This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
FOOD RESOURCES • Food is an essential requirement for the human survival. • Each person has minimum food requirement. The main components of food are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins. • Food: It is a Organic matter taken to satisfy appetite. To meet physiological needs for growth, to supply energy, to do work, to maintain body temperature. Foods differ in the amount of the nutrients.
Types of Food Supply
Historically humans have dependent on three systems for their food supply. 1. Croplands: It mostly produces grains and provide about 76% of the world's food. Ex: Rice, wheat, maize, barley, sugarcane, potato, etc.,
Four crops-wheat, rice, corn, and potato make up most of the world’s total food production than all other crops combined. Grains(mainly rice, wheat, and corn) provide about half the world’s calories. Fruits &Vegetables are rich in vitamins, Minerals, Dietary fibre and complex carbohydrate.
2.Rangelands: It produces food mainly from the grazing livestock and provide about 17% of the world's food Ex: Meat, milk, fruits, etc., Livestock: Domesticated animals eg. Cattle, sheep, goat, camel, etc. People consume meat, eggs, milk, cheese, and other products of domesticated livestock.
3. . Fish and sea food contribute about 70 million metric tons of high quality protein to the worlds diet. one third of the world’s fish catch is converted into fish meal to feed livestock consumed by meat eaters. Aquaculture: Marine and fresh water food contribute to high quality protein In addition. Oceans: Oceanic fisheries supply about 7% of the world's food.
fish and sea food. Rice. milk. pulses. Ex: Rice. maize. meat. fruits. provide more than 50% of the calories people consume. wheat. potato. . wheat and maize are the major grains. However only 15 plants and 8 terrestrial animal species supply 90% of our global Intake of calories. sugarcane.Major Food sources The earth is provided with more than thousands of edible plants and animals. barley. vegetables.
5 million per year over the last eight years. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that about 840 million people remain hungry. .WORLD FOOD PROBLEM World food problems involve complex interactions among Food production. though the number has been decreasing 2. the World Bank estimated that more than one billion of the world’s people do not have enough food to lead healthy and productive lives. Environmental effects. and Ethics. Economic. In 1996. Poverty. Political systems. Population growth.
proteins. . Undernourished .500 calories/day.< 90% of min requirement seriously under nourished .< 80% Deficiency or lack of nutrition malnutrition 1. and fats and smaller amount of micronutrients such as vitamins A. calcium and iodine. we need large amount of macronutrients such as carbohydrates. Nutritious (or) nutrition (or) nourished: To maintain good health and resist disease. The FAO estimation – minimum calorific intake on a global scale is 2. C and E and minerals such as iron.
2. Deficiency or lack of nutrition often leads to malnutrition resulting in several diseases. iron and iodine. . minerals. They receive less than 90% of these minimum dietary calories. Malnutrition (or) malnourished: Besides the minimum calorie intake we also need proteins. 3. Effect of under nutrition: Suffer from mental retardation and infectious diseases such as measles and diarrohea. vitamins. Under nutrition (or) under nourished: People who cannot buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs (carbohydrates) suffer from under nutrition.
Marasmus and kwashiorkor .• The dietary condition caused by an insufficiency of one or more nutrients in the diet. The two most common forms of PEM.
500 calories. and other developmental disorders. mental retardation. Over nutrition contributes to overweight . the most common dietary problem is too many calories. heart attack. and other cardiovascular diseases. Every year 40 million people (fifty percent of which are young children between 1 to 5 years) die of undernourishment and malnutrition. .high blood pressure. The average daily calorific intake in North America and Europe is above 3.Children in this category are suffer from permanently stunted growth . Over nutrition: In richer countries.
About 20% should come from proteins. ( Grains. . Vegetables.Balanced Diet: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods from all 5 food groups. It should provide enough calories to ensure desirable weight and should include all the necessary daily nutrients. Meat & dairy products. Fruits. About 50% of your calories should come from complex carbohydrates. About 30% should come from fats. Sugar & Fats).
