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NOUNS

WHAT IS A NOUN?
A noun is a word to name a

Types of Nouns

Concrete

Abstract

Countable and Uncountable

Common

Proper

Gender

Common Nouns
name given to every person, place, object or animal of the same kind or group ex : rabbit, book, picture, man

Proper Noun
Name of a particular person, place, object, animal, day or month Ex : Abdullah, Putrajaya, Comel, Si Puteh.

Gender
Name of a common noun that tells us whether is male, female, common or neuter Gender Masculine Feminine Common
Definition Nouns that refer to the male Nouns that Nouns that refer to the can be female both male or female

Neuter
Nouns that do not have a gender or sex

Examples King, prince, Queen, policeman, princess, tiger

Doctor, kid, Table, parent, book, tree neighbour

Abstract Noun
Used to describe something that cannot be seen or touched. Describe qualities, states and event or actions.

1. To describe quality of things and of character


Adjective Long Abstract noun Length

Kind Brave
Pity

Kindness Bravery
Pitiful

Example
What is the length of that string? It is 10 centimetres long. Rahman is a kind boy. The headmaster gave him a present for his kindness. The soldiers were very brave. They were awarded with medals for their bravery.

To describe state of mind, situation or idea


Adjective/ Verb Angry Abstract noun Anger

Die Know Silence

Death Knowledge Silent

Example
He was very angry at his friend for stealing his book. His anger was so great that he broke the mirror. Michaels pet cat died. He was very sad at the death of his pet cat. The students know many things. Their knowledge of language were excellent.

3. To describe action or event


Example: arrive (verb) arrival (abstract noun) The principal will arrive in Penang. His arrival created a lot of excitement.

Countable Nouns
Refer to a person, place, object or animal that can be counted in number There are countable singular and countable plural nouns.

Spelling Plural Nouns


RULE # 1 Add s to regular words example : girls, boys, teachers, tables, pencils

Rule # 2
Add es to words ending with s, -sh, -ch pr x. Example : brush brushes, wash-washes, catch catches, box boxes, watch watches, miss - misses

Rule # 3
For special words ending with o, add es Example : potato potatoes, tomatotomatoes, mango-mangoes, hero-heroes

Rule # 4
Add s to words ending in two vowels example : zoo zoos, tatoo tatoos, sea seas, radio radios, video videos Shortened words example : kilogrammes (kilos) photograph (photos)

Rule # 5
Add s to words ending with a vowel and y Example : play plays, toy toys, yo-yo yo-yos, boy boys, guy - guys

Rule # 6
Change y into ies if the word ends with a consonant and y example : baby babies, story stories, lorry lorries, fairy fairies, factory factories

Rule # 7
Change inside vowels of the singular noun or the spelling example : man men, woman women

Rule # 8
For some words, add en to the singular noun example : child children, ox - oxen