Packaging and Folding

Packaging is the science, art technology of enclosing protecting products distribution, storage, sale, use.  Packaging also refers to process of design, evaluation, production of packages.

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The labels on packages are important components of the overall marketing mix and can support :   

Advertising claims, Establish brand identity, Enhance name recognition, and Optimize shelf space allocations.

. ship. the cost to manufacture. and display the package must be considered. It must also contain an adequate amount of product to keep the unit price competitive.   When designing packaging. Packaging must be small enough to accommodate available shelf space and large enough to deter theft.

Merchandising – The merchandising function deals with presenting the apparel product in a manner designed to stimulate consumer desire for the product.Function and scope of Packaging Packaging may have two major functions: 1. . Distribution – The distribution function deals with packaging the apparel or allied product in a manner which permits the apparel manufacturer to ship the product at lowest cost and/ or in the shortest time to the purchaser. SCOPE: Retaining - The products durability and Style specifications during the journey from the factory to the retailer. without diminishing the quality of the product 2.

excessive light and handling damage.Quality deterrents that have to be prevented in packaging practically all consumer items are: 1. creases and stains inflicted when the package is broken by shipping handlings . Crushing and 3. must be packaged to protect the product against hazards such as: wetting. Dust Military apparel and apparel destined for export or shipment to extremes of climatic conditions. Handling damage refers to tears. fungus. mildew. Creasing 2.

A barrier from oxygen. vibration. etc. Barrier protection . dust. is often required. shock. temperature. among other things. water vapor.. compression.The objects enclosed in the package may require protection from. and safe for the intended shelf life is a primary function. etc. keeping the contents clean. Physical protection .  . fresh.

Marketing . a single box of 1000 pencils requires less physical handling than 1000 single pencils. Information transmission .Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for reasons of efficiency.Packages and labels communicate how to use.   . transport.The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product. recycle. For example. or dispose of the package or product. Containment or agglomeration .

Packages can be made with improved tamper resistance to deter tampering and also can have tamper-evident features to help indicate tampering. RFID tags.Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security risks of shipment. such as dyepacks. Security . or electronic article surveillance tags. Packages also can include anti-theft devices. Packages may include authentication seals to indicate that the package and contents are not counterfeit. that can be activated or detected by devices at exit points and require specialized tools to deactivate. . To reduce the risks of package pilferage.

use. Bulk commodities (such as salt) can be divided into packages that are a more suitable size for individual households. reclosing.Packages can have features which add convenience in distribution.  . sale. opening. Portion control . handling. It also aids the control of inventory: selling sealed one-liter-bottles of milk. and reuse. rather than having people bring their own bottles to fill themselves. display.Convenience .Single serving or single dosage packaging has a precise amount of contents to control usage.

Functions of packaging  Primary  Protective function  Storage function  Loading and transport function  Secondary  Sales function  Promotional function  Service function  Guarantee function  Tertiary  Additional function .

Primary bag Secondary bag Carton liner Sealed carton Open carton .

.Primary functions  The protective function of packaging essentially involves protecting the contents from the environment and vice versa.both before packaging of the goods and once the package contents have been used. Packaging materials and packaging containers must be stored in many different locations .

moved. set down and stowed easily. lifted.• Convenient goods handling entails designing transport packaging in such a manner that it may be held. efficiently and safely. .

 . Promotional material placed on the packaging is intended to attract the potential purchaser's attention and to have a positive impact upon the purchasing decision.Secondary functions  The purpose of the sales function of a package is to enable or promote the sales process and to make it more efficient.

• The various items of information printed on packaging provide the consumer with details about the contents and use of the particular product. .

paperboard and cardboard packaging as waste paper.  . The most significant example is the recycling of paper.Tertiary functions  The additional function of packaging materials or packaging containers is their reuse once the package contents have been used.

cases. . A merchandising package is a shipping package if the shipping handlers (truck men or freight men) handle the same individual Bulk forms the retailer will pass on to the consumer. Shipping packaging is the packaging in which the retailer receives The products in bulk form. The product may be packaged singly such as shoes or in multiple such as hose.TYPES OF PACKAGE FORMS: The basic types of package forms used in apparel and allied products are bags. twines (or cords) and wrappers In merchandizing packaging. boxes. cartons. crates. the product is packaged in the container in which the customer is expected to receive the product.

Cartons are containers which do not have separate covers A carton is a one piece container. Bags and wrappers are made of plastic film. where as boxes and cartons are made of cardboard and/ or plastic. A box contains two or more pieces. Boxes are containers with separate covers. Boxes and cartons are either of the folding or set-up type.Cases and crates are made basically of wood. A case is a package which has no openings in any of its sides. A crate is a package which has openings or spaces between the wood boards which make up its sides or ends. .

cases and crates. cartons. The two basic types of bag containers are Sacks and envelops. Envelopes are non rigid containers which have flap extensions on one Side of the container for closing the container. The set up box or carton requires staples. . satchel bottom and Automatic self opening. square. Bags are non rigid containers made from paper or plastic film. The cut of a box or carton permits the box or carton to be folded and shaped from a flat sheet or sheets of paper or paper board. glue. tape or some other device to retain the shape into which the paper or paper board has been folded. glue or tape to hold its sides in shape. The most popular bag forms are the flat. These containers do not have the rigid structural form present in boxes.The folding box or carton does not require staples.

