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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Chapter 2:
Atomic Structure

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Learning Objectives

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The structure of materials. The structure of the atom. The electronic structure of the atom. The periodic table. Atomic bonding. Binding energy and interatomic spacing. The many forms of carbon: Relationships between arrangements of atoms and materials properties.

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

The Structure of the Atom

Atomic number Atomic mass Avogadro number Atomic mass unit

Number of protons in each atom Average number of protons and neutrons in the atom 6.022 1023 atoms/mol 1/12 the mass of carbon 12 (i.e., the carbon atom with twelve nucleonssix protons and six neutrons)

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

The Electronic Structure of the Atom

Quantum numbers

The energy level to which each electron belongs. The four quantum numbers are the principal quantum number n, the azimuthal or secondary quantum number l, the magnetic quantum number ml, and the spin quantum number ms

Spin quantum number 1/2 and -1/2, which reflect the two possible values of spin of an electron

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

The Electronic Structure of the Atom

Pauli Exclusion Principle

Within each atom, no two electrons may have the same four quantum numbers, and thus, each electron is designated by a unique set of four quantum numbers.
Set of fixed energy levels to which electrons belong The azimuthal quantum numbers are assigned l = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n - 1

Quantum shell Azimuthal quantum number

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

The Electronic Structure of the Atom

Aufbau Principle Valence

Graphical device that predicts deviations from the expected ordering of the energy levels Number of electrons in an atom that participate in bonding or chemical reactions

Electronegativity
Electropositive

Tendency of an atom to gain an electron


Elements with low electronegativity i.e.,<2.0

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Figure 2.9 - Periodic Table of Elements

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Chemical Bond
A bond results from the attraction of nuclei for electrons
All atoms trying to achieve a stable octet

IN OTHER WORDS
the p+ in one nucleus are attracted to the e- of another atom
Electronegativity

Bond Formation
exothermic process

E N E R G Y

Reactants

Energy released Products

Breaking Bonds
Endothermic reaction
energy must be put into the bond in order to break it
E N E R G Y Reactants

Products

Energy Absorbed

Bond Strength
Strong, STABLE bonds require lots of energy to be formed or broken weak bonds require little E

Two Major Types of Bonding Ionic Bonding


forms ionic compounds transfer of e-

Covalent Bonding
forms molecules sharing e-

One minor type of bonding


Metallic bonding
Occurs between like atoms of a metal in the free state Valence e- are mobile (move freely among all metal atoms) Positive ions in a sea of electrons

Metallic characteristics
High mp temps, ductile, malleable, shiny Hard substances Good conductors of heat and electricity as (s) and (l)

Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Figure 2.11 - Metallic Bonds

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Its the mobile electrons that enable me tals to conduct electricity!!!!!!

METALLIC BOND
bond found in metals; holds metal atoms together very strongly

METALLIC BONDING
Metallic bonding is the type of bonding found in metal elements. This is the electrostatic force of attraction between positively charged ions and delocalized outer electrons. The metallic bond is weaker than the ionic and the covalent bonds.

METALLIC BONDING
Metallic structures are typically rather empty (having large internuclear spacings) and prefer lattice arrangements in which each atom has many nearest neighbors.

The weakness of the individual bonding actions in a metal is due to the enlargement of the internuclear spacing.

Valance electrons are relatively bound to the nucleus and therefore they move freely through the metal and they are spread out among the atoms in the form of a low-density electron cloud.

A metallic bond result from the sharing of a variable number of electrons by a variable number of atoms. A metal may be described as a cloud of free electrons.
Therefore, metals have high electrical and thermal conductivity.

+ + +

+ + +

+ + +

All valence electrons in a metal combine to form a sea of electrons that move freely between the atom cores. The more electrons, the stronger the attraction. This means the melting and boiling points are higher, and the metal is stronger and harder. The positively charged cores are held together by these negatively charged electrons. The free electrons act as the bond (or as a glue) between the positively charged ions. This type of bonding is nondirectional and is rather insensitive to structure. As a result we have a high ductility of metals - the bonds do not break when atoms are rearranged metals can experience a significant degree of plastic deformation.

Metallic Bonds: Mellow dogs with plenty of bones to go around.

