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Training &Development

What is Training?
Many definitions; explanations; Some Famous ones Hesseling-1971;A sequence of experiences or opportunities designed to modify behavior, in order to attain a stated objective. Nadler-1971-Stressed the difference between Training which is concerned with the present job and Development which is concerned with the future jobs
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Contd- Hamblin-1974-Any activity which deliberately attempts to improve a persons skill on a job as opposed to which is mainly concerned with personal development and not related to the job. Dale.S.Beach-The organizational procedure by which people learn knowledge and/or skill for a definite purpose
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Contd-- Flippo-Training is an act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. John Bernardin-Training is any attempt to improve employee performance on a currently held job or one related to it. The manpower commission has defined it as-

Contd-- A planned process to modify attitude Knowledge or skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities .Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future manpower needs of the organization.
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Contd---- Lynton & Parrek- One that consists of well organized opportunities for participants to acquire necessary understanding and skills. In simple terms-An activity which aims at enhancing the skill levels for present and future activities

Objectives of Training
Equip employees with the companys culture & ethos Equip employees (existing/ future)with the skills required to meet present as well as future tasks Enhance work methods and skill levels Prevent obsolescence

Contd--- Prepare employees for higher levels of responsibilities Reduce accidents Optimize use of resources Enhance group morale Enhance inter personal Relationships Enhance productivity & performance
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CAUTIONS- Budget all activities Draw up a Training Policy & follow it Aim for 2 /3 training days per employee annually Monitor post training progress closely Involve in-house faculty as far as possible. Have a feed back session& a written format
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Scope of Training
Enhancement of Quality, Productivity &Waste reduction Enhance employee retention and customer service Resultantly enhanced morale. Facilitating career Progression Skill gap bridging and enhancement of skills

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Benefits of Training to Organization


Enhanced positive attitude &profitability Enhanced job knowledge &Skill levels Enhanced Morale of the work force Facilitates employees identify with Org.Goals Enhanced Corporate image. Better trust level & mutual respect Establishment of proper working guidelines
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Contd---- Facilitates Leadership building Facilitates developing & maintaining Healthy IR climate Reduces wastes & there by cost Facilitates effective internal communication Facilitates effective Man Power planning & Career; Succession planning

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Benefits to employees
Enhanced Domain Expertise & skills level Enhances present level of performance Equips employees for future jobs Enhances group & team performance Enhances communication skills Nurtures leadership & risk taking abilities Helps identify own goals& align with org.goals Helps newcomers adjust to the environment
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Challenges in Training
Knowing limitations of training activities Effective aligning of need & the objective Competency of the trainer should be confirmed Methodology chosen must be in line with the stated objectives Evaluation is not in sync. with the process

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Contd-- Aligning with the overall Business Strategy of the organization Programs organized as an obligation Post training monitoring Focusing on activity oriented programs rather than Result oriented ones. Maintaining balanced approach towards all sections of employees
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Future of Training Inputs useful beyond working place Achievement orientation Focus shifting to skills rather than knowledge Professional experience equated to Academic qualification Leadership Nurturing Innovation & knowledge management
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The Process- Training primarily has 4 stages Pre planning; Planning; Implementation& Evaluation

Alternatively -Establish a need analysis; Develop a training program; deliver the training program; Evaluate the training program
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Contd--- Training process involves assessment of needs; develop the inputs; deliver the inputs through appropriate methods &evaluate the effectiveness

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Assessment of needs
Why training is needed? What type of training is needed? When is the training needed? Where is the training to be imparted? Who needs the training ? Who will conduct the training? What is the cost of training?
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Contd---- How is it done? Through informal discussions with Heads of Dept. Appraisal process Formal questionnaire to Dept. Heads Exit interviews

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Developing Curriculum
Start with detailed Job description Identify and formalize standards Document the various procedures Confirm details of the inputs to be given from the concerned Dept.Head Confirm the bench marks to be achieved Decide on trainer & the trainees
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Contd-- Confirm the availability of all involved Circulate the details to all concerned the details of the program. Have the hand outs ready for circulation Ensure the availability of all equipments & facilities Dry run a day before the program

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Implementation- MethodologyOne-on- one; on the job; Group training; Seminars ; Workshops

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Contd-- Other factors Trainer must be Keen to teach the subject; Should have a working knowledge the subject;Ability to motivate the trainees to Want to learn; possess a good sense of humour; Pleasing & Dynamic appearance;

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Contd----- Should have a passion for the subject; A strong sense of companionship towards the participants Extensive use of A/Vs.

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Evaluation
Why? To assess the effectiveness of the inputs given Do a cost benefit analysis How? Pre & post surveys of the customers comments Growth analysis of profits and customers satisfaction
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Contd--- Benefits Feed back to the trainee is accurate Corrections to any aspect/ modification is possible Future actions can be planned accordingly Business Plans can be implemented

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Types of Training
Induction Training Management Training Management Development Programmes Preparatory training for higher Responsibilities Retirement management Retraining for contingencies

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Learning Theories
Reinforcement Theory Social learning Theory Goal-Setting theory Need Theories Expectancy Theory.

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Points to ponder
Who is to be trained? At what cost to be trained When & where to be trained Any option available Duration of training program And more---

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Believe it or not
Those who can be spared cannot be trained &
Those who can be trained cannot be spared

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