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W T E

WASTES TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION
Present situation:

Energy saving and pollution prevention = priorities

Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) is the process of creating energy in the form of electricity or heat from the incineration of waste source. WtE is a form of energy recovery.

Sustainability concepts = complex problem

The object of analysis is waste which is not reused or recycled, but can be used for energy production. To deal with increasing waste
amounts while reducing the amount of waste deposited at landfills
o

Renewable energy sources e.g. Waste-to-Energy To improve the flexibility of the energy system in order to increase the share of renewable energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

WASTE-TO-ENERGY

Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology = thermal processing of wastes including energy utilization WTE systems clean, reliable and renewable energy

COMBUSTION OF WASTE (INCINERATION)

GENERATION OF HEAT

STEAM

SOLD

ELECTRICITY

SOLD

TYPES OF WASTE TO ENERGY RECOVERY


Thermal technologies: Gasification (produces combustible gas, hydrogen, synthetic fuels) Thermal depolymerization (produces synthetic crude oil, which can be further refined) Pyrolysis (produces combustible tar/biooil and chars) Plasma arc gasification PGP or plasma gasification process (produces rich syngas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide usable for fuel cells or generating electricity to drive the plasma arch, usable vitrified silicate and metal ingots, salt and sulphur) Non-thermal technologies: Anaerobic digestion (Biogas rich in methane) Fermentation production (examples are ethanol, lactic acid, hydrogen) Mechanical biological treatment (MBT)

MBT + Anaerobic digestion MBT to Refuse derived fuel

WASTE INCINERATION

Environment has great influence in the life of all the living things on this earth. When it comes to wastage and its treatment, one of the very oldest effective waste treatments is waste incineration. It is basically a process where the domestic and industry waste materials are burnt. In this process, the waste materials turn into ash, flue gas and heat.

Dual chamber refractory lined furnace

Combustion air

Primary air (starved air )

Secondary air (excess air)

Fuel gas management

WASTE - TO -E NERGY P LANT O PERATIONS

T H E E X H A U S T G A S F R O M T H E B O I L E R I S T Y P I C A L LY
C L E A N E D B Y T H E F O L L O W I N G A D VA N C E D P O L L U T I O N C O N T R O L S Y S T E M S TO E N S U R E C O M P L I A N C E W I T H T H E S T R I N G E N T E N V I R O N M E N TA L S TA N D A R D S :

Dry or Wet scrubbers to spray lime powder or fine atomized slurry into the hot exhaust gas to neutralize and remove the polluted acidic gases (sulphur oxides, hydrogen chloride) Activated Carbon Injection to adsorb and remove any heavy metal and organic pollutants (e.g. dioxins) in the exhaust gas Bag house filter - to filter and remove dust and fine particulates Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction - to remove nitrogen oxides (which is a cause of urban smog) by reacting them with ammonia or urea.

I NDIA WASTE G ENERATION S CENARIO

India is the second largest nation in the world, with a population of 1.21 billion, accounting for nearly 18% of worlds human population, but it does not have enough resources or adequate systems in place to treat its solid wastes. The present citizens of India are living in times of unprecedented economic growth, rising aspirations, and rapidly changing lifestyles, which will raise the expectations on public health and quality of life. India is facing a sharp contrast between its increasing urban population and available services and resources.

The per capita waste generation rate in India has increased from 0.44 kg/day in 2001 to 0.5 kg/day in 2011, fuelled by changing lifestyles and increased purchasing power of urban Indians.

S OLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


AND MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT

Solid waste management (SWM) is one such service where India has an enormous gap to fill. Proper municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal systems to address the burgeoning amount of wastes are absent. The total MSW generated in urban India is estimated to be 68.8 million tons per year (TPY) or 188,500 tons per day (TPD) of MSW..
Big cities collect about 70 - 90% of MSW generated, whereas smaller cities and towns collect less than 50% of waste generated. More than 91% of the MSW collected formally is landfilled on open lands and dumps . It is estimated that about 2% of the uncollected wastes are burnt openly on the streets. About 10% of the collected MSW is openly burnt or is caught in landfill fires .

