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TSEN MEI TZEE AZNAH BINTI TAHIR EZRA CARMELA MARIMO FARHAIN SHAFINAZ BT FAUZI CHUAH SEONG TENG 203516 203599 204069 204793 205062
1 2 3 4 Introduction Scope of analysis Types of analysis task Prerequisites in Learning Intellectual Skills Prerequisites in Cognitive Strategies Prerequisites in Verbal Information Prerequisites in Attitudes Prerequisites in Motor Skills Integrated goals Conclusion
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• Task analysis refers to several different, interrelated, procedures that are carried out to yield the systematic information needed to plan and specify the conditions for instruction. • Learning task analysis has the purpose to identify the prerequisites of both target and enabling objectives • Target objectives-those to be attained at the end of the course. • Enabling objectives- those to be attained during a course of study
Scope of the analysis • Broad scope of the task(s) must be carefully considered during instructional analysis. • Is the analysis related to a course? • Is the analysis related to a lesson? • Proses of task analysis for both course and lesson are the same. • However. www.themegallery. the scope of the analysis and the number steps in the analysis can be different.com .
Avoid tendency to identify purposes that are too far removed or too far in the future 》Stated in expected current outcomes of instruction www. 2.themegallery. State the purpose of a course 》Behaviour of student after the instruction not what they will be doing during the course.Scope of the analysis Guideline of Identifying the purpose of a course 1.com .
themegallery.Type of Task Analysis Task analysis Procedural task analysis Learning task analysis www.com .
www. has a start and an end. • Developed linearly and sequentially. • Involves breaking tasks down into steps the learner must perform to complete the task. • Has a directional flow. • Represented in the form of a flowchart or an outline.com .Procedural Task Analysis • Describes the steps for performing a task.themegallery. step-bystep.
com .Uses of Procedural Task Analysis • Provides a clear description of the target objective. • The depiction of individual steps that might not otherwise be obvious. www. including the steps involved in the procedure.themegallery.
www. from general to specific.themegallery. • Hierarchical.com . developed bottom up.Learning-task analysis/ prerequisite task analysis • Identifying what must be mastered before each higher order skill can be acquired.
Types of prerequisites Prerequisites Essential Supportive www.com .themegallery.
Prerequisites in Learning Intellectual Skills • Essential Prerequisites • Supportive Prerequisites L/O/G/O .
• Often requires the interactions with the environment through symbols such as letters.com . or diagrams.Intellectual Skills • It involve knowing how to do something rather than knowing about something. www. words.themegallery. numbers.
www.Essential Prerequisites for Intellectual Skills • Subordinate skills that must have been learned to enable the learner to reach objective.com . • It also become a part of what is subsequently learned.themegallery.
themegallery. www.Example: Objective: Student will be able to form a word Learn to know alphabet and able to identify the alphabet Learn about syllable Learn how to use and combine the right syllable to form a word.com .
Identify the entering capabilities the learners have in regard to the final learningoutcome 4. Determine how far to go in breaking down the prerequisites 8. Verify the learning hierarchy www. Familiarize yourself with the topic 2. Construct the learning hierarchy 9. Identify second level prerequisites 6. State the final learning outcome 3.com .Identify first level prerequisites 5.themegallery. Identify third and subsequent level prerequisites 7.Conduct a Learning-task Analysis for Intellectual Skills 1.
Supportive prerequisites of intellectual skills • Those that useful to facilitate learning but are not absolutely for the learning to occur. • 3 types of supportive prerequisites: Information Cognitive Strategies Attitudes www.com .themegallery.
Prerequisites in Cognitive Strategies • Essential Prerequisites • Cognitive Strategies L/O/G/O .
1987) • Include repetition.com . www. • Referred to as procedural facilitators (Bereiter & Scardamalia.themegallery. organising new language. • Useful tools in assisting students with learning problems. guessing meaning from text. summarising meaning. using imagery for memorisation.Cognitive Strategies • One type of learning strategy that learners use in order to learn more successfully.
• Ability to divide a verbally described situation into parts. • Ability to create visual images for remembering.themegallery. • Innate factors: – Maturity – How much have learned www.com .Essential Prerequisites • Simple mental abilities: learning. remembering and thinking.
com .Supportive Prerequisites • Include intellectual skills that may be useful in learning the particular material or solving the particular problems presented to the learner. • Relevant Verbal Information • Favorable attitudes www.themegallery.
Prerequisites in Verbal Information Essential Prerequisites Supportive Prerequisites L/O/G/O .
as well as ensuring pronounciation.themegallery. stress and tone of voice expressed is appropriate. • Needed for un understanding spoken words.Verbal Information • Sharing of information between individuals by using speech. • Have basic language skills www.com .
skill of forming propositions(sentences) www.themegallery.com .Essential Prerequisites • Meaningfully organized sets of information • May be learned immediately before the information is to be acquired or it may have been learned previously • Eg.
themegallery.com . cognitive strategies support for learning of word lists) • Language Skills www. • Cognitive strategies (Eg.Supportive Prerequisites • Attitudes supports the learning of verbal information in mental way just like supporting others learning.
Prerequisites in Attitudes Essential Prerequisites Supportive Prerequisites L/O/G/O .
themegallery.Attitudes • Internal state which affects an individual’s choice of action toward some object. • Consists of positive and negative attitudes www. • Mental state that influence the choice of personal actions. person. or event.com .
Essential Prerequisites • Learned capabilities like intellectual skills • Basic capabilities learned needed for own evaluation and posses a appropriate attitudes www.com .themegallery.
themegallery.com . “Don’t drive after drinking” www.Supportive Prerequisites • Attitudes may be mutually supportive of each other • Verbal Information also has a supportive function in establing attitudes • Eg.
Prerequisites in Motor Skills Essential Prerequisites Supportive Prerequisites L/O/G/O .
Motor Skills • Refers to bodily movements involving muscular activity • Often composed of several part skills. and efficient learning takes place when the part skills are practiced individually and then combined in practice of the total skill www.themegallery.com .
com .Essential Prerequisites • Part skills • Procedural skills • Executive subroutine (learned as an initial step) www.themegallery.
com .themegallery.Supportive Prerequisites • Positive attitudes toward learning a motor skill and toward the performance it makes possible • Positive mindset motivates towards learning www.
Integrated Goals L/O/G/O .
• The requirement for instructional design to provide for the integration of multiple objectives as they occur in lesson and courses.com .themegallery. www.• Integrated goal conceived as incorporating rather than supplanting the various single types of instructional outcomes.
com .Form a word Learn to know syllable Learn about alphabet www.themegallery.
design theory should encompass instruction instruction in integrative goals.themegallery. Such goals da not supplant single objectives such as labels. concepts and rules.com . www. facts.Gagne and Merril (1990). rather they incorporate them.
intellectual skills and cognitive.• An enterprise is a purposive activity that depend for its execution on some combination of verbal information. intellectual skills and cognitive. www.themegallery.com . • An enterprise is a purposive activity that depend for its execution on some combination of verbal information.
com .themegallery.General from of an Enterprise Schema Intellectual Skills Cognitive Strategies Labels Goal Enterprise Scenario Verbal Information www.
procedures that are carried out to yield the systematic information needed to plan and specify the condition for instruction. attitudes or motor skills). • Learning-task analysis has the purpose of identifying the prerequisites of both target and objective.themegallery. cognitive strategies. verbal information. • Task classification has the purpose of providing a basis for designing the condition necessary for effective instruction (intellectual skills. www.Conclusion • Task analysis refers to the several different. interrelated.com .
Thank you L/O/G/O .
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