Basic Concept about Building Construction

Prepared By

S M Nazmul Haque

Construction Stages
• For any type of Project the Construction Stages are
– Conception of Scheme – Site Investigation – Designs – Drawings & Estimating – Preparation of Specifications – Procurement of Materials – Supervision

Construction Stages for Building Project
• For Building Project the Construction Stages are
– Conception of Scheme
– Site Investigation – Designs
» Take clear concept about the function of building, feasibility study etc.
» Concept about the neighborhood environment, land dimension, soil testing etc.
» Architectural and Structural Designs » Detail Working Drawing and Estimation of BOQ » Detailed specification about each item of construction

– Drawings & Estimating

– Preparation of Specifications

Construction Stages for Building Project
• Preparation of Time Schedule
– Prepare time schedule to complete the project in time.

• Procurement of Materials
– Procurement of materials and supply materials to the site within scheduled time to continue the project without interruption.

• Construction
– Sub-Structure – Super-Structure

Masonry in Superstructure E. Roofing F. Wood Work H. Cement concrete in Foundation C. Fixing Service 7 days 4 days 7 days 28 days 7 days 14 days 7 days 14 days 14 days . Flooring I. Excavation B. Masonry in Foundation D.Construction Time Schedule (For a small construction) A. Plastering G.

Construction Time Schedule A B C D E F G H I 0 1 2 3 Time (Weeks) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .

(0. 0.e. 0) as per grid plan • Surveying and layout • Sub Structure – Foundation work • Shallow Foundation • Deep Foundation • Under Ground Reservoir • Grade Beam .Sequences of the Building Construction • Site Clearance • Demarcation of Site • Positioning of Central coordinate i.

Sequences of the Building Construction • Super Structure – – – – – – – – – – – – Short Column Column and Beam Slab False Slab Brick Work Lintel Duct and Grill Electrical and Plumbing Sanitary Work Window and Door Plaster Final Finishing Work .

all the other points of columns were to be decided so its exact position is very critical. . a plot of 450*350 sq ft was chosen and the respective marking was done. • Demarcation of Site : The whole area on which construction is to be done is marked so as to identify the construction zone. With respect to this center point. In our project.Sequences of the Building Construction • Site Clearance : The very first step is site clearance which involves removal of grass and vegetation along with any other objections which might be there in the site location. • Positioning of Central coordinate and layout : The centre point was marked with the help of a thread and plumb bob as per the grid drawing.

A raft foundation is also called a mat foundation and can vary from a fascine mattress supporting a farm road to a large reinforced concrete basement supporting a high rise block. 3.Shallow Foundation Sub Structure • Foundation • Shallow foundation : A foundation whose depth below the surface is equal to or less than its least dimension. . Pad footing : Generally an individual foundation designed to carry a single column load although there are occasions when a pad foundation supports two or more columns. 1. 2. It is generally used to support a series of columns or a wall. Most strip and pad footings fall into this category. Strip foundation : Often termed a continuous footing this foundation has a length significantly greater than its width. Raft foundation : This is a generic term for all types of foundations that cover large areas.

It provides a solid base for the foundation. Excavation is carried out providing adequate side slopes and dressing of excavation bottom. lying of Brick Flat Soling or cement concrete that is CC is done. Adequate precautions are taken to see that the excavation operations do not damage the adjoining structures.Excavation • Excavation : Excavation was carried out both manually as well as mechanically. . The soil present beneath the surface was too clayey so it was dumped and was not used for back filling. • Plain Cement Concrete: After the process of excavation. • Placing of Reinforcement will discuss on later slide. A layer of 3 inches was made in such a manner that it was not mixed with the soil.

– Lay the Bricks flat in surface contact with each other with frog mark upwards. (FM = Minimum 0. Joints will not be in the same line. – Check the finish surface is leveled both longitudinally and transversely. – Use broken Bricks. • Inspection . – Level the surface. at the edge of the area.50) Brush in until the joints are filled with sand. – Keep Break joints in the subsequent row of Bricks in English Bond pattern. Do not use water for flushing in of sand to the gaps. Fill small gaps or joints between the Bricks with local fine sand.Brick Flat Soling • Material Requirements: • Construction Methods: – 1st Class solid Bricks. if any. fine sand. – Compact the surface by Hand rammer and sprinkling water.

0) – Local sand: (F.M. Construction Methods: – Thickness: • Provide 75mm without Brick Flat soling. • Provide 50mm over Brick flat soling.Blinding Concrete (Mat Foundation) Material Requirement – Cement: Ordinary Portland cement – Brick Aggregate: Brick into chips of size 25mm downgrade. – Coarse Sand: (F. Use polythene below blinding concrete. Manufacture of Blinding Concrete: • Proportioning – Mix Cement.5-3. • Provide 75mm over Brick flat soling in Ground floor car park area.2.1.2-1. sand & brick khoa in the ratio of 1:3:6 by volume in Boxes or cans equivalent to volume of 1sack of cement.M.5) – Water: Potable normally municipal supply water. Use Polythene sheet below. .

