INTRODUCTION

The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 202.98 Gigawatt (GW) as of May 2012. INDIA is capable with economically useable and viable hydro potential assessed to be about 84,000 MW at 60% load factor (1,48,701 MW installed capacity) 56 sites for pumped storage schemes with an aggregate installed capacity of 94,000 MW have been identified.
(source-http://www.nhpcindia.com/English/Scripts/Hydro_Potential.aspx)

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 The growth in electricity generation during 2008-09 was constrained due to delay in commissioning of new units during 2008-09, long outages, shortage of coal/gas/nuclear fuel, poor hydrology
Source (http://www.powermin.nic.in/JSP_SERVLETS/internal.jsp

Growth of installed capacity (MW)

Source- international conference of advances in civil engineering 2011

HYDRO power is contributing 19% in total power generation In country

Source (http://www.powermin.nic.in/JSP_SERVLETS/internal.jsp

ADVANTAGE OF HYDRO POWER
A renewable source of energy.  Non-polluting .  Long life - The first hydro project completed in 1897 is still in operation at Darjeeling is still in operation. Cost of generation, operation and maintenance is lower . Ability to start and stop quickly.

Has higher efficiency (over 90%) compared to thermal (35%) and gas (around 50%).  Storage based hydro schemes often provide attendant benefits of irrigation, flood control, drinking water supply, navigation, recreation, tourism, pisciculture etc. Being located in remote regions leads to development of interior backward areas (education, medical, road communication, telecommunication etc.) Source (http://www.nhpcindia.com/English/Scripts/Hydro_Potential.aspx )

Rise and decline of Hydro power in plans

International conference of advances in civil engineering 2011

HYDRO SCENARIO IN INDIA
India is blessed with massive amount of hydro-electric potential , ranks 5th in terms of utilizable hydro-potential on global scenario.  As per valuation made by CEA, India is endowed with economically exploitable hydro-power potential to the tune of 1 48 700 MW of installed capacity.

Basin wise assessed Production

Energy Map Of India

Hydro-potential from small, mini & micro schemes has been estimated as 6 782 MW from 1 512 sites. India is capable with hydro-potential of about 2 50 000 MW. In 1998, Government of India announced "Policy on Hydro Power Development" under which impetus is given to development of hydropower in the country.

 Present installed capacity is approximately 37,367.4 MW which is 21.53% of total electricity generation in India. The public sector has a predominant share of 97% in this sector.  National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC)  Northeast Electric Power Company (NEEPCO)  Satluj jal vidyut nigam (SJVNL)  Tehri Hydro Development Corporation  NTPC-Hydro are a few public sector companies engaged in development of hydroelectric power in India.

HYDRO POWER CAPABILITY -State wise Record

HYDRO MAP OF INDIA

STATE WISE INSTALLED CAPACITY OF ELECTRICITY IN INDIA
SOURCE- ENERGY STATISTICS 2012

ENERGY STATISTICS 2012

State wise Dam Scenario

Source – international conference in advances of civil engineering 2011

LIST OF SOME MAJOR HYDRO POWER PLANT

SOUCRE WISE INSTALLED CAPACITY

HYDRO POWER STATION
SOURCE (NHPC )

HYDRO POWER COMMENCEMENT
On 24th May, 2003, Hon’ble Prime Minister of India launched a scheme, formulated by Central Electricity Authority (CEA), for preparation of Preliminary Feasibility Report (PFRs) of 162 New Hydro Electric Schemes totaling to over 50,000 MW. All the PFRs were completed by September, 2004.

WHAT PFR DO ?
Preparation of PFRs involves …….  conceptual planning,  preparation of project and  equipment layouts,  infrastructure requirement,  environmental and geological studies,  power evacuation arrangement, cost estimates and economic evaluation

SCHEME LOCATION IN 16 STATE
SERIAL NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 STATE ANDHRA PRADESH ARUNANCHAL PRADESH CHHATTISHGARH HIMANCHAL PRADESH JAMMU &KASHMIR KARNATAKA KERALA MADHYA PRDESH MAHARASHTRA MANIPUR MEGHALAYA MIZORAM NAGALAND ORISSA NO. OF SCHEME 1 42 5 15 13 5 2 3 9 3 11 13 3 4 INSTALLED CAPACITY ((MW) 81 27293 848 3328 2675 1900 126 205 411 362 931 1500 330 11891469

HYDRO POWER POLICIIES
 only 15% of the hydroelectric potential has been harnessed so far and 7% is under various stages of development. Thus, 78% of the potential remains without any plan for exploitation. The share of hydro power has been continuously declining during the last three decades. The hydro share has declined from 44 per cent in 1970 to 25 per cent in 1998

Objective ..
 The programmed capacity addition from hydel projects during the 9th Plan is 9815 MW Central Sector and State Sector will contribute 3455 MW and 5810 MW respectively and the balance 550 MW will be contributed by the Private Sector .  Ensuring targeted capacity addition during 9th Plan .
(Source-www.nhpcindia.com)

Exploitation of vast hydroelectric potential at a faster pace Promoting small and mini hydel projects Strengthening the role of PSUs/SEBs for taking up new hydel projects Increasing private investment

Future plans for objective
Funding
Government of India will also provide budgetary support for the new projects to be taken up by the CPSUs during the 9th Plan. The actual utilisation of the funds on the ongoing Central Sector hydel projects has been Rs.1616.87 crores in 1997-98 and the budget provision for 1998-99 has been increased to Rs.2070 crores .

 POWER DEVELOPMENT FUND
The survey and investigation of hydro projects have been discontinued since long in the States due to paucity of funds .

 Basin wise development of hydro potential The assessment of hydro potential in 845 identified conventional hydro projects and 56 pumped storage projects is on the basis of desk studies using toposheets and discharge data  Advance action for capacity addition in the 10th plan and above .
Central Sector is concerned, NHPC would take up Chamera Stage II (300 MW), Parbati Stage-II (800 MW), and Kol Dam (800 MW) in HP; Teesta Stage V (510 MW) in Sikkim, Loktak Downstream (90 MW) in Manipur and NEEPCO will take up Tuivai (210 MW) in Mizoram, Lower Kopili (150 MW) in Assam, Kameng (600 MW) and Ranganadi Stage II (160 MW) in Arunachal Pradesh (after the consent of the State Govt. has been obtained)

Survey and investigation
Survey and investigation of the potential hydro sites on an advanced scientific basis would be essential requirement for the future. The progress on this front has been dismal given the funds constraint and outdated technology .  INTER STATE PROJECT Govt. of India recognizes the need for evolving an approach to ensure that the available hydro-electric potential is fully utilized without prejudice to the rights of the riparian States as determined by the Awards of the Tribunals/Agreements arrived at among the party States for a given river basin with regard to water sharing (SOURCE –HYDROPOTENTIAL OF INDIA ,NHPC )

Project under construction
• Source (NHPC )

Project under survey and investigation (2012-17 plan )
Source www.nhpcindia.com

Under development –awaiting clearances

Hydropower Project under 12th Plan

Fund Requirement
During the 12th Plan, 25,316 MW capacity addition appears feasible. To achieve this, funds requirement during the 11th and 12th Plans would be of the order of Rs 68,924 crores and Rs 82,972 crores, respectively as per the following break up….

Conclusion
• Looking at the actual progress of various projects and their delays, it would be a significant achievement if 40,000 MW hydropower could be added by the end of 2017 (total from the11th and 12th Plan). Larger projects face significant resistance from the likely displaced people and environmental activists. It is an area where the governments should pay particular attention, and that requires political will and leadership..

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