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PREDICTABILITY, INTENSITY, AND MEASUREMENT OF EARTHQUAKE

CAUSES OF EARTHQUAKE
Tectonic plate movement volcanic activity Impact of meteorites Collapse of caves Rock burst in mines. Land slides Nuclear explosion.

EARTHQUAKE CLASSIFICATION
Shallow focus.. 0 to 70 km Intermediate focus..71 to 300 Deep focus.. Above 300.
CLASSSIFICATION BASED ON MAGNITUDE: Microclimate less than 3 Slight 3.1 to 4.9 Moderate 5.0 to6.9 Great. 7.0 to 8.0 Very great. Greater than 8.0

EARTHQUAKE SIZE
Intensity of an earthquake Magnitude of an earthquake
INTENSITY: Effects of earthquake t a particular place. Large earthquake and small earthquake produces various types of natural surfaces. Various scales are been used to detect it based on the local character of the effect. modified mercalli scale is in common use. intensity is been represented by lines representing called as the isoseimals.

MAGNITUDE
The strength of the earthquake or the strain energy is usualy
measured by A parameter is the magnitude. Based on the level of magnitude and the epicentral distance the magnitude scales are in different types. Local magnitude Body wave magnitude Surface wave magnitude Moment magnitude.

RICHTER SCALE

INTENSITY OF EARTHQUAKE

SEISMOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS
These instruments have been designed to measure ground shaking in detail.. The following which are been used in seismology are as follows:

SEISMOGRAPH ACCELEROGRAPH SEISMOSCOPE

SEISMOGRAPH
Elastic waves thst are been transmitted in a single earthquake can be recorded by using earthquake recording instruments called seismographs. The seismograph has a mass which is loosely coupled to the earth through the spring and the speed of the mass is kept in rest position. The seismograph records not only about the time and place of the occurance of an earthquake but also about the rocks through which earthquake energy travels.

ACCELEROGRAPH
Rate of change of velocity with time is known as acceleration. The strong motion of earthquake instrument recording acceleration is called as acclerograph. The records from the acclerograph showing the speed and function of time is acclerograms.

SEISMOSCOPE
The balls and pendulum are the major parts of the instruments used in seismoscope. Unlike the seismograph it could give the complete history of the earthquake shaking. It also give the direction of the principle impulse due to the
earthquake.