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Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur.

(Autonomous) Department of CSE

Neighbor Node Discovery And Trust Prediction In Ad Hoc Networks

Phase 2 Project Review

Guided by, Prof.Dr.D.Thilagavathy

Professor and Head, Department of CSE

Presented By, Suganya Devi.S


To discover the one-hop neighbors of every node present in the network. To compute the trust level of the discovered neighbors in order to identify the malicious nodes.

self configuring autonomous networks do not require any central authority

Neighbor node discovery

the process by which a node determines the other nodes and their identity that are present in its vicinity. To enable cooperative working of the nodes, proposed system calculates the trust level of the nodes .

Project Overview
Neighbor discovery using Directional Antenna

Network monitoring and Packet Analyzing

Trust computation using Neural Network training and classification

Existing Approaches for ND

Omni-Directional Antenna Model
Short transmission range Higher interference Uses only 1-way communication.

Spread spectrum based approach

Requires central authority to distribute & control the spread code.

Location based approaches

Requires GPS to find the nodes location.

Neighbor position verification algorithms

Performs three types of tests to verify the position of the neighbors. Causes jamming attack

Existing system for Trust Prediction

Centralized Trust Agent

A centralized Agent will calculate the trust level of every other node in the network Trust computing node will monitor the desired nodes behavior

If the agent is compromised then entire system will be collapsed Cannot overcome attacks Selective misbehavior on-off attack

Direct Trust Computation

Recommendation based approach

Obtains recommendation Cannot overcome attacks from the neighboring nodes false recommendation about a particular desired bad mouthing attack node

Reputation based approach

Based on both direct trust computation and recommendation based approach

Does not provide weights to the recommendation. Causes false recommendations

Proposed System
Neighbor Discovery
Completely randomized Scan Based Algorithm using directional antenna model.

Distributed hybrid trust computation using Artificial Neural network.

Modules in Proposed System

Neighbor discovery Network monitoring Neural Network Training Trust computation
Direct observation Recommendation Trust aggregation

Flow Chart of the Proposed System

Initialize the network topology

Neighbor Discovery

Network monitoring for collecting node related information

Neural Network training for trust computation

Exchange trust information & stop the process

Obtaining recommendations Recommendation & Trust aggregation

Feeding the information about new node to neural networks for trust computation

Neighbor Node discovery

Neighbor discovery
the process by which a node in a network determines the total number and identity of other nodes in its vicinity.

NND is important for Route discovery Geographic routing Localization Location specific services Data gathering in sensor networks Danger warning or traffic monitoring in VANETs. Neighbors can be of two types: Communication Neighbors Physical neighbors

Neighbor Discovery in proposed System

Neighbor Discovery
process of discovering the neighbors that are present in a particular Nodes Vicinity.

Algorithm used
Completely Randomized Scan Based Neighbor Discovery Uses Directional Antenna. Direct discovery of neighbors

Completely randomized Scan based Algorithm Nodes broadcast discover message to advertise itself. Time frame is divided into 2 slots. Discover message format is (Hello, IDA) ACK message format is (confirm, IDB) State of a node Transmit/Listen/Sleep

Algorithm Description
Scan Based Algorithm Divides the time frame into 2 mini-slots

Transmits Discover Message

Receive Confirm Message

Discoverer Node determines to be in

Transmit mode for the I mini-slot. Receive mode in II mini-slot .

Discover Message
Node-1 Transmits Discover Message
Node 1 Transmit mode 1 Discover 4 2 5 7 Discover 3 6


Confirm Message
Node-1s one hop neighbor send the confirm message to Node-1
Node 1 Listen mode 1 confirm 2 5 confirm 4 7 confirm 3 6

Packet Analyzing
Packet Analyzer
Monitors the nodes individually. Following information are collected Number of packets generated Number of Packets received Packet Forwarding Ration Packet modification information.

Sample File
Total Generated Packets = 202 Total Received Packets = 201 Total forwarded Packets = 0 Total dropped Packets = 1 Packet Modified=0 Packet Delivery Ratio =0.99505

Trust based Security

Belief level that one node had about another node.
Trust values range from 0 to 1.

Importance of trust
To work cooperatively. To avoid selfish and malicious node. To exchange the confidential information with the neighbors.

Types of Trust Computation

Distributed Trust computation . Centralized Trust computation. Hybrid Method.

Proposed Trust System

Node monitoring Apply Weights to Recommendation

Neural Network based Trust Prediction

Trust Aggregation Module

Recommendati ons

Trust Record Update

Trust computing Algorithm

Proposed Trust Computing Algorithm
Distributed trust computation Hybrid trust computation
Uses both Direct and recommendation based trust.