Regional Effects: It includes deforestation. large scales pollution. B. Local Effects: These occur at or near the site of farming. C. fertility of the soil is also affected.THE EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURE ON THE ENVIRONMENT A. It destroys aquatic life. Global Effects: These include climatic changes as well as potentially extensive changes in chemical cycles. . It includes soil erosion and increase in sedimentation. desertification.
Of low fodder value. . "eating away the forest vegetation without giving it a chance to regenerate". Overgrazing is a process of. weeds etc. Impact of Overgrazeing: Land Degradation. Loss of useful species. The live stock grazing on a particular piece of grassland is called as Overgrazing. Soil Erosion. overgrazing vast areas in Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya are getting invaded by thorny bushes.Overgrazing: Livestock wealth plays a crucial role in the rural life of our country.
growing and harvesting crops.AGRICULTURE It is an art. . science and industry of managing the growth of plants and animals for human use. Types of Agriculture The two major types of agricultural systems are • Traditional agriculture. • Modern agriculture (a) Industrialized agriculture. Agriculture includes cultivation of the soil. dairying and forestry. breeding and raising livestock.
simple tools. resulting in loss of top fertile soil layer. which makes the farmers shift to another area. surface water. Effects (or) impacts of Traditional agriculture (a) Deforestation: Cutting and burning of trees in forests to clear the land for cultivation results in loss of forest cover. organic fertilizers and a mix of crops. They produce enough food to feed their families and to sell it for their income.Traditional agriculture It involves a small plot. (b) Soil erosion: Clearing of forest cover exposes the soil to wind and rainfall. the organic matter in the soil gets destroyed and most of the nutrients are taken up by the crops within a short period. (c) Loss of nutrients: During cutting and burning of trees. Thus the soil becomes poor in nutrient. .
. lot of fertilizers.modern agriculture It makes use of hybrid seeds of single crop variety. pesticides and water to produce large amount of single crops. high-tech equipments.
K). it causes micronutrient imbalance. P.Effects (or) impacts of modern agriculture (or) Adverse effects of agricultural practices (or) Environmental effects of agriculture 1. phosphorus and potassium (N. . When excess of the fertilizers are used in the fields. Problems in using Fertilizer (a) Micronutrient imbalance: Most of the chemical fertilizers used in modem agriculture contain nitrogen. which are macronutrients.
This disease affects infants and leads even to death. they leach deep into the soil and contaminate. c) Eutrophication: A large proportion of N and P fertilizers used in crop fields is washed off by the runoff water and reaches the water bodies causing over nourishment of the lakes. This process is known as Eutrophication. .(b) Blue Baby syndrome (Nitrate pollution): When the Nitrogenous fertilizers are applied in the fields. they cause serious health problem called "Blue Baby syndrome". The nitrate concentration in the water gets increased. When the nitrate concentration exceeds 25 mg / lit. the ground water.
which in turn affect the aquatic life. The algal species use up the nutrients rapidly and grow very fast.Due to eutrophication lakes get attacked by algal blooms. Since the life time of the algal species are less they die quickly and pollute the water. Pesticides : The chemical compounds that are used for the control of pests are called Pesticides Pest: Any organism that causes an economic loss or damage to the physical well being of the plant is a pest. .
(ii) Second generation pesticides: DDT (Dichloro diphenyl trichloromethane) is used to kill the pests. they produce number of sideeffects . or mercury are used to kill the pests.PROBLEMS IN USING PESTICIDES • In order to improve the crop yield. lead. lot of pesticides are used in the agriculture. arsenic. (i) First generation pesticides: Sulphur. Although these pesticides protect our crops from huge losses due to pests.
. but also kill the several non-target species.(a) Death of non-target organisms: Many insecticides not only kill the target species. (c) Bio-magnification: Many of the pesticides are nonbiodegradable and keep on concentrateing in the food chain. They are immune (resistant) to all type of pesticides and are called superpests. which generates highly resistant generations. (b) Producing new pests: Some pests species usually survive even after the pesticides spray. These pesticides in a bio-magnified form is harmful to the human beings. These process is called bio-magnification. . which are useful to us.
