Bureau of Workers’ Comp PA Training for Health & Safety (PATHS)

OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart M (1926.500-503)

OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Subparts D, F, I (1910.23, 66, 67, 132)



Importance of Fall Protection

• Each year, approximately 14 percent of fatal workplace injuries are caused by falls (Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor).

• In construction, approximately 150-200 workers are killed annually due to falls (Source: OSHA).
PPT-012-02 2

Fall Protection Requirements

General Industry (OSHA 1910) – must have in place if working at or above four (4) feet

Maritime (OSHA 1915) – must have in place if working at or above five (5) feet
Construction (OSHA 1926) – must have in place if working at or above six (6) feet



• Employer should determine if walking/working surfaces have structural strength and integrity to support employees safely.

Is this safe? Definitely not!

• Employer should verify employees are allowed to work only on surfaces having strength and integrity.
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Competent Person
One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions, which are unsanitary, hazardous or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.



by possession of a recognized degree.Qualified Person One who. certificate or professional standing. or who by extensive knowledge. the work or the project. training and experience. has successfully demonstrated ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter. PPT-012-02 6 .

e.. use of carabineers. 42”) • Movement in lifeline • Initial position of worker before free fall occurs PPT-012-02 7 .Factors Affecting Total Fall Distance • Length of connecting means (i. etc.) • Position and height of anchorage relative to work platform/area (always keep above head whenever possible) • Position of attachment and “D-ring” slide on full body harness • Deployment of shock absorber (max. snap hooks. lanyard length.

Types of Fall Protection Systems • Articulating manlifts provided with restraint systems and full body harness to anchor point below waist • Guardrails with toeboards • Personal fall arrest systems: Anchor points (rated at 5.) Connectors (self-locking snap hooks) Retractable lanyard Full body harness Restraint line-lanyard Shock absorbing lanyard Rope grabs PPT-012-02 8 .000 lbs.

Types of Fall Protection Systems • Engineered life lines • Warning lines • Safety nets • Safety monitor systems PPT-012-02 9 .

catwalks. etc.Recommended Locations for Fall Protection • All flat and low sloped roof locations when within 6’ of roof edge or for repair/maintenance • All exterior and interior platforms. • All exterior and interior ladders above 20 feet • All mezzanine and balcony edges PPT-012-02 10 . towers/antennas.

Recommended Locations for Fall Protection • All open excavations/pits • All tasks requiring use of manlifts • Scaffolding erection 10’ in height or greater • Tuck-pointing/chimney repair • Gymnasium (catwalks) PPT-012-02 11 .

Personal Fall Arrest Systems • Full body harness used • Should be inspected before each use by employee. looking for: ▪ Deteriorated areas ▪ Excessive wear ▪ Bent hooks/rings ▪ Evidence of impact/damage PPT-012-02 12 .

600 lbs.Personal Fall Arrest Systems • Connectors should be inspected to ensure they are drop-forged. and surfaces/edges should be smooth. • Connectors should have corrosion-resistant finish. PPT-012-02 13 . pressed. formed steel or equivalent material.000 lbs. • D-rings and snap hooks should have minimum tensile strength of 5. and should be proof tested to 3. • Only shock absorbing or retractable lanyards should be used (keeps impact forces to the body at a minimum).

Personal Fall Arrest Systems • Nylon rope or nylon straps with locking snap hooks used for restraints. PPT-012-02 14 . • Ensure unintentional disengagement of snap hooks cannot happen by either:  Checking to see if snap hooks are correct size for place they are to be connected. or  Snap hooks are of the locking type.

