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Nada Al-Zahrani
Leukocytes, the only blood components that

are complete cells:

 Are less numerous than RBCs

 Make up 1% of the total blood volume.

 Leukocytosis – WBC count over 11,000 per

cubic millimeter
 Normal response to bacterial or viral invasion.
Granulocytes – neutrophils, eosinophils, and

 Contain cytoplasmic granules that stain

specifically (acidic, basic, or both).

 Are larger and usually shorter-lived than RBCs.

 Have lobed nuclei.

 Are all phagocytic cells.

Neutrophils have two types of granules that:
 Take up both acidic and basic dyes
 Give the cytoplasm a lilac color
Neutrophils are 60-65% of leukocytes,
the most common of wbc.
Neutrophils are engulf
bacteria, viruses, infected
cells and debris.
Nucleus is composed of
lobes connected by thin
chromatin strands.
Eosinophils account for 1–3% of WBCs
 Have red-staining, bilobed nuclei connected via
chromatin strand.
 Have red to crimson (acidophilic) large, coarse
 They defense the body against multicellular
Acidophilic granules

Typical bi-
lobed nucleus.
Basophils account for 0.5% of WBCs and:
 Have two or three nuclei connected via
chromatin strand.
 Have large, purplish-black (basophilic) granules
that contain histamine


Large, lobed nucleus.

 Agranulocytes – lymphocytes and monocytes:

 Do not have cytoplasmic granules.

 Have spherical (lymphocytes) or kidney-


(monocytes) nuclei.
Lymphocytes account for 30% or more of
WBCs and:
 Have large, dark-purple, circular nuclei with a
thin rim of blue cytoplasm
There are two types of lymphocytes: T cells
and B cells
 T cells function in the immune response
 B cells give rise to plasma cells, which produce
Small antibodies Large
Monocytes account for 6% of leukocytes.
 They are the largest leukocytes
 They have abundant pale-blue cytoplasms
 They have purple-staining, U- or kidney-shaped
 Neutrophils: 2500 _ 7000/ cmm 60%

 Eosinophils: 40 _ 4000 / cmm 3%

 Basophils: : 15 _ 100 / cmm 1%

 Lymphocytes: 1500 _ 3500 / cmm 30%

 Monocytes: 200 _ 800 /cmm 6%

Increased absolute no. of nutrophils.
1. Acute bacterial infection.
2.Tissue damage e.g. burns, trauma.
3. Acute hemorrhage.
4. myeloid leukaemia.
5. during pregnency (normal).
Decreased absolute no. of nutrophils.
1. Viral infection.
2. Bacterial infection.
3. Bone marrow failure.
4. Splenomegaly.
5. Drugs.
6. Megaloblastic anemia.
Increased absolute no. of lymphocytes.
 Causes:
1. Infection in children.
2. Bacterial infection.
3. Protozoal infection.
4. Lymphocytic leukemia.

Reduced absolute lymphocyte count.


1. AIDS / HIV.
2. Severe bone marrow failure.
3. Some viral infection.
Increased absolute no. of monocytes.
 Causes:
1. Protozoal infection.
2. Chronic bacterial infection.
3. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
Decreased absolute no. of monocytes.
absolute increase in eosinophils.
 Causes:

1. Helminth infections.

2. Allergic conditions.

absolute decrease in eosinophils.

absolute increase in basophils.
 Causes:

1. Myeloproliferative disorders.

2. Some allergic conditions.