(d) Risk of cancer: Pesticides enhance the risks of cancer in two ways. so they should not be used. . (iii) It should not produce new pests. (ii) It must be a biodegradable. Desired qualities of an ideal pesticide (i) An ideal pesticide must kill only the target species. (vi) Chlorinated pesticides and organophosphate pesticides are hazardous. (iv) It should not produce any toxic pesticide vapour. (v) Excessive synthetic pesticide should not be used. (ii) It indirectly suppress the immune system. (i) It directly acts as carcinogens.
So. In such a condition the roots of the plants do not get adequate air for respiration. Problems in water logging During water-logged conditions. pore-voids in the soil get filled with water and the soil-air gets depleted. Causes of water logging Excessive water supply to the croplands Heavy rain.WATER LOGGING Water logging is the land where water stand for most of the year. Poor drainage . mechanical strength of the soil decreases and crop yield falls.
The saline soils are characterized by the accumulation of soluble salts Like sodium chloride. calcium chloride. sodium sulphate. sodium bicarbonates and sodium carbonates. This process of accumulation of salts is called salinity of the soil. undergo evaporation leaving behind a thin layer of dissolved salts in the top soil. magnesium chloride. The pH of the water exceeds 8.0 (alkaline).Salinity The water not absorbed by the soil. .
which unlike rainwater contains dissolved salts. Under dry climates. the soil becomes alkaline and crop yield decreases . used for irrigation comes only from canal or ground. Due to salinity.Problems in salinity Most of the water. the water gets evaporated leaving behind the salt in the upper portion of the soil.
The per-capita land availability in different continents of the world varies widely. forestry etc. It is an important source of many materials essential to man and other organisms. Area : Land forms about one fifth of the earth's surface covering about 13.393 million hectares. It provides essential medium for development of agriculture. .Land is a major constituent of the lithosphere.
railways. About 30 % of the total land mass in under forests. Only 11 % of land is suitable for ploughing. glaciers and polar ice marshes. About 22 % of land is occupied by meadows and pastures. deserts. rocks.6 % of the land area is occupied by human dwellings. . factories.About 36. roads. mountains.
air and water. formation and geographic distribution of the soil. organic matter.SOIL: Soil is an organized mixture of minerals. living organisms. Soil is formed by two processes (i) weathering-breaking down of rock into small particles and (ii) pedo*-genesis-maturation of soil through development of humus. organic material. It deals with the origin. The mineral portion of the soil consists of various mixtures of sand. Soil fertility is determined by the inorganic matter. . silt and clay particles. water and air spaces in the soil.
• It depends upon the % of its mineral particles. Soil texture determines the porosity and nutritional status of the soil. There are three important textural soil typessandy. chemically inert. (i) Sandy soils: Contain < 10 % each of clay and silt + remaining part is sand. So it is unfit for plant growth. Little water holding capacity. . Generally called light soils because of the absence of moisture. Porous and well aerated. clayey and loamy.SOIL TEXTURE: • The physical structure of a soil is called soil texture.
sufficient nutritive salts and good water retaining capacity. Heavy soils because the soils are compactly packed with little aeration. silt and clay approximately in the ratio of 2 : 2 : 1. small sized pores.(ii) Clayey soils: 40 % or more clay. Ideally suited for plant growth because they possess good aeration. . Clayey soils are rich in nutrients but do not support good plant growth due to poor aeration. (iii) Loamy soils: They contain sand. which retain water very firmly.
Composition of Soil: Soil is composed of five constituents: (i) mineral matter (ii) organic matter (iii) soil water (iv) soil air (v) living organisms. .
Depending upon their size .00 -5.002 mm .00 mm].02 -0. The mineral particles are irregular in outline and therefore enclose spaces called interstices for circulation of air and water.1. Mineral matter: Derived from the underlying parent rock by its weathering and occurs in the soil as particles.02 mm]. • Silt [0.20 -2. • Coarse Sand[0. • Clay[ less than 0.00 mm].002-0. • Fine Sand[0.20 mm].soil particles are of following types : • Gravel [ 2.