• Consideration should be given to total fall distance.Personal Fall Arrest Systems • Snap hooks should not be engaged as follows: ▫ Directly to webbing. PPT-012-02 15 . wire rope ▫ To each other ▫ To D-ring that has another snap hook attached ▫ To a horizontal lifeline • Maximum free-fall distance not to exceed 6 feet. rope.

equipment. etc.Calculating Total Fall Distance • Total length of shock absorbing lanyard • Height of person • Location distance of D-ring from work surface or platform • Always allow minimum of 6 feet clearance above ground. at end of fall from fall-arrest point! PPT-012-02 16 ..

deterioration. frayed. tears. Ensure buckles are not deformed/cracked and operate correctly. excessive wear. wear points. etc. pulled stitches. broken fibers. frayed edges anywhere on harness. Ensure no torn. PPT-012-02 17 .Inspection of Fall Protection Systems • • • • Inspect body harness before each use: Closely examine all nylon webbing for burn marks. Examine D-ring to ensure no pits. cracks.

Ensure harness has no additional punched holes. PPT-012-02 18 . Check tongue straps for excessive wear from repeated buckling.Inspection of Fall Protection Systems • • • • Body harness before each use: Ensure all grommets (if present) are secure and not deformed from fall/abuse. Ensure all rivets are tight and not deformed.

Harnesses should be stored hanging in enclosed cabinet to protect from damage. PPT-012-02 19 . Annual inspection should be documented.Inspection of Fall Protection Systems • • • • Body harness: Annual inspection of harnesses should be completed by competent person. Harnesses involved in fall should be destroyed.

lock operation. excessive wear. distortion.Inspection of Fall Protection Systems • • • • Lanyards/shock absorbing lanyards. before each use: Check lanyard material for burns. broken stitches. Ensure all locking mechanisms seat & lock properly. Check carabineer for excessive wear. rips. kinks. Ensure snaphooks are not distorted. knots. cuts. PPT-012-02 20 . abrasions.

• Ensure points where lanyard attaches to snaphooks are free of defects. locking mechanism should prevent hook from opening. • Visually inspect shock absorber for signs of damage. before each use: • Once locked.Inspection of Fall Protection Systems Lanyards/shock absorbing lanyards. PPT-012-02 21 .

Destroy all lanyards/shock absorbing lanyards involved in a fall. Store lanyards/shock absorbing lanyards hanging in enclosed cabinet to prevent damage.Inspection of Fall Protection Systems • • • • Lanyards/shock absorbing lanyards: Should be inspected annually by competent person. Annual inspection should be documented. PPT-012-02 22 .

PPT-012-02 23 • • • • • • . pitted surfaces. before each use: Look for hook and eye distortions. obstructed. distorted.Inspection of Fall Protection Systems Snaphooks. Ensure keeper latch “seats” into “nose” without binding. Ensure keeper latch is not bent. eye distortions. Ensure keeper spring securely closes keeper latch. Test locking mechanism to verify it’s working properly. Verify that there are no cracks.

burns. Test unit by pulling sharply on lanyard to verify locking mechanism is working properly. knots. before each use: Visually inspect body to ensure no damage. etc. abrasions. kinks. PPT-012-02 24 . Return to manufacturer for annual inspection.Inspection of Fall Protection Systems • • • • • Self-retracting lanyards. Make sure all back nuts or rivets are tight. Make sure entire length of nylon strap is free from cuts. if required by manufacturer.

Inspection of Fall Protection Systems Self-retracting lanyards: • Monthly inspection should be conducted by competent person. • Inspect for proper function after every fall. PPT-012-02 25 . • Service per manufacturer’s recommendations.

• Annual inspection should be done by competent person and documented. PPT-012-02 26 . • Destroy and replace after fall.Inspection of Fall Protection Systems Tie-off adapters/anchorages: • Inspect for integrity and attachment to solid surface.

Inspection of Fall Protection Systems Horizontal lifelines: • Before each use. PPT-012-02 27 . • Annual inspection should be completed by competent person and documented. check for structural integrity of line and anchors.

 Frequency of future inspections based on conditions/controls present. • Permanent systems =  Annual inspection by competent person. PPT-012-02 28 .Inspection of Fall Protection Systems Guardrails: • Temporary systems =  Daily visual inspection by competent person.  Complete structural by competent person.

non-abrasive soap and hang to dry. PPT-012-02 29 . • Hang equipment in cool. dry place in a way so it retains its shape. • Clean with mild. on ground or outside where exposed to elements. • Always follow manufacturer’s recommendation for inspection. • Never “force dry. • Never use strong detergents for cleaning.” allow to air dry.Storage & Maintenance of Fall Protection Equipment • Never store in bottom of tool box.

