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Metaparadigm is the most abstract level of knowledge. It specifies the main concepts that encompass the subject matter and the scope of a discipline. Powers and Knapp have noted, “There is general agreement that nursing metaparadigm consists of the central concepts of person, environment, health and nursing. ”

Philosophy is the next knowledge level; it specifies the definitions of the metaparadigm concepts in each of the conceptual models of nursing.

or Peplau’s work. which draws from psychiatric sources.” Conceptual models provide different views of nursing according to the characteristics of the model.Conceptual models are frameworks or paradigms that provide “a broad frame of reference for systematic approaches to the phenomena with which the discipline is concerned. Some nursing theories also derive from other disciplines such as Leininger’s work. which comes from anthropology. . Theory is “a groups of related concepts that propose actions that guide practice” Nursing Theory is a group of related concepts that derived from the nursing models.

description. both unified body of knowledge concerned with specific subject matter and as the processes and methodologies. Concept is “an idea or complex mental image of a phenomenon (object. Concepts are the major components of theory.” Abstract concepts are independent of time or place and they are indirectly observable. . and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena. or event). idenitification. experimental investigation. It is also a body of knowledge.Science is performing the processes of observation. property. Hope is an example of an abstract concept.

Concrete concepts are specific to time and place and are observable. Paradigm is another term for conceptual framework or conceptual model. Term used to denote the prevailing schema or approaches within a discipline. A person’s features such as eye color. height or weight. .

Evolution of Nursing Theory within Types of Works PHILOSOPHIES Nightingale Wiedenbach Henderson Abdellah Hall Watson Benner .

Evolution of Nursing Theory within Types of Works CONCEPTUAL MODELS AND GRAND THEORIES Orem Levine Rogers Johnson Roy Neuman King Roper. Logan. and Tierney .

Evolution of Nursing Theory within Types of Works THEORIES AND MIDDLE-RANGE NURSNG THEORIES Peplau Baranard Orlando Leininger Travelbee Parse Kolcaba Mishel Erickson. and Swain Newman Mercer Adam Pender . Tomlin.

or a domain of knowledge. . which is founded upon the theoretical structure of the science or knowledge of that discipline and the accompanying practice abilities. Profession-refers to a specialized field of practice. a department of learning.Significance of Theory for Nursing As a Discipline and Profession Discipline-specific to academia and refers to a branch of education.

Advocated nursing as an applied science and others proclaimed nursing as a basic science. Baccalaureate programs proliferated.SIGNIFICANCE OF THEORY FOR NURSING AS A DISCIPLINE To develop knowledge as a basis for nursing practice. master programs in nursing were developed and the curricula began to be standardized through the accreditation process. .

2. 3. . Utilizes in its practice a well-defined and wellorganized body of specialized knowledge [that] is in the intellectual level of the higher learning. Applies its body of knowledge in practical services [that] are vital to human and social welfare.SIGNIFICANCE OF THEORY FOR NURSING AS A PROFESSION 1. 4. Entrusts the education of its practitioners to institutions of higher education. Constantly enlarges the body of knowledge it uses and improves its techniques of education and service by the use of the scientific method.

. 7.5. Attracts individuals or intellectual and personal qualities who exalt service above personal gain and who recognize their chosen occupation as a life work. and economic security. Strives to compensate its practitioners by protinuous professional growth. Functions autonomously in the formulation of professional policy and in the control of the professional policy thereby. 6.

Nursing Theory and the Practicing Nurse Theory assists the practicing nurse to: Organize patient data Understand patient data Analyze patient data Make decisions about nursing interventions Plan patient care Predict outcomes of care Evaluate patient outcomes. .

PHILOSOPHIES Florence Nightingale Florence Nightingale’s work is closely related to her philosophical orientation of the patient environment interaction and the principles and rules on which nursing practice was founded. diet. Nightingale believed that disease was a reparative process. . warmth. light. cleanliness and noise-would contribute to the reparative process and the health of the patient. Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not. Patient’s surroundings-ventilation.

Clinical Nursing: A Helping Art. . Four Elements: 1. It guides the nurse’s action in the art of nursing. Philosophy 2. Art Postulated that clinical nursing is directed toward meeting the patient’s perceived need-for-help.Ernestine Wiedenbach concentrated on the art of nursing and focused on the needs of the patient. Practice 4. Purpose 3.

Virginia Henderson viewed the patient as an individual requiring help toward achieving independence. Her definition of nursing first appeared in 1995 in the fifth edition of Textbook of the Principles and Practice of Nursing by Harmer and Henderson. She envisioned the practice of nursing as independent from the practice of the physicians and acknowledges her interpretation of the nurse’s function as a synthesis of many influences. Henderson emphasized the art of nursing and identified the 14 basic human needs on which nursing care is based. .

“The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual sick or well.Henderson stated. She identified the following 14 basic needs of patients that comprise the components of nursing care: . in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death)” that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength.

5. 3. 6. 2. 7.1. 6. Clean body and protected integument Safe environment Communication Worship Work Play Learning . 7. 2. 4. 4. 3. Breathing Eating and drinking Elimination Movement Rest and sleep Suitable clothing Body temperature 1. 5.

Helper to the patient 3. She supports empathetic understanding and states that the nurse must “get inside the skin of each of her patients in order to know what he needs. Substitute for the patient 2. Partner with the patient.” .She identified three levels of nurse-patient relationships in which the nurse is a: 1.