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Miss.

Nada Al-Zahrani
Leukocytes, the only blood components that

are complete cells:


 Are less numerous than RBCs

 Make up 1% of the total blood volume.

 Leukocytosis – WBC count over 11,000 per

cubic millimeter
 Normal response to bacterial or viral invasion.
Granulocytes – neutrophils, eosinophils, and

basophils
 Contain cytoplasmic granules that stain

specifically (acidic, basic, or both).


 Are larger and usually shorter-lived than RBCs.

 Have lobed nuclei.

 Are all phagocytic cells.


Neutrophils have two types of granules that:
 Take up both acidic and basic dyes
 Give the cytoplasm a lilac color
Neutrophils are 60-65% of leukocytes,
the most common of wbc.
Neutrophils are engulf
bacteria, viruses, infected
cells and debris.
Nucleus is composed of
several
lobes connected by thin
chromatin strands.
Eosinophils account for 1–3% of WBCs
 Have red-staining, bilobed nuclei connected via
chromatin strand.
 Have red to crimson (acidophilic) large, coarse
granules
 They defense the body against multicellular
parasites
Acidophilic granules

Typical bi-
lobed nucleus.
Basophils account for 0.5% of WBCs and:
 Have two or three nuclei connected via
chromatin strand.
 Have large, purplish-black (basophilic) granules
that contain histamine

Large,
basicstaining
granules

Large, lobed nucleus.


 Agranulocytes – lymphocytes and monocytes:

 Do not have cytoplasmic granules.

 Have spherical (lymphocytes) or kidney-

shaped

(monocytes) nuclei.
Lymphocytes account for 30% or more of
WBCs and:
 Have large, dark-purple, circular nuclei with a
thin rim of blue cytoplasm
There are two types of lymphocytes: T cells
and B cells
 T cells function in the immune response
 B cells give rise to plasma cells, which produce
Small antibodies Large
lymphocyte
lymphocy
te
Monocytes account for 6% of leukocytes.
 They are the largest leukocytes
 They have abundant pale-blue cytoplasms
 They have purple-staining, U- or kidney-shaped
nuclei
 Neutrophils: 2500 _ 7000/ cmm 60%

 Eosinophils: 40 _ 4000 / cmm 3%

 Basophils: : 15 _ 100 / cmm 1%

 Lymphocytes: 1500 _ 3500 / cmm 30%

 Monocytes: 200 _ 800 /cmm 6%


Netrophilia:
Increased absolute no. of nutrophils.
Causes:
1. Acute bacterial infection.
2.Tissue damage e.g. burns, trauma.
3. Acute hemorrhage.
4. myeloid leukaemia.
5. during pregnency (normal).
Netropenia:
Decreased absolute no. of nutrophils.
Causes:
1. Viral infection.
2. Bacterial infection.
3. Bone marrow failure.
4. Splenomegaly.
5. Drugs.
6. Megaloblastic anemia.
Lymphocytosis:
Increased absolute no. of lymphocytes.
 Causes:
1. Infection in children.
2. Bacterial infection.
3. Protozoal infection.
4. Lymphocytic leukemia.
Lymphopenia:

Reduced absolute lymphocyte count.


Causes:

1. AIDS / HIV.
2. Severe bone marrow failure.
3. Some viral infection.
Monocytosis:
Increased absolute no. of monocytes.
 Causes:
1. Protozoal infection.
2. Chronic bacterial infection.
3. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
Monocytopenia:
Decreased absolute no. of monocytes.
Eosinophilia:
absolute increase in eosinophils.
 Causes:

1. Helminth infections.

2. Allergic conditions.
Eosinopenia:

absolute decrease in eosinophils.


Basophilia:
absolute increase in basophils.
 Causes:

1. Myeloproliferative disorders.

2. Some allergic conditions.


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