• Once exposed to fall. • Never use equipment for any other purpose other than personal fall arrest. chemicals. remove equipment from service immediately. PPT-012-02 30 . • Never store in an area where exposure to fumes or corrosive elements may exist.Storage & Maintenance of Fall Protection Equipment • Never store near excessive heat. moisture or sunlight. • Avoid dirt and build-up on equipment.

• Lifeline systems must be engineered to have:  Appropriate anchorages  Strength of line to hold X number of people  Line strength to aid in arrest of fall  Durability to hold fallen worker until rescused PPT-012-02 31 .Engineered Lifeline • Lifeline systems must be designed and approved by an engineer or qualified person.

PPT-012-02 32 .Warning Line System • Should be erected no less than 6 feet from edge of roof. • Entire perimeter of roof where work being performed must be guarded by warning line. must withstand 16 pounds of force. • Should have wire or nylon rope and “caution flags” strung from post to post. • Use stationary posts made of wood or metal.

posts. • Height: 42” from upper surface of top rail to floor/platform. PPT-012-02 33 . mid-rail. etc. except entrance to stairway.23) Stairway Opening: • Must be guarded by standard railing containing top rail.Floor & Wall Openings & Holes (OSHA 29CFR1910. etc. • Railing on all exposed sides. • Top rail should be smooth-surfaced. • Mid-rail should be halfway between top and floor/platform.

except entrance to opening.Floor Openings & Holes Ladder-way opening or platform: • Must be guarded with standard railing and toeboard. • Guarded on all exposed sides. • Entrance to have swinging gate or an offset to prevent direct access. PPT-012-02 34 .

Floor Openings & Holes • • • • Hatchway & chute opening guarded by one of the following: Hinged floor opening cover of standard strength with standard railings. Removable railing and toeboard on not more than two sides of opening. PPT-012-02 35 . Cover must be closed when not in use or exposed side guarded with removable railings. Fixed standard railings with toeboards on all other exposed sides.

PPT-012-02 36 . must be constantly attended or protected on all exposed sides by removable standard railings. Pit and trapdoor opening (if infrequently used): • Must be guarded by standard strength and construction floor opening cover.Floor Openings & Holes Skylight opening/hole: • Must be guarded by standard skylight screen or fixed standard railing on all exposed sides. • When cover not in place.

Floor Openings & Holes Manhole opening: • Must be guarded by standard manhole cover. manhole must be constantly attended or must be protected by removable standard railings. • Cover does not need to be hinged in place. Temporary floor opening: • Must be guarded by standard railings or constantly attended. • When cover not in place. PPT-012-02 37 .

must have removable toeboard or equivalent. PPT-012-02 38 . • Grab handle must be provided on each side of opening.Wall Openings & Holes Wall opening with drop of more than 4 feet must be guarded by one of the following: • Rail • Roller • Picket fence • Half door • Equivalent barrier • If exposure below to falling materials.

Wall Openings & Holes Chute openings with drop of 4 feet or more must be guarded by one of the following: • Rail • Roller • Picket fence • Half door • Equivalent barrier PPT-012-02 39 .

Section l. Appendix C. Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms • Employees on working platforms shall be protected by a personal fall arrest system.66.Powered Platforms. • System must meet requirements of OSHA 29 CFR 19 10. PPT-012-02 40 . Manlifts.

PPT-012-02 41 .Vehicle Mounted Elevating & Rotating Work Platforms Body belt should be worn and lanyard attached to boom or basket when working from an aerial lift.

Other Walkways • Employees must be protected from falling by guardrail systems.Ramps. Runways. PPT-012-02 42 .

Leading Edge/Roof • Employees who are constructing leading edges. • Protection can be provided by:  guardrail systems  safety net systems  safety monitors  personal fall arrest system PPT-012-02 43 . working nearby or working on a roof must be protected against falls.

