What is water?

• H2O + “dissolved matter” • 90%+ of even the strongest beer • The “Universal Solvent” due to its polar nature

Hardness • Origin debatable: originally used to describe water with a high mineral content. and magnesium ions and is measured in two ways  Temporary hardness  permanent hardness . “Hard” to lather up soap • Total water hardness is the measure of the bicarbonate. calcium.

Expensive Process 2. Competes with health related costs . May be less healthy 3. Improve Aesthetics of Water 3. Reduce Soap Consumption 2. Introduction 1.Water Softening I. Hot Water Heaters last longer Reasons to Soften Reasons not to Soften 1.


the soluble calcium and magnesium salts in water are chemically converted in to insoluble compounds. . CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 so precipitated. these precipitates are filtered off. by adding calculated amount of Lime and Soda.LIME-SODA PROCESS: • In this method.

Softening can be quite expensive. and the use of softened water where it is unnecessary is wasteful.Softening of Water If water contains more than 50 parts of hardness per 1.00. it is generally accepted that softening is desirable.000 parts. .

Removal of temporary hardness • Temporary hardness is removed by boiling. 100 parts of temporary hardness require 74 parts of calcium hydroxide or 56 parts of calcium oxide. but this is impractical in daily use. however. . calcium hydroxide being commonly used. The reaction is as follows: Ca(HC03)2 + Ca(OH)2 → 2CaC03 + 2H20 • Thus the whole of the temporary hardness due to calcium is precipitated as calcium carbonate. The carbon dioxide can. be extracted from the bicarbonate by the action of an alkali. According to the equation.

• A second molecule of calcium hydroxide must therefore be added to precipitate the insoluble magnesium hydroxide: .• The reaction follows a slightly different course with magnesium carbonate. does not sufficient to soften the water because magnesium carbonate is sparingly soluble in water. however. The first stage is the conversion to magnesium carbonate: Mg (HC03)2 + Ca(OH)2 →MgCO3 + 2CaC03 + 2H20 • The reaction. in this case.

which will combine with some of the lime added for softening: • Co2 + Ca(OH)2 → CaC03 + H20 . • expressed as calcium carbonate requires 2 x 56 = 112 of quicklime (CaO). and every part of temporary hardness due to magnesium. each molecule of magnesium bicarbonate present requires two of lime for complete precipitation.• A second molecule of calcium hydroxide must therefore be added to precipitate the insoluble magnesium hydroxide: Mg C03+ Ca (OH) 2 →Mg (OH)2 + CaC03 • Thus. Water will often contain dissolved carbon dioxide.

an equivalent quantity of sodium sulphate being left in solution. Magnesium sulphate would be converted into magnesium carbonate and this would require precipitation (to calcium carbonate) by lime. .Removal of permanent hardness Permanent hardness is removed by converting the calcium and magnesium sulphates into carbonates by the action of sodium carbonate: CaSO4+ Na 2C03 → Na2SO4+ CaC03 MgSO4+ Na2C03 → Na2SO4+ MgC03 The calcium sulphate is thus removed as calcium carbonate.

we must know: i) The temporary hardness ii) The hardness due to magnesium iii) The permanent hardness and iv) The free carbon dioxide. .• • • • If. however. is precipitated as its carbonate: MgSO4+ Ca(OH)2 → Mg(OH)2 + CaSO4 It is apparent that in order to calculate the quantities of lime and sodium carbonate necessary for softening any given volume of hard water. in turn. enough lime be added to precipitate all the magnesium present. the magnesium sulphate is converted into calcium sulphate which.

0.06 .56 1.Caused By Calcium bicarbonate Magnesium bicarbonate Calcium sulphate Magnesium sulphate Sodium bi Quicklime Req. carbonate Req.56 0.

Ht represents temporary hardness • Hp represents permanent hardness • Hm represents hardness due to magnesium. • Each in terms of grains per gallon of water. • Where.06 x H lb.56 (Ht + Hm) lb. • Quantity of quicklime required per 1. . and • Quantity of dry sodium carbonate = 1. the formulae conform to these units. • As water hardness has generally been expressed in tenns of grains per gallon.000 gallons = 0.00.• The formula provide a convenient method for determining the required amounts of lime and sodium carbonate.

amount of pathogenic bacteria in water is considerably reduced. The process increases the pH value of the treatedwater. 3. . the quantity of minerals in the water is reduced. lesser amounts of coagulants shall be needed. 4.ADVANTAGES OF LIME-SODA PROCESS: 1. 6. If this process is combined with sedimentation with coagulation. Besides the removal of harness. thereby corrosion of the distribution pipes is reduced. It is very economical 2. To certain extent. iron and manganese are also removed from the water. Due to alkaline nature of treated-water. 5.

This can remove hardness only up to 15 ppm.DIS-ADVANTAGES OF LIME-SODA PROCESS: 1. which is not good for boilers. careful operation and skilled supervision is required. Disposal of large amounts of sludge or insoluble precipitates poses a problem. 2. 3. the sludge may be disposed off in raising low-lying areas of the city. For efficient and economical softening. However. .

The zeolite exchanges reversibly its sodium ion for hardness producing calcium and magnesium ions in the water When the zeolite bed is exhausted (i. which is hydrated sodium alumino silicate. Special synthetic resins are also used in place of a zeolite in this ion-exchange water softening process .e. it is no longer able to cause ion exchange). the supply of hard water is stopped and the zeolite is treated with 10% brine solution which regenerates the exhausted bed.ZEOLITE PROCESS In this process the hard water is passed through a bed of zeolite.