– Alternative hand mixing allowed for blinding concrete as follows: – Mix the materials on a clean solid watertight masonry platform. 09020500. – Thoroughly mix the above at least 3 times. Mixing of Material – IC present at mixing place to monitor and control the ratio & quantity of material in the mix.Blinding Concrete Measurement of Material • Measure material volume in Boxes or cans equivalent to volume of 1 sack of cement. – Spread the measured quantity of brick khoa in another place of platform. – Spread the measured quantity of sand evenly on platform. – Dump and distribute the cement evenly on sand. – Machine mixing same as outlined in “RCC” instruction No. Then again from side to centre and again from centre to side .shoveling & turning over by twist from centre to side. – Mix sand & cement thoroughly until the mixture is of even color. – Spread sand cement mix on Brick khoa.

• Placing and Compaction – Clean the area from dust or of foreign materials. – Roughen the surface for joining future work before the concrete bending. – Use wooden rammer for compaction. – Take level pillars of fresh concrete in the area at suitable intervals but not more than 2m c/c both ways. . Use the concrete mix within 45 minutes after the water is added. – Curing: – After 24 hours of laying of concrete moist the Blinding concrete surface by flooding with water or by covering with moist gunny bags at least for 7 days. – Lay the concrete gently (not thrown) from one side.Blinding Concrete – Add water gradually and turn the materials as above till the whole surface of each aggregate become coated with san cement mortar and the mix becomes plastic to give a uniform concrete.

Pier foundation : This is a large column built up either from the bedrock or from a slab supported by piles. . They are usually designed to work in groups. such as that from a bridge.Deep Foundation • Deep foundation – A foundation whose depth below the surface is greater than its least dimension. Piles and piers fall into this category. 1. A pier operates in the same manner as a pile but it is essentially a short squat column whereas a pile is relatively longer and more slender. Pile foundation : Piles are used to transfer structural loads to either the foundation soil or the bedrock underlying the site. 2. with the column loads they support transferred into them via a capping slab. Its purpose is to support a large load.

Pile Foundation • Why pile foundation is required – When the subsoil immediately below the foundation is not suitable to take up the loads from the structure. – Provided as a column support • Function of pile – – – – Protect the foundation against slipping Transfer the load (Soft Soil to Hard Strata) Protect the foundation against scouring Improving bearing capacity . then pile foundation is required. • Why pile provided – To obtain the necessary bearing capacity on a bad soil.

) Bucket Funnel Treme pipe Casing Wings machine Mass rod (≈ 1 ton) Boring pipe Hosepipe Suctions pipe • • • • • • • • • • • • Pump engine Steel bar Cement concrete Pulley Mixing machine Tape Hook Wire Welding equipment Leveling tube Fera (generally 1/2 bag vol.Pile Foundation Required Instruments • • • • • • • • • • • • Tripod Horizontal rod Chisel (φ = φ of pile .) Beller .2 in.

etc. of Steel bar – Conforming lap length according to Design – Ensuring proper welding and Clear Cover using chair – Diameter. security and working environment . and Size.Pile Foundation • Procedure of Pile Contraction – Identification of quality and sufficient stock of Materials – Identification of previously placed center of pile with reference to grid line – Centering the Chisel of Tripod Stand – Checking diameter of Pile and Chisel – Ensuring rebar‟s free from rust. Length & Nos. Length of Casing pipe satisfactory – Identification of chisel diameter – Wash boring satisfactorily completed – Treme pipe length and diameter satisfactory – Ensuring safety. oil.

short column length will increase. • Leveling and compacting the earth level 3 inches below the pile cut off level • 3 or 4 inch.Pile Foundation • Pile Cap – Procedure of pile cap contraction • Excavating the earth fill where pile cap will be placed • Break down the pile up to pile cut off level • If desire fresh concrete is not found at required level. r to grid line • After casting the pile cap. short column will be cast up to grade beam . That‟s why. pile will break down until fresh concrete is grown up. Cement Concrete will cast • Steel bar will placed according to Design • Checking of clear cover and shutter w.