PPT-012-02 44 .Flat Roof • Flat roofs greater than 50 feet wide with work performed 6 feet or greater from edge: warning line & safety monitor system can be used. • If roof flat and less than 50 feet wide: competent person safety monitor may be used.

Low Sloped Roof • Employees engaged in roofing activities on low sloped roof (i. slight pitch) with unprotected sides must be protected from falling. personal fall arrest system  Combination warning line & guardrail system  Combination warning line & safety net system  Combination warning line & personal fall arrest  Combination warning line & safety monitor  Safety monitor alone (roofs 50’ in width only).. • Can be protected by any of the following:  Guardrail systems.e. safety net systems. PPT-012-02 45 .

Steep Roof • Employees working on a steep roof must be protected from falling.  Safety net systems. • Can be protected by:  Guardrail systems with toeboards. or  Personal fall arrest systems. PPT-012-02 46 .

g. overhand bricklaying) may take place without the use of conventional fall protection systems. • Used to keep out workers other than those authorized to enter work areas from which guardrails have been removed. masons are the only workers allowed in controlled access zones.Controlled Access Zones Construction • Work area designated and clearly marked in which certain types of work (e.. PPT-012-02 47 . • Where there are no guardrails.

tapes or equivalent materials and supporting stanchions. when created to limit entrance to areas where leading edge work and other operations are taking place. wires. must be defined by a control line or any other means that restrict access. and each must be:  Flagged or otherwise clearly marked at not more than 6-foot intervals with highvisibility material PPT-012-02 48 . • Control lines shall consist of ropes.Controlled Access Zones Construction • Controlled access zones.

Controlled Access Zones Construction Control lines must also:  Be rigged and supported so that the lowest point (including sag) is not less than 39” from the walking/working surface. and  Highest point is not more than 45” from walking/working surface (or more than 50” when overhand bricklaying operations are being performed) PPT-012-02 49 .

PPT-012-02 50 . Shall be approximately parallel to the unprotected or leading edge. Be connected on each side to a guardrail system or wall. Extend along the entire length of the unprotected or leading edge.Controlled Access Zones Construction     Control lines must also: Be strong enough to sustain stress of not less than 200 pounds.

whichever is less) from the leading edge. the control line is to be erected not less than 6’ or more than 60’ (or half the length of the member being erected. • In the latter case. PPT-012-02 51 . they shall be erected not less than 6’ or more than 25’ from the unprotected or leading edge (except when precast concrete members are being erected).Controlled Access Zones Construction • When control lines are used.

Excavations • Employees should be protected from falling by:  Guardrail systems  Fences  Barricades CAUTION This excavation may be unprotected! PPT-012-02 52 .

safety net. ▪ Use and operation of guardrail. ▪ Correct procedures for assembling. warning line and safety monitor systems. as well as other protection used. PPT-012-02 53 .Training • Employer must provide training to all affected employees. disassembling and inspecting fall protection equipment to be used. ▪ Nature of fall hazards in workplace. maintaining. • Suggested topics: ▪ Overview of related OSHA regulations. personal fall arrest.

▪ Limitations on use of mechanical equipment during roof work on low sloped roofs. ▪ Correct procedures for handling and storing materials and erection of overhead protection. when used.Training • Suggested topics: ▪ Role of each employee in safety monitor system. ▪ Understanding and following all components of the fall protection program. PPT-012-02 54 . ▪ Role of employees in fall protection plans.

• Record should contain at least:  Topic of training provided.  Name or other identity of employee trained. PPT-012-02 55 .  Name (and signature recommended) of  instructor who provided training.Training Record • Employers should maintain written certification training records for affected employees.  Date(s) of training.

The Bottom Line • Provide fall protection when employees are working above 4’ in general industry. 5’ in maritime or 6’ in construction. • Fall protection should be a priority: safe actions save lives! PPT-012-02 56 .

Questions PPT-012-02 57 .

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