Cords or bands are non rigid linear mediums which are used to make packaging similar in structural principle to that of the crate. cords or bands. whereas a wrapper is an unsealed non-rigid sheet. The sack is closed by folding all sides of the opening in a closure pattern Wrap packages are parcels made by encasing the products in sheet paper or plastic film. The wrapping does not have the basic structure of a sack or envelop. Sacks and envelopes are usually fabricated before the packaging. The sides and bottom of sacks and envelops are always sealed. . Wrappers are secured in the package formation with sealing tape.Sacks do not have flap covers.

Factors influencing the selection of package design: Consumer’s désires dictates merchandise package Retailer’s desires dictates Shipment packaging Sales policy and type of accounts for Merchandising and Shipment packaging will set the design limits of package design. The form / style of packaging Display needs of packaging Handling comfort of customers in terms of comfort and protection of goods .

fold and crease If combined with plastic to form laminated packaging that prevents evaporation and preserve the product Color printing to a very high quality is possible    1.bags. . store.Evolution of materials  Paper & board Used for making cartons. Molded pulp.drums Advancements in using the paper in the packaging as: Corrugated boards. 3. 2. Tissue paper Advantages The materials are light and easy to handle.

such as soft drinks and beers (canned food and drinks). . In which. Used in making cans aerosols foils closures Advantages Contents will stay in a good condition for over months Convenient size and light weight   1.Metals  Metal is most appropriate for packaging foods. drinks. 2. aluminium is often used.

boxes etc. The merits of rigid plastic containers are its low cost and ease of fabrication.Plastics  The use of plastics in packaging has made tremendous progress in recent years all over the world. injection moulded or blow moulded containers. such as bottles.   . cups. cartons. A wide variety of plastics can be used as thermoform.

lack of resistance to high heat and fragility at lower temperatures.• The demerits are lack of product compatibility. • Flexible plastic packaging films are used as wrappers or sachets or bags or pouches for packaging milk and dairy products. . plastic deterioration.

Plastics for packaging  Packaging plastics are produced in chemical factories and have rather long names. The six major ones are:  low density polyethylene  high density polyethylene  polypropylene  Polyvinylchloride  Polystyrene  polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) .

meal containers. Fizzy drink bottles. milk and fruit juice. bottle caps and closures. Carrier bags. roasting bags. Egg Cartons. Food trays.HDPE Bottles for detergents. .

         Paper Plastic film Wood Nails Staples Cords Rope Gum Tape Bands (metal) .

crepe. tissue. Wood cases and Crates are used for bulky export or rugged shipments. tongue and groove boards. Corrugated. Basic paper materials used for packaging apparel products are Kraft. soft wood. Wood used are ply wood.  . paper foil and water proof paper. paper board.

. Corrugated Paper are of two types – Flexible corrugated is used basically in shock insulation. Corrugated board is used for cartons and boxes.

Tissues. Paper foil is metallic paper. thin paper sheets are used for both shock insulation and decoration.  . Crepe paper is distinguished by its wrinkled surface. fine crepe papers are available for decorative merchandising effects. Gummed Crepe in strip rolls is a popular sealing tape. consists of paper stock laminated/coated with metallic's such as bronze or copper. Used mostly for shock insulation to prevent crushing.

Strength and thickness are available as desired. Pliofilm. Vinyl film are some of the most popular types. or synthetic resins. rubber bases. Plastic films are rapidly replacing paper in some packaging uses. They range in clarity from Transparent to Opaque. Cellulose acetates.     . Plastic films are made up of thin cellulose derivatives.

Thickness.QUALITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGING MATERIALS The basic quality factors in paper and films are: A. in / lb) B. Properties: Clarity. basic weight (& yield. air Moisture permeability Sunlight transference Dimensional stability to heat / sunlight Resistance to odors . Characteristics: • • • • • • • • • • Tensile strength Elongation Bursting strength Tearing strength Flammability Porosity. sq. Width and length.

.A group of boxes of shoes is tied together with twine.g. the shipping package is the corded. For E. crate.Shipping packaging is the packaging in which the retailer receives the products in bulk form. case or carton unit..

The shipping activities include: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Acquiring the empty container Positioning the container Loading the container Sealing the loaded container Labeling the sealer container Stacking or carting the loaded. labeled . container. sealed.

Shipment packages have to meet rules and regulations in Quality which are set by the:    Postal authorities Railroad Associations Motor Associations Air freight Associations .

Primary vacuum heat sealed bag with information label Tertiary vacuum heat sealed bag with product information label Twist-sealed carton liner with Certificate of Compliance Carton taped closed with corner labels and Certificate of Compliance .