Neural Network Based Approach for direct trust prediction. Weights are assigned based on the neighbors trust value.

Trust Record
Each node maintains a trust record that contains the list of neighbors and their trust level.

Direct Trust computation

The direct observation technique
Every node is involved individually to predict the trust.

performs network monitoring Collects the trace file generated by monitoring the network. Uses the Packet Delivery Ratio, No of Packets generated, No of packets forwarded information to calculate the trust value of a node directly.

Neural Network Based Approach
Uses Back Propagation Algorithm. Trains the network with the data collected by monitoring the network. Uses Supervised learning algorithm. The parameters to train the BPN
Packet forwarding ratio No of Packets generated per unit time.

The network is trained until the error converges to 10-6 The training algorithm used is traingd. Once the network is trained it can be used to predict the trust level of the node.

Recommendation based trust


Received from one hop neighbors only. Sends RReq message to receive the recommendations. Weights are assigned to the recommendations based on nodes trust value. Weight matrix is used to assign the weights

Trust Aggregation
Recommendations from all the neighbors are aggregated by applying the weights. Trust computation formula TA (B)=QA (B)+ i=1 ,2,3..n Ri (B)

Weight Matrix and Trust Matrix

Trust level of the node Very high Weights given recommendation 1 to the

Average Average Poor Poor

0.6 0.5 0.2 0.0

Node ID 1 2 3

Trust Value 1 0.6 0.8

Advantages of Proposed trust model are
Overcomes the Selective misbehavior attack and bad mouthing attack. Avoids network congestion. Diminishes the influence of the malicious nodes by providing variable weights to the recommendation. Reduces the false recommendations or recommendation modification.

Snapshots Running the TCL Script File

Snapshot-2 Nodes States

Snapshot-3 Network Topology

Snapshot-4 Broadcast Discover Message


Snapshot-5 Receive Confirm Message


Neighbor Table
--------Neighbors Table of Node0-------Node Neighbor 0 1 0 3 Total Number of Neighbors of Node0 = 2 --------Neighbors Table of Node1-------Node Neighbor 1 0 1 3 Total Number of Neighbors of Node1 = 2 --------Neighbors Table of Node3-------Node Neighbor 3 0 3 1 Total Number of Neighbors of Node3 = 2 --------Neighbors Table of Node4-------Node Neighbor Total Number of Neighbors of Node4 = 0

Graph representing time taken for neighbor discovery

Snapshot- NN Training

After Training

Response graph- Training

Recommendation Table

Sudarshan Vasudevan, Micah Adler, Dennis Goeckel, Fellow, IEEE, and Don Towsley, Fellow, IEEE, ACM , Efficient Algorithms for Neighbor Discovery in Wireless Networks. Sudarsan Vasudevan, Jim Kurose, Don Towsley, On Neighbor Discovery in Wireless Networks with Directional Antennas, UMass Computer Science Technical Report 04-53 ECC-0313747001. Zhensheng Zhang and Bo Li, Neighbor Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Self-Configuring Networks with Directional Antennas: Algorithms and Comparisons

Kannan Govindan, Member IEEE and Prasant Mohapatra, Fellow IEEE, Trust Computations and Trust Dynamics in Mobile Adhoc Networks: A Survey Pedro B. Velloso, Rafael P. Laufer, Daniel de O. Cunha, Otto Carlos M. B. Duarte, and Guy Pujolle, Trust Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using a Scalable Maturity-Based model, IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, vol. 7, no. 3, September 2010. Yan Sun, Wei Yu, Zhu Han, and K. J. Ray Liu, Trust Modeling and Evaluation in Ad Hoc Networks , Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740. Asad Amir Pirzada and Chris McDonald, Establishing Trust In Pure Ad-hoc Networks , School of Computer Science & Software Engineering, The University of Western Australia Copyright (c) 2004, Australian Computer Society, Inc. This paper appeared at the 27th Australasian Computer Science Conference

List of Publications
Published a paper, titled Neighbor Discovery and Trust Prediction in MANETs in International Journal for Science, Engineering and Technology Research, Volume 2 Issue 1 on January 2013.

Presented a paper titled DISTRIBUTED HYBRID TRUST


International Conference on Intelligent Instrumentation, Optimization and Signal Processing organized by Karunya university on March 1 and 2.

at International Conference On Computing , communication And Advanced Network, On l5 - l7 MARCH 20l3 at Chennai Institute of Technology.