Virginia Avenel Anderson

sick or well. will or knowledge" Virginia Avenel Henderson ."The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual. in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength.

Her father is a lawyer by profession named Atty. Henderson. Daniel B. Virginia was named for her mother's (Lucy Minor (Abbot) Henderson) native state and later educated there at a boys school run by her grandfather. 1897  She was the fifth of eight children and had a family history of scholars and educators. The Nightingale of Modern Nursing. Washington.  Graduated in 1921 at Teachers College.  Early education in Virginia in the community Army School of Nursing. D. Modern-Day Mother of Nursing. Columbia University (Bachelor of Science degree completed in 1931 while Masters of Science degree in 1934)  Honorary doctoral degrees from the Catholic University of America.Who is she?  First Lady of Nursing. Missouri on November 30.C. Pace University. The 20th Century Florence Nightingale  She was born in Kansas City. University of Western Ontario. University of Rochester. Yale University .

New York.  Henry Street Visiting Nurse Association. New York (1930)  She also worked as an Instructor and Associate Professor at Teachers College. Nature of Nursing. Virginia (1924-1929)  She worked as an early advocate for the inclusion of psychiatric nursing in the curriculum and served on a committee to develop such a course at Eastern State Hospital in Williamsburg. her presentations.C. (1934-1948)  She published her book. Columbia University. Norfolk. her research and contacts with nurses have profoundly affected nursing and impacted the recipients of care by nurses throughout the world. where her revision of Bertha Harmer's Textbook of the Principles and Practice of Nursing became widely used. New York. expressed her belief about the essence of nursing and influenced the hearts and minds of those who read it. New York (1921). Washington.NURSING CAREER Her writing. Virginia (1929)  Also worked as a Supervisor and Clinical Instructor at the Outpatient Department at Strong Memorial Hospital. Rochester. Visiting Nurse Association. . (1923-1924)  She worked as an Instructor and Educational Director at Norfolk Protestant Hospital. D.

14 Basic Human Needs (Need Theory) .

14 Basic Human Needs (Need Theory)  The importance of Henderson’s theory is the patient’s selfindependence. . she described that if the patient is assisted by different health services to basically meet the 14 basic human needs. the patient’s recovery will continue to progress even after being released from the hospital.

Metaparadigm of the theory Person  Individual person or client is a whole. and spiritual components. complete.  Henderson believed that a single person should be able to perform the 14 fundamental or basic human needs  If the needs are not met the patient should require assistance to achieve health and independence or peaceful death . sociological. independent being with biological.

fears. Worship according to one's faith. or opinions. 11. 14. Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment. Breathe normally 14 Basic Human Needs 2. Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others. 5. 7. Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument. 9. Communicate with others in expressing emotions. 10. Select suitable clothes—dress and undress. needs. Move and maintain desirable postures. 8. Eliminate body wastes 4.1. 6. Sleep and rest. Eat and drink adequately 3. Play or participate in various forms of recreation. Learn. Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying environment. or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities . 12. discover. 13.

Metaparadigm of the theory Health  It is equated with independence or ability to perform activities without any aid in the 14 fundamental or basic human needs. will or knowledge (concept of independence).  Basic to human functioning which is needed in achieving the theory's needs. Promotion of health is more important than care of the sick .  Individuals will achieve or maintain health if they have the necessary strength.

 The environment may also include individuals in relation to families and the settings in which an individual learns unique pattern for living  There are seven essentials that must be present in the environment which include light. and cleanliness of any surfaces coming in contact with individual. air movement. temperature. minimal quantities of injurious chemicals. because environment can have a positive and negative effect to the patient .Metaparadigm of the theory Environment  It encompasses all external conditions and influences that affect life and development.  Nurse’s function is to alter the environment in such a way as to support the patient. appropriate disposal of waste. atmospheric pressure.

however.  She expressed the view that a nurse’s role is to follow and assist with the medical plan of care outlined by a physician and also to assume the leadership role of planning and providing basic nursing care. Nurses are independent practitioners for providing appropriate basic nursing care.Metaparadigm of the theory Nursing  She described nursing roles in relation to patient needs instead of creating a general theory of nursing. prescribe medical treatment. Complementary. which is helping the patient do something. or formulate a prognosis . All of these roles are to help the patient become as independent as possible. which is doing something for the patient Supplementary. she then classified the role of the nurse as one of the following: Substitutive. they should not independently diagnose an ailment. which is working with the patient to do something.

.Metaparadigm of the theory Nursing  The nurse attends to the holistic needs of the patient through the educated and emphatic attention to the 14 needs outlined by Henderson. The nurse is an independent authority on excellent basic nursing care and also a vital aide to other practitioners in the field of healthcare in ensuring the provision of germane medical treatment for patients with conditions requiring it.

Client Physiologic Function Psychologic aspects of communicating and learning Spiritual and Moral Aspects Sociologically oriented to Occupation and Recreation Needs met/performed? Yes Degree of difficulty of client to perform the basic needs No Unable to perform Substitutive Able to perform task but with difficulty Supplementary Healthy Individuals Able to do task but with supervision Complimentary Attainment of Health or Peaceful Death .

Diagram of the need theory Nurse-Patient Interaction NURSE CLIENT Environment .

 Patients desire to return to health or a peaceful death and will act in such a way to achieve this.Assumptions  Nurses care for patients until patients can care for themselves once again. . capacity or will  The 14 basic needs represent nursing’s basic function  Nursing’s goal may be subsumed into the medical treatment plan.  Individuals will perform activities leading to health if they have the knowledge.

. and the principles embodied by the 14 activities are still important in evaluating nursing care in the 21st centaury.Strengths  The principles of Henderson’s theory were published in the major nursing textbooks used from the 1930s through the 1960s.  Her emphasis on basic human needs as the central focus of nursing practice has led to further theory development regarding the needs of the person and how nursing can assist in meeting those needs.

but there is little explanation of what the nurse does.Limitations  If the assumption is made that the 14 components prioritized. .  Lacks inter-relate of factors and the influence of nursing care. the relationship among the components is unclear.  Assisting the individual in the dying process she contends that the nurse helps.  No concept of the holistic nature of human being.


). Nursing Theories: the base for professional nursing practice (4th ed). J. 2. Blais et CT Appleton & Lange . 3. Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives (4th ed.angelfire.References 1. New York: Springer Publishing. (eds. (2007).UP Open University 4. http://www.B (ed.) (1995). Cora Anonuevo et al. NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.). Nurse’s work: Issues across time and place. George.html 5. Upper Saddle River. (2002). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing. D’Antonio et al.

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