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On the basis of MEDIUM:

VERBAL NON VERBAL WRITTEN

VERBAL COMMUNICATION:
Ability to communicate with words. Separates human beings from the rest of the animal kingdom. Allows more ways to get a message across. For oral communication to be effective, listening is also required.

VERBAL COMMUNICATION:
One-fourth of the time spent communicating is spent speaking. Can clear any doubt immediately. Use non-verbal clues to provide additional information.

NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION:


Peter Drucker: The most important thing in communication is to hear what isnt being said. May accompany a verbal communication or may occur alone.
Words are 7% effective. Tone of voice is 38% effective. Nonverbal clues are 55% effective.

NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION:
TYPES:
BODY MOVEMENT (kinesics) PHYSICAL APPEARANCE TIME (culture specific, status specific, situation specific) TOUCH SPACE & TERRITORY (proxemics)

WRITTEN COMMUNICATION:
More difficult have to get the correct message across do not have the advantage of immediate feedback and nonverbal clues.

WRITTEN COMMUNICATION:
TYPES:
EMAIL WEBSITE MEMORANDUM (to someone in same organization) LETTER (to someone outside the organization) REPORTS MISCELLANOUS

On the basis of COMMUNICATION CHANNEL


SIMPLEX COMMUNICATION DUPLEX COMMUNICATION

SIMPLEX COMMUNICATION
One way communication.
Eg. Radio, TV, etc.

Usually employed in broadcast networks. Feedback not essential.

DUPLEX COMMUNICATION:
Two connected parties or devices which can communicate with one another in both directions. Employed in nearly all communications networks.
Eg. Telephone conversation, one-to-one communication, etc.

DIRECTIONS OF COMMUNICATION:
FORMAL COMMUNICATION INFORMAL COMMUNICATION

FORMAL COMMUNICATION:
4 TYPES:
UPWARD COMMUNICATION DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION CROSS CHANNEL COMMUNICATION

UPWARD COMMUNICATION:
From lower level employees to upper level. Eg: Reports, Employee Feedback, Documents, etc. Provides a base to higher management for decision making.

DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION:
From higher management to lower hierarchical levels. Eg: Instructions, policies & procedures, announcements, etc.

HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION:
Flow of information at the same level, peerto-peer, or in same department. Eg: Staff meeting, interpersonal support, formulating plans etc.

CROSS CHANNEL COMMUNICATION:


Exchange or flow of information across different departments and units in an organization. Eg: HR department to Operations, Finance/Payroll to Operations.

INFORMAL COMMUNICATION:
Also called the Grapevine. Exists at all levels in the organization. 80% of the information passed is business related and 75-90% is accurate. Information moves more rapidly. Most active when a change is taking place in the organization.

Other types

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:
The visual impact associated with a product or a service can affect the way it is perceived and the level of success it experiences in the marketplace.

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