R ULES

AND REGULATION

Plastic Waste Management and Handling Rules, 2011 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) is a step ahead in this direction. These rules mandate ULBs to coordinate with all stake holders in solid waste management, which includes waste pickers.

MSW rules 2000 made by the Government of India to regulate the management and handling of municipal solid wastes (MSW) provide a framework for treatment and disposal of MSW. These rules were the result of a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) .

PER CAPITA MSW GENERATTION

MSW GENERATION

CASE STYDY ON WASTE TO ENERGY

CASE 1

BIOMASS POWER PLANT

Plasma gasification process

Fuelling gasification

There are primarily three products produced by PGP. The main product of the process is a synthetic gas produced when the volatile elements in the waste material are reduced to their base molecules. This gas is used for the generation of electricity by feeding it into the same type of gas engine that is used in the production of electricity from natural gas

The second product of the process is heat which produces steam. The steam is collected and fed into the electricity generation process to improve its efficiency.
The third and final product of the process is a glass-like reusable solid, also known as slag, produced when the nonvolatile elements of the waste material gets decomposed. As hard and clean as glass, this solid has a variety of uses such as a road or building material additive.

CASE 2

M ULTI - PURPOSE

INCINERATOR

FOR PROCESSING SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES

THERMAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND WASTE-TO-ENERGY SYSTEMS

Originally: disposal of wastes (treatment Ofwastes)


At present: waste processing (waste-to-energy systems) recovering heat (generating steam & electricity preheating purposes (reduced fuel demand) processing of residues (vitrification)

INCINERATION VS. GASIFICATION - COMPARISON


Rotary kiln vs. gasification reactor
Legend: 1 - screw conveyor 2 - fluidized bed reactor rotary kiln 3 - cyclone secondary combustion chamber 4 - secondary combustion chamber heat recovery steam generator 5 - heat recovery steam turbine steam generator 6 - steam off-gasturbine cleaning system 7 off-gas stack cleaning system 8 - stack

flue gas

solid waste

4 3 2 2
air

4 5 7 8

superheated steam

7 6
feed water

flue gas

air
natural gas Storage waste Incineration Gasification feeding

natural gas natural gas

6 5

Combustion

Heat recovery

Off-gas cleaning

IN THE CASE OF GASIFICATION

Generating gaseous products at the first stage outlet up to 10 times lower aspects influencing operating and investment costs. Considerably lower consumption of auxiliary fuel (natural gas). Reduced size of the afterburner chamber compared to that necessary for a comparable oxidation incineration plant Lower specific volume of gas produced = reduction in size of flue gas heat utilization off-gas cleaning systems = reduction of investment and operating costs of the flue gas blower Lower production of steam (proportional to the volume of flue gas produced)

ILS, Inc.

PYR MEX

TM

TECHNOLOGY SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS


CO2 Control DXNs Control Emission Control Landfill Control Cost Control Profit Growth
Energy Recovery High Efficiency Utilization / Sale

ENVIRONMENT

ECONOMY

ENERGY

CONCLUSION

It has been shown how various aspects of a process and equipment design can contribute to improving economic and environmental design. Incineration for CHP of the main amount of waste (77% of total) with the highest possible electricity and heat efficiencies Biogas production from the full potential of organic household waste and manure for production of CHP or transport fuel Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel (RDF) with coal in new coal-fired power plants today and thermal gasification of RDF for CHP in the future when fully developed, if reduced CO2 emissions are not the main goal

ILS, Inc.

REALITY
TM

PYR MEX

1 CONTAINER

1 HOUR

The energy of 1 container of yogurt (0.3 ltr) keeps a light bulb glowing for 1 hour

The waste put into a dust bin over 1 year contains enough energy to heat water for 500 bath

or
3,500 showers or keep the TV on for 500 hours

T HANK

YOU