Humus is a very useful substance in the soil. The organic matter is broken down by microbes and is converted into dark amorphous substance called humus. 3. dead bodies of organisms and their excreta(wastes). roots). . It acts as natural fertilizer. Soil water: • The spaces between soil particles are occupied by water or air. Soil receives water either by rains or irrigation. The water in the soil is present as capillary water. Organic matter: • It is derived from plant refuse (leaves.2. twigs. hygroscopic water. combined water and water vapour.
• In a poorly ventilated soil concentration of O2 decreases while that of CO2 increases because of the respiration of plant roots and soil organisms.4. . respiration of microorganisms and activities of roots (absorption of water and mineral salts). nitrification. In a good soil such as loam about 20-25 % of the total volume is soil air. Soil air: • Soil contains air in the pour spaces. The composition of soil is dependent upon air circulation or connection of the pore spaces with the soil surface. • High concentration of CO2 in the soil is toxic to the soil organisms. • O2 in soil is essential for humus formation.
. The soil organisms perform following activities in the soil : (1) Decomposition of dead organic matter.5. (7) Several soil organisms take part in biogeochemical cycles. which help in cementing soil particles to form soil aggregates. fungi. actinomycetea. (6) Some soil fungi form mycorrhizal association with the roots of higher plants and assist them in obtaining water and nutrients from the soil. Soil organisms: • A variety of living organisms such as bacteria. nematodes. (3) Aeration of the soil . algae. (5) Some microorganisms chemical substances that have stimulating effect on the growth of higher plants.Burrowing (earth digging) insects and worms (4) Several soil organisms secrete mucus.Saprophytic soil microorganisms (2) Nitrogen fixation.earthworms occur in the soil.Cyanobacteria. protozoa.
Mysore and Madhya Pradesh. Orissa. U.K and organic matter. @ Andhra Pradesh. Tamilnadu. .P.Types of Indian Soils Soils of India are classified into six major types based on their nature and composition Red soils: @ Red Colour -iron components. Bihar. @ Poor in N. .P. @ Low water retention capacity.West Bengal. Black soils: @ Good for cotton and sugarcane cultivation. @ Maharashtra.
.4 lakh square kilometres. Desert soils: @ Annual rainfall is less than 50 centimetres. and subtropical fruits. @ Rajasthan. @ Desert soils can be reclaimed through good irrigation. semi-desert areas of Kutch.Skeletal soils: @ Also called as Mountain soil @ Altitude between 2000 m and 3000 m. @ North-western hills or the Aravallis @ Used for forestry and growing potatoes. @ These soils cover 1. @ Undergoes land slides and snowfall.
Land Degradation: Any change in the land that reduces its condition or quality and hence its productivity or productive potential is called land degradation. .
Desertification Desertification is a slow process of land degradation that leads to desert formation. • Excessive grazing by livestock is another factor resulting in desertification especially in Rajasthan. • Many deserts in the world are a result of human activities. . The destruction of natural vegetation results in accelerated soil erosion due to the removal of the vegetation cover. Erosion of the top fertile soil leads to in loss of soil productivity and formation of deserts. – The Thar desert in India was formed by destroying thousands of hectares productive land.
• Aiming to achieve complete reuse. • Rate of use of non-renewable resources do not exceed rates of development of renewable substitutes. repairable and recyclable and avoiding the use hazardous materials • Reducing transportation-providing goods and services as close as possible to the consumers .Equitable use of Resources for sustainable Lifestyles Rate of use of renewable resources do not exceed regeneration rates.maximizing the use of energy conservation measures. • Rate of pollution emission do not exceed assimilative capacities of the environment. recycle and repair • Reducing fossil fuel use . shrinking energy intensive sectors and introducing energy taxes • Improving the quality of materials -to get products which are more durable.