Fragile

Use no hand hooks

This way up

Keep away from sunlight

Keep away from water

Centre of gravity

Clamp as indicated

Do not clamp as indicated

Packaging and shipping Equipment:

1. Product folding equipment 2. Container shapers 3. Container loaders 4. Container sealers 5. Container conveyors

Product may be packaged: Singly.In Merchandise packaging. such as shoes Or in Multiples. the product is packaged in the container in which the consumer is expected to receive the product. such as hose   .

    From Consumers Point of view the package should: Identify the product Enhance the appeal of the product Attract the customer to the package Protect the product quality until the consumer uses the item .

Other Factors affecting are: Color and design on the package are used to identify. enhance and attract. What part of garment shows and how does it show off. The manner in which the product is packaged geometrically is big factor in enhancing the look of the garment.  .

Other utilities like storing of things at home. The handling factor of the package. The utility of the package is a big factor semi permanent and permanent value of the package is very important.   .

 . Package should be able to carry a certain display weight without crushing the product or distorting its quality.From Retailer’s point of view  The merchandise package should have additional values to those enumerated for raising consumer appeals.

Other factors: 1) 2) How high can the packages be stacked for display or storage purposes? what is the safety factor of the package with regard to a) the garment quality b) Personnel safety 3) Under what condition will the stack topple? .

4) Handling cost Minimizing space requirements for storing many of these packages? b) Minimum time requirements for i) Receiving and checking a delivery ii)Storing the packages in storage and the store’s selling area c) Dispensing the package i) By a sales clerk ii)By consumer self service a) .

. So that consumer can view as much possible area of the garment. In many apparel items. the packaging is reduced to a hanger plus a short plastic film shoulder cover for the garment. and a colorful tag on the garment.Must be designed to meet needs of retailers and desires of consumers.

Vacuum packaging was introduced in the 1970’s by Swematex AB of Sweden. The air in the sack and garment is vacuumed out 4. Encasing the garment in a plastic film sack 3. The system consists of: 1. The plastic sack is then sealed at the end of vacuum & compression cycle. . Reducing the moisture content of the garment 2.

.Functions:1) To reduce the shipping bulk of finished garments 2) To reduce the finishing weight of garments shipped 3) To prevent a garment from accumulating dust or objectionable odors before and during shipping 4) To prevent garments from acquiring wrinkles or creases. which will have to be removed before the retailer displays the garment 5) To minimize storage space for both manufacturer and retailer. during shipping.

prior to encasing it in its plastic film sack. But also for packaging household accessories made from textiles. Such as blankets. bed spreads. the fabric readily absorbs the necessary moisture to attain its normal stability and thus immediately sheds any wrinkles or creases incurred during the vacuuming . The moisture content is removed by placing the hung garment on a Conveyor through a conditioning chamber which decreases moisture content of the garments with hot air and then cools it to a given temperature in cool dry air. pillows and towels –anything with bulk can easily be compressed.Vacuum packaging is used not only for packing and storing garments. This conditioning process permits the garment to be compressed with vacuum action without wrinkles or creases which remain in the garment after the sealed vacuum pack is opened When the vacuum pack is opened after it reaches its retail destination.

which gives it the plasticity necessary to form retainable wrinkles and creases.Removal of the moisture content prior to its vacuuming and Encasement prevents any creases or wrinkles incurred during encasement. because in order for a wrinkle or crease to have any Retention. Hence the absence of sufficient moisture in the garment precludes the formation of wrinkles or creases which are plasticized in to such forms. the fabric must have a certain degree of moisture. .

protects crease recovery. Folding in fabrics reduces space and helps in transportation. helps in the transportation of the lot. .Folding is a very important part of the garment because it adds to the aesthetic appeal of the garment. protects it from dust. stains etc.

    Button the top button and the third button. The first fold is the right side. . Fold about one-third of the body toward the centre of the shirt. so the shirt is flat front and back. Lay the shirt face-down on the folding surface. You should be looking at the back of your shirt. Smooth out any puckers or wrinkles.

The sleeve should line up with the edge of the first body fold. creating an angled fold at the shoulder. Fold the left side in the same manner.    The fold line starts at the centre of the shoulder and ends at the tail. . Neatly fold the sleeve forward. You should see the back of your shirt with about one-third of the front folded to the back. Make a fold of several inches of the shirt tail.

Turn the entire shirt over. The tail should be just behind the collar of the shirt now. You should have a neatly folded shirt as you typically see at a professional laundry or clothing store. .  Fold up the bottom half of the partially folded shirt.

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. and side folding plates by which longitudinally extending side portions of the garment are folded into overlapping relationship over its central portion. a cover plate which swings down to an operative position overlying that portion of the garment.An automatic garment folding machine has a support plate on which the upper central portion of a garment rests.

. which are on the upper surface of the cover plate.The cover plate has fixed and movable clamping members. the movable clamping member being movable downward to and upward from a clamping position in which it cooperates with the fixed clamping members.

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