Ionic Bond, A Sea of Electrons

IONic Bonding
electrons are transferred between valence shells of atoms ionic compounds are NOT MOLECULES made of ions

ionic compounds are called Salts or Crystals

IONIC BOND
bond formed between two ions by the transfer of electrons

IONic bonding
Always formed between metals and nonmetals

+ [METALS ] [NON-METALS ]
Lost e-

Gained e-

Ionic Bond
Between atoms of metals and nonmetals with very different electronegativity Bond formed by transfer of electrons Produce charged ions all states. Conductors and have high melting point. Examples; NaCl, CaCl2, K2O

Formation of Ions from Metals


Ionic compounds result when metals react with nonmetals Metals lose electrons to match the number of valence electrons of their nearest noble gas

Positive ions form when the number of electrons are less than the number of protons
Group 1 metals ion 1+ Group 2 metals ion 2+ Group 13 metals ion 3+

IONic Bonding
Electronegativity difference > 2.0
Look up e-neg of the atoms in the bond and subtract

NaCl CaCl2 Compounds with polyatomic ions


NaNO3

1). Ionic bond electron from Na is transferred to Cl, this causes a charge imbalance in each atom. The Na becomes (Na+) and the Cl becomes (Cl-), charged particles or ions.

Properties of Ionic Compounds


hard solid @ 22oC high mp temperatures nonconductors of electricity in solid phase good conductors in liquid phase or dissolved in water (aq)
SALTS Crystals

COVALENT BOND bond formed by the sharing of electrons

Covalent Bonding Pairs of e- are shared between non-metal atoms


forms polyatomic ions
molecules

electronegativity difference < 2.0

Covalent Bond
Between nonmetallic elements of similar electronegativity. Formed by sharing electron pairs Stable non-ionizing particles, they are not conductors at any state Examples; O2, CO2, C2H6, H2O, SiC

Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Figure 2.12 - Covalent Bonds

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Bonds in all the polyatomic ions and diatomics are all covalent bonds

NONPOLAR COVALENT BONDS

when electrons are shared equally


H2 or Cl2

2. Covalent bonds- Two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell


electrons.

Oxygen Atom

Oxygen Atom

Oxygen Molecule (O2)

POLAR COVALENT BONDS

when electrons are shared but shared unequally


H2O

Polar Covalent Bonds: Unevenly matched, but willing to share.

- water is a polar molecule because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, and therefore electrons are pulled closer to oxygen.

Properties of Molecular Substances


Covalent bonding

moderate m.p. temp and b.p. temps relatively soft solids as compared to ionic compounds nonconductors of electricity in any phase

VAN DER WAALS BONDING


It is a weak bond, with a typical strength of 0.2 eV/atom. It occurs between neutral atoms and molecules. The explanation of these weak forces of attraction is that there are natural fluctuation in the electron density of all molecules and these cause small temporary dipoles within the molecules. It is these temporary dipoles that attract one molecule to another. They are called van der Waals' forces. The bigger a molecule is, the easier it is to polarise (to form a dipole), and so the van der Waal's forces get stronger, so bigger molecules exist as liquids or solids rather than gases.

The dipoles can be formed as a result of unbalanced distribution of electrons in asymettrical molecules. This is caused by the instantaneous location of a few more electrons on one side of the nucleus than on the other.

Therefore atoms or molecules containing dipoles are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces.

Display a marked attractive forces

No attraction is produced

These forces are due to the electrostatic attraction between the nucleus of one atom and the electrons of the other.

Van der waals interaction occurs generally between atoms which have noble gas configuration.

van der waals bonding

Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Figure 2.17

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Types of Van der Waals Bonding


Dipole Dipole (Keesom interaction) between two polar molecules. Strongest intermolecular force. e.g H-bonding Dipole Induced Dipole (Debye Interaction) b/w a polar & a non-polar molecule. (weak and short-lived) e.g CO2 (aq) Dispersion (London Forces) between two non-polar molecules (weakest and very short-lived) e.g between Cl2

(Debye Interaction) CO2 (aq)


What does (aq) mean? dissolved in WATER Sodraw CO2 (g) in H2O (l)

d+

O C

O d-

d+

d- d+ O

O d-

Dispersion Forces
e d+ - e-e ee ee - e- - de e- e- e-

e-

Cl-Cl

e-

e-

- e-

e- e e- e- e- e- e- ee e dee- ed+ e- e- e e e-

Cl-Cl

non-polar

non-polar

Dispersion (weakest and very short-lived)

Hydrogen Bonding
STRONGEST Intermolecular Force!! A special type of dipole-dipole attraction Bonds form due to the polarity of water Draw 3 H2O molecules in your notes

Ice

Liquid

HYDROGEN BONDING
A hydrogen atom, having one electron, can be covalently bonded to only one atom. However, the hydrogen atom can involve itself in an additional electrostatic bond with a second atom of highly electronegative character such as fluorine or oxygen. This second bond permits a hydrogen bond between two atoms or strucures. The strength of hydrogen bonding varies from 0.1 to 0.5 ev/atom.

Hydrogen bonds connect water molecules in ordinary ice. Hydrogen bonding is also very important in proteins and nucleic acids and therefore in life processes.

Hydrogen Bonding
Strong polar attraction
Like magnets

Occurs ONLY between H of one molecule and N, O, F of another H bond

Why does H bonding occur?


Nitrogen, Oxygen and Fluorine
small atoms with strong nuclear charges
powerful atoms

very high electronegativities

Intermolecular forces dictate chemical properties


Strong intermolecular forces cause high b.p., m.p. and slow evaporation (low vapor pressure) of a substance.

Which substance has the highest boiling point?


HF NH3 H2O
WHY?
Fluorine has the highest e-neg, SO HF will experience the

strongest H bonding and


needs the most energy to weaken the i.m.f. and boil

The Unusual Properties of Water


Unusually high boiling point
Compared to other compounds in Group 16

Density????

H2O(s) is less dense than H2O(l)


The hydrogen bonding in water(l) molecules is random. The molecules are closely packed. The hydrogen bonding in water(s) molecules has a specific open lattice pattern. The molecules are farther apart.

Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Atomic Bonding
Mixed bonding

Compounds formed from two or more metals (intermetallic compounds) may be bonded by a mixture of metallic and ionic bonds, particularly when there is a large difference in electronegativity between the elements. The fraction of bonding that is covalent can be estimated from the following equation:
Fraction covalent = exp(-0.25E2) E is the difference in electronegativities

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Binding Energy and Interatomic Spacing


Interatomic spacing The equilibrium distance caused by a balance between repulsive and attractive forces. The interatomic spacing in a solid metal is approximately equal to the atomic diameter, or twice the atomic radius r. Minimum energy required to break the bond (As seen in the figure 2-18)

Binding energy

Modulus of elasticity The slope (E) of the stress strain curve in the elastic region (As seen in the figure 2-19) Yield strength Coefficient of linear expansion Level of stress at which the material begins to permanently deform Denoted by = (1/L)(dL/dT), where L is the length and T is temperature
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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Figure 2.18

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Figure 2.19

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Figure 2.20

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

The Many Forms of Carbon: Relationships Between Arrangements of Atoms and Materials Properties

Carbon is an essential component of all living organisms, and it has enormous technological significance with a wide range of applications. Example: Carbon dating Pure carbon exists as several allotropes, or has different arrangements of its atoms depending on the temperature and pressure.

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The Three Allotropes Of Carbon

Allotropes
An allotrope is a variant of a substance consisting of only one type of atom.

The three carbon allotropes of carbon are Diamond, Graphite and Buckminster-fullerenes.
Diamond- Hardest Natural Material known.

Graphite- Conducts Electricity.


Buckminster-fullerenes- Heat resistance, Superconductivity

Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Figure 2.21 - The Structure of Diamond

used as cutting material, jewelries & for decorative purposes


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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Figure 2.22 - The Structure of Graphite

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Figure 2.23 - The Structure of the Buckyball

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Figure 2.23 - The Structure of the Buckyball

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My Use for Buckminster-fullerine.


My use for this substance is the Artificial Face- the substance is very good at holding its shape and is also very resistant to heat so you wont have to worry about your face melting next time you fall into a fire, also it is a superconductor so if some huge battle is on you can attach a bulletproof faceplate to protect your face, although the face detachment and reattachment process is extremely painful and will make you suffer 10 years after the operation we think it is a perfect investment for the future.

Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Key Terms
Atomic structure Amorphous Crystalline Short-range atomic arrangements Long-range atomic arrangements Nanoscience Nanotechnology Nanostructure Length scale Microstructure Macrostructure Allotropes

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Key Terms
Atomic number Atomic mass Avogadro number Atomic mass unit Nucleons Spin quantum number Pauli Exclusion Principle Quantum shell Azimuthal quantum number Valence Electronegativity Electropositive

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Key Terms
semiconductors Transition elements Metallic bonds Covalent bonds Ionic bonds Van der Waals bonds Directional relationship Cation Anion Ionic bond Polarized molecules

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Key Terms
London forces Debye interaction Keesom interactions Hydrogen bond Secondary bonds Intermetallic compounds Binding energy Modulus of elasticity Yield strengths Coefficient of thermal expansion

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The End