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ERGONOMICS-What is it?
Derived from two Greek words: Nomoi meaning natural laws

Ergon meaning work

Hence, ergonomists study human

capabilities in relationship to work demands

Five aspects of ergonomics

Comfort Ease of use

Aesthetic signs in the work place

Physical Aspects In Ergonomics

Body size and shape;
Fitness and strength; Posture;

The senses, especially vision, hearing and ouch;

The stress and strains on muscles, joints, nerves

Psychological Aspects in Ergonomics

Mental ability; Personality;


How to identify ergonomic problems

Talking to employees and seeking their views;
Asking questions; Examining the circumstances; frequent errors

and incidents. Recording and Looking at sickness absence and staff turnover level .

Benefits of Ergonomics consideration

Decreased injury risk Increased productivity Decreased mistakes/rework Increased efficiency Decreased lost work days Decreased turnover Improved morale

12 tips for an Ergonomic Computer 1. Use a good chair with a dynamic chair Workstation
(by Cornell University)

back and sit back in this 2. Top of monitor casing 2-3" (5-8 cm) above eye level 3. No glare on screen, use an optical glass anti-glare filter where needed 4. Sit at arms length from monitor 5. Feet on floor or stable footrest 6. Use a document holder, preferably inline with the computer screen 7. Wrists flat and straight in relation to forearms to use keyboard/mouse/input device 8. Arms and elbows relaxed close to body 9. Center monitor and keyboard in front of you 10. Use a negative tilt keyboard tray with an upper mouse platform or downward tilt able platform adjacent to keyboard 11. Use a stable work surface and stable (no bounce) keyboard tray 12. Take frequent short breaks (micro breaks)

Ergonomic Risk Factors

Repetition Awkward posture Forceful exertion Static posture Mechanical contact Stress Temperature Vibration

Unsafe Lifting Techniques

Lifting Safely

Work Smarter Not Harder

Notice and report symptoms EARLY Stretch Take adequate and frequent breathers Do a different task or do the task differently

Flexible Working Schedule

Flexible working schedule allows an employee to select

the hours he or she will work.

Types of flexible working schedules

Compressed Work Week: A work schedule that condenses

one or more standard workweeks into fewer, longer days. (9/80)

Flextime: A work schedule with variable starting and

ending times, within limits set by ones manager. Employees still work the same number of scheduled hours as they would under a traditional arrangement. (7 am-3pm or 10 am-6pm) time (or occasional) employees share the responsibilities of one full-time job at a pro-rated salary.

Job-Sharing: An arrangement in which two or more part-

Part-time Work: A work schedule that is less than full-

time but is at least half of the regularly scheduled fulltime workweek.

Personal or Family Leaves: A block of time off while

retaining ones job. These leaves may be paid or unpaid.

Telecommuting: regularly work at home or at an

alternative worksite during part or all of a work schedule (in office M/W/F, remote work T/Th).

Advantages of Flexible Work Schedules for Employees


to meet family needs, personal obligations, and life responsibilities conveniently. Avoids the stresses of commuting during rush hours. Increased feeling of personal control over schedule and work environment. Reduces employee burnout due to overload. Allows people to work when they accomplish most, feel freshest, and enjoy working. (eg. morning person vs. night person). Depending on the flexible work schedule chosen, may decrease external childcare hours and costs.

Advantages of Flexible Work Schedules for Employers


employee morale, engagement, and commitment to the organization. Reduced absenteeism and tardiness. Increased ability to recruit outstanding employees. Reduced turnover of valued staff. Extended hours of operation for departments such as customer service. Develops image as an employer of choice with family friendly flexible work schedules.

Six steps to making flexible working work

Understand your business
Communicate effectively Define roles and responsibilities

Try it out
Make flexible working acceptable Measure and evaluate

Challenges in flexible working schedule

Balancing customer and employee demands Treating all employees fairly, for example where some

are doing jobs that can be done from home but others are not. Ensuring employees are aware of the companys policy on flexible working, and are willing to accommodate the needs of customers or colleagues Ensuring remote or homeworkers receive all communications and feel like and are seen by other employees as part of the team Providing the necessary training to enable staff to do a wider range of jobs.