Super-Elastic Response

Deformed Martensite Unstable!

Spinal vertebrae spacer image from http://www.devicelink.com/mpb/archive/97/03/003.html

Nitinol Phases
Temperature

Austenite

Deformed Martensite

Af = Temp at which transition


to Austenite Finishes Ms = Temp at which transition to Martensite Starts

Temp at which transition = As to Austenite Starts Temp at which transition = Mf to Martensite Finishes

Martensite
0

% Austenite

100

Shape Memory
Temperature
1. Material shaped at high temperature 5. Above Af, material will always spring back to original shape after being deformed (Superelasticity)

Austenite

2.
Af As Ms Mf

Material transitions to Martensitic Phase upon Cooling

4. When heated above Af, returns to austentite phase and pre-deformed original shape.

3.

Material is deformed in martensitic phase

Martensite

Deformation

Shape Memory & Super Elasticity


Temperature

Superelasticity
Austenite

Af As Ms Mf

Shape Memory

Martensite

Deformation

Transition Temperatures
Temperature

What are typical Af values? Available -25C to 120C Dependant on alloy composition, mechanical treatment and heatworking Must be lower than body temperature for biomedical products
Deformation

Af As Ms Mf

Transition Temperatures
Temperature

How large is this gap? Typically 30-40C Manipulated by alloying


NiTi + Copper 15C height NiTi + Niobium 120C height

Af As Ms Mf

Deformation

Effect of Temperature
Stress-Strain Curve is dependent on Af temperature

Super Elasticity

Stress

Temp
Shape Memory

Af

Strain

Corrosion Resistant Properties


Oxidizes to form TiO2 layer on surface at high temperatures in air

Electroplating reduces Ni in surface and creates TiO2


Less corrosive and more chemically stable than steel Surface similar to that of pure Ti
O2 Ni

TiO2 Surface Layer

NiTi

Fatigue
Orders of magnitude greater resistance than any other linearly elastic material.

Typical limit at 107 cycles = .5% in outer fiber strain bending fatigue
Increasing mean strain (up to 4%) extends fatigue endurance

Mean strains above 4% follow strain-based Goodman Relationship


Increasing temperature decreases fatigue life
Due to increase in plateau stress

Affected by surface finish, but not melting technique


Info from: http://www.memry.com/nitinolfaq/nitinolfaq.html#typicalfatigue

Nitinol in COSMOS
Yield Stresses
Linear Elastic Regions Non-Linear Plastic Regions With Phase Transformation

Nitinol in COSMOS
Yield Stresses

For Tensile Loading Initial Yield Stress (st1) [SIGT_S1] Final Yield Stress (ft1) [SIGT_F1] For Tensile Unloading [SIGT_S1] [SIGT_F1]

Initial Yield Stress (st2) [SIGT_S2]


Final Yield Stress (ft2) [SIGT_F2] [SIGT_F2] [SIGC_F2] [SIGC_S2] [SIGC_S1] [SIGC_F1]

[SIGT_S2]

For Compressive Loading Initial Yield Stress (sc1) [SIGC_S1] Final Yield Stress (fc1) [SIGC_F1] For Compressive Unloading Initial Yield Stress (sc2) [SIGC_S2] Final Yield Stress (fc2) [SIGC_F2]

Uniaxial Stress-Strain Behavior for a Shape-Memory-Alloy (Nitinol)

Nitinol in COSMOS
Exponential Flow Rate Measures
Exponential Flow Rate Measures (t1, t2 , c1 , c2) constant material parameters measuring the speed of transformation for tensile and compressive loading and unloading
t1 = for tensile loading, [BETAT_1] t2 = for tensile unloading, [BETAT_2]

c1 = for compressive loading, [BETAC_1] c2 = for compressive unloading, [BETAC_2]

Uniaxial Response for Nitinol Assuming an Exponential Flow Rule t1 = 100., t2 = 20., c1= 100. , c2=20. psi

Nitinol in COSMOS
Other Variables

Elasticity modulus (EX)


Poisson's ratio in the XY dir (NUXY) Ultimate plastic strain measure (Tension) (EUL)

Mass Density (DENS)


Coeff. of thermal expansion (1st dir) (ALPX)

Elasticity Modulus (EX)

Ultimate Plastic Strain (EUL)

Stress

Strain

Typical Values
Typical mechanical properties of Alloy BB (most popular alloy for superelastic applications) at 37C:
Loading plateau stress: Unloading plateau stress: Permanent strain after 8% strain: Ultimate tensile strength: Tensile elongation: Youngs modulus (austenite): Youngs modulus (martensite): 60-80 Ksi 10-30 Ksi 0.2-0.5% 160-180 Ksi 10-20% 12 Msi 5 Msi

http://www.memry.com/nitinolfaq/nitinolfaq.html#mechanical

Typical Values
From COSMOS Nitinol Tutorial (SI Units):
Elasticity modulus (EX) Poisson's ratio in the XY dir For Tensile Loading
Initial yield stress (SIGT_S1) Final yield stress (SIGT_F1) Initial yield stress (SIGT_S2) Final yield stress (SIGT_F2) Initial yield stress (SIGC_S1) Final yield stress (SIGC_F1) Initial yield stress (SIGC_S2) Final yield stress (SIGC_F2)

5e10 0.3
5e8 5e8 3e8 3e8 7e8 7e8 4e8 4e8

For Compressive Loading

Ultimate plastic strain measure (Tension) (EUL) 0.2

Nitinol Application - Stent

Why Nonlinear?
Material is Nitinol ( alloy of Nickel + Titanium)
Super elasticity 10 times more elastic than Stainless steel Shape memory Restoring predetermined shape thru heating after plastic deformation
Nitinol Material Curve
250000

200000

Stress (psi)

150000 Series1 100000

50000

0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Strain 0.4 0.5 0.6

Why Nonlinear?
Large displacement

Elastoplasticity-Nitinol Material Model

Symmetry Condition

(Full)

Quarter (1/4th)

(1/8th)