Grade Beam • Grade Beam – Procedure of grade beam casting • Excavating the earth where grade beam will placed • Compacting the bottom layer • 3” BFS will placed • Shuttering grid line • Leveling the beam bottom • Checking of Steel bar and clear cover • Investigation of casting work and maintaining top level • Ensure perfect construction joint if needed .r.

kicker is used to set up column in place • 1 tie will set up within 5 in. • Lapping must not exceeding 50% main bar in same place • 30D or 40D lapping is generally taken • Turn buckle is use for shuttering column • Key used for Bonding • Hessian sheet is use for curing • Concrete block is used for ensuring clear cover • Identification of proper vibration and dumping of concrete below 6 ft height • Set up the column in place • Ensuring vertical alignment • Use as a support for shuttering of column – Function of Kicker: .Column • Column – Procedure • 5 in.

drop wall steel – Proper curing should be maintain . plumbing and sanitary duct.Slab • Slab Casting – Identification of required props and shutter (Wooden or Steel) – Identification of required plane sheet and rupban sheet – Leveling and checking of props and shutter – Checking out required steel bar and its placement – Checking Block and Chair used for maintaining clear cover – Identification of available materials and instruments for casting – Identification of slab level & investigating the vibration work – Check leveling which is done by Patta – Identification of electrical line. railing steel.

Reinforcement • Reinforcing Bar Binding and placement – Material Requirements: • Tore steel-Cold twisted deformed bar conforming to BS 4461-1978 Procured from Manufactures like BSRM. Stack the fabricated bars size wise & member wise. paint oil. • Reject the bar which cracks during straightening. . • Accurately place all reinforcing bars in exact position as per size and spacing shown on the drawings. dirt. Diamond Steel and Eastern Steel or other approved Trader or Product Brand. grease. • Cut the reinforcement as per sizes and as per lengths shown in the drawing. – Construction Methods: • Clean all loose scale. • Clean and Oil the form before placing reinforcement where applicable especially in case of slab. or other foreign substance from the reinforcement. – Binding Wire: • Not above 24G galvanized iron wires.

• Keep Concrete cover as following to protect reinforcement from corrosion. Use spacer Bar.Reinforcement • Place sufficient Blocks. • Secure the Bar crossing each other by 24G Binding Wire so that they do not slip over each other at the time of fixing & concreting. chairs & spacers so that bars do not sag between supports nor displaced during concreting or any other operation over works. chair or Pre-Cast mortar blocks separate the Layer of bar. – In foundation: 75mm – In column: 37mm – In Slab: 25mm – In Structure Adjacent to earth: 75mm – In roof beam: 37mm .

required lap length is not available at junction because of space and other constraints. Lap length about 35 – 45 times the diameter of the bar is considered safe. In case. At one cross section.Reinforcement • Terms used in Reinforcement – Bar-bending-schedule : Bar-bending-schedule is the schedule of reinforcement bars prepared in advance before cutting and bending of rebar's. This schedule contains all details of size. shape and dimension of rebar's to be cut. . bars can be joined with couplers or welded (with correct choice of method of welding). a maximum of 50% bars should be lapped. Laps of neighboring bar lengths should be staggered and should not be provided at one level/line. – Lap length: Lap length is the length overlap of bars tied to extend the reinforcement length.

However. Sometimes it is commonly seen that the cover gets misplaced during the concreting activity. 1. The length requirement is similar to the lap length mentioned in previous question or as per the design instructions Cover block : Cover blocks are placed to prevent the steel rods from touching the shuttering plates and thereby providing a minimum cover and fix the reinforcements as per the design drawings. To prevent this. column bars in footing etc.Reinforcement • Anchorage Length : This is the additional length of steel of one structure required to be inserted in other at the junction. Ideally. minimum cover of 2” in footings. main bars of beam in column at beam column junction. tying of cover with steel bars using thin steel wires called binding wires (projected from cover surface and placed during making or casting of cover blocks) is recommended. • . cover should have strength similar to the surrounding concrete. cover indicates thickness of the cover block. Normally. with the least perimeter so that chances of water to penetrate through periphery will be minimized.5” in columns and 1” for other structures may be ensured. As a thumb rule. Shape of the cover blocks could be cubical or cylindrical. Covers should be made of cement sand mortar (1:3). For example. cubical cover blocks are used.

– Aggregate : Stone/Brick Chips of mean size 25mm downgrade. 1. • Measure the aggregates and sand as per proportion by can equivalent to a sack of cement. 1. • Fix reference level mark with paint in reinforcement of column or with nails in formwork to control the thickness of concreting & level of the upper surface. the Formwork with clean water thoroughly of all extraneous material before placing concrete. • Check the Formwork before commencing concreting. – Sylhet Sand : (F.8 – 2. Allowable dust 3% by volume.M. Clean the Formwork and wash.M.Material Required – Ordinary any Portland Cement.2) Construction Method: Mixing: • Screen excessive dust from aggregate.5) – Coarse Sand : (F. Concