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What is HVAC ?

HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning.

Heating The temperature out side is less than inside. Ventilation Sending the air out from the space and/or supplying the fresh air into the space. Air-Conditioning It mean a process by which the temperature, humidity, flow and purity of the air is controlled simultaneously to get the required conditions.

Why do we require air conditioning?

To improve or control an Industrial process. To maintain Human comfort.

Man a heat Machine

Food eaten is the fuel. Every body movement generates heat even the blink of an eye. To maintain 98.6 Degrees Fahrenheit it rejects heat. what are modes of Heat Transfer?

Heat Transfer

Conduction Convection Radiation

Conduction: The heat transfer due to conduction takes place if the two bodies at different temperatures are in contact with each other. It is also true if a substance is heated from one end. heat transfer takes place to the other end by conduction. Convection: When liquid or gas is heated, expansion takes place. Due to this it becomes lighter and rises up. Its place is taken by colder or dense fluid. This is a continuous process and thus heat transfer takes place due to these currents and heat is distributed through the mass. Radiation: The heat transfer due to radiation takes place from one body to another without effecting the medium through which heat travels. Heat flow from sun to earth takes place in this fashion.

Human beings are rejecting heat by Convection, Radiation and Evaporation. All three methods normally are used at the same time. All three methods gives off excess heat. One method may do more and the other may do less. Depending on the surrounding conditions.

What are the surrounding conditions ?


Humidity Air Motion Change in each of this surrounding condition will speed up or slow down the heat rejection or gain.

Comfort Zone for Human beings.

What is the best temperature in which all will feel comfort ? What is the best relative humidity which gives you comfort ? Temperature Range 22-26.5 C Relative Humidity 30-70% .

Outside and Inside

A man in out door needs to adjust him self with his clothing and whims of nature. A man inside shelter We can control his comfort. HOW ?

By means of HVAC
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Heat Q is the mechanism that transfers energy across the boundaries of systems with differing temperatures, always toward the lower temperature.

Sensible heat factor: The sensible heat factor is the ratio of sensible heat to the total heat. The total heat of air is the sum of sensible heat and latent heat.

Sensible Heat: It is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of substance from 0 C to the desired temperature without changing its state. Latent Heat: Latent heat of a substance varies from its sensible heat as it does not cause any temperature variation within the body but changes its state i.e.., from solid to liquid or liquid to gas. Example: 80 Kcal of heat is absorbed from the surroundings when 1kg of ice changes into water at a constant temperature 0 C to freeze it to ice at the same temperature.

Units of Refrigeration

The unit of refrigeration is termed as Tons of refrigeration or simply Tons and it is equal to the amount of heat required to enable 1 ton of ice to melt in 24 hours. In MKS system 1Ton = 3,000 k cal/hour or 50k cal/min. In British Units 1 Ton = 12,000 BTU/hr.