paper to be presented in national Seminar on Community and school Linkages: Principles and Practices “to be held in NUEPA, New Delhi, (17-19 march 2008)
Dr Mahendra Kumar Mishra State Project Coordinator SC/ST and Minority Education Orissa Primary Education Programme Authority Bhubaneswar

Antonio Gramsci

All men are intellectuals one could therefore say: but not all men have functions of intellectuals in society. There is no human activity from which every form of intellectual participation can be excluded

NCF 2005

Community may also have questions about the inclusion and exclusion of particular knowledge and experiences in the school curriculum. The school must then be prepared to engage with communities to listen to their concerns and to persuade them to see the educational value of such decisions. For this, teachers must know the reasons why some thing is included while some thing else is not. They must also be able to win the trust of parents in matters like allowing children to use home language in schools,

NCF 2005 contd..

It is not a good enough explanation to say that the decisions were taken at the state level. If we are to ensure participation of children of all groups in our secular education, we will have to discuss our curricular choices with others who are legitimate stakeholders in education.

Who owns the school ? Government ? Teachers? Children ? Community ?

Community’s role in school For physical work ?
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Community is responsible for Physical work Enrollment school management Civil work Financial support Community labour Manage school finance Check teacher absenteeism

Community is not involved in intellectual work They consider that school is a model where they have no entry in classroom transaction School education dept take care of education Knowledge out side the school is not considered as curricular activities

State initiative
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Community participation Rule 2000 After cabinet approval School Education Committee was formed DPEP promoted community participation through community mobilization, community construction, formation of VEC /MTA and their training Use of SIG/TLM grant through community NPEGEL ( MCS) for women participation

Role of community

What is the perception of the community in school ownership? Are they for physical domain to support the school in terms of Community construction, Forming VEC,MTA, Watching teacher absenteeism?

Is the VEC really represent the voices of the Community ? Is the Headmasters / teachers believe that community is really a strength to the schooling as a social process? or There is a gap of school and community ?

Five Guiding Principles From The National Curriculum Framework 2005
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Connecting knowledge to life outside the school. Shifting learning away from rote methods: Meaning & Communication Enriching the curriculum to provide for overall development of children rather than remain textbook centric. Making examinations more flexible and integrated into classroom life. Nurturing an over-riding identity: How does the tribal child become a true citizen of India?

NCF 2005 empowers community

Our objective is to examine two programmes taken up in SSA Orissa to address education of tribal children To explore why community is important for education of tribal children vis a vis using community knowledge in school curriculum

Why community in schools? In Tribal Context of Orissa
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Tribal literacy 37.37 Female tribal literacy 23.51 High Dropouts Low achievement Over a period of last 30 years rate of tribal literacy is only 17 % to 37 % About 11749 schools in Orissa have at least 20 + children with linguistic diversities Out of that 5900 schools are tribal dominated

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Lack of community participation Unsuitable state curriculum Gap of home and school language Noncontextual text books Child unfriendly teaching methods Lack of monitoring and supervision School in isolation in the village (Vision 2020,SME Dept.Orissa

Existing school with blocking the learning

Intervention MLE

Orissa SSA initiated multilingual education in ten tribal languages on pilot basis in 200 schools They are Santali, Saura,Munda,Koya,Kui, Kuvi, Juang, Oram, Kishan , Bonda Selection of schools were made based on community participation. Schools with 100 % monolingual tribal children were selected Teachers were from the same community

Five Questions about Multi-Lingual Education
What is it?
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Multi-Lingual Education is a curriculum and teaching methodology that: Begins with mother tongue (L1, home language) as a medium of instruction and builds good bridges to other languages, while maintaining the use of L1 for as long as possible. Builds on what we know about how children learn best. (Begins with the known and moves to the unknown by building on the child’s prior knowledge, using his/her world or real knowledge and moving to new knowledge.) Allows the child to construct knowledge rather than the teacher being the only way to knowledge and rather than the teacher designing only one learning experience. Uses the language the child knows best to teach reading and writing skills. Allows the child to learn academic concepts in mother tongue

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First language of the child first Curricular themes from cultural context Experience of the children to be explored ( from known to unknown) Community to select the schools Teachers from the same community They are to decide with the tribal teachers to select the cultural themes to be adopted in curriculum


Community teachers select the themes for the whole year Each theme is discussed with the senior people of the community and knowledge is explored Teachers use the knowledge in preparation of curriculum and instructional materials

Cultural themes co-opted with curricular themes
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Whole year is divided in to three terms Each term represents broadly one season, total three seasons are represented Rainy, winter and summer Each term them divided in to ten themes Each theme contains children's experiential knowledge from the nature and society and then put in to curricular themes Children use to study the cultural themes according to the seasons they come across

Reading and Writing: Letters, words, sentences. Letter and word games Alphabet book Letters, words and sentences Numbers Counting system Measuring Family Home Village Environment (forest, trees, rivers, etc) Work: Agriculture, market, fishing, forest products Birds and animals

Alphabet chart Letters and Key words

Environmental Studies


Festivals, fairs, celebrations


Games activities Songs, dancing

Writing and speaking activities Dialogue, drama, storytelling Creative writing

Reading and listening activities Listening stories Children’ reading books

Two track approach
Track I

Track II

Basic Interpersonal Communication Skill ( BICS) This track stands for cultural context the the child witness from the environment and society, skill and knowledge

Cognitive Academic language proficiency ( CALPS) New skill based knowledge on accuracy and correctness

A fish from the book and many fish from the children

How Community take part in curriculum construction

Teachers go to the community Select the cultural themes for the whole year Each theme is discussed in details with the community

Community in curriculum construction
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Then they prepare the curricular themes Instructional materials are prepared The go the community for validating the knowledge that is represented in the curriculum and instructional materials

Community validating the knowledge that is represented in the curriculum and instructional materials and providing feed back

Finalization of Curriculum at District , Zonal and State Level

Instructional Materials are prepared in 10 languages on MLE approach

Community getting back the MLE instructional materials embedded with culture inside the classroom

School Museum: Involvement of community and culture in School curriculum

Classroom Transaction

Classroom Transaction

SRUJAN: Comprehensive programme for involvement of community

SRUJAN is a community based child centered, teacher' supportive, culturally appropriate programme for retention and achievement

Cluster approach .. Based on NCF 2005 ideas )

School Srujan RUPANTAR

PRI Involvement Jati Mahasbha

Story Telling Festival Traditional Game Song and Dance Art and Craft Science Quiz Essay and Debate



Preparation of Bilingual TLM

Friendly Activities

Community Resource Reading room

Impact of Srujan

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5 lakhs children are taking part in story telling festival, traditional games, music and dance, art and craft and nature study 523 Clusters are taken up in 36 Blocks 7896 schools are involved 10000 community members 2100 PRI members 14000 teachers are actively participating 75000 stories from the community to children 75000 pictures drawn by the children


A living library

Story telling Festival

Traditional wall paintings : Geometry?

3D wall paintings: santal art

Traditional music and dance

A classroom story on the wall : Village women as TLM makers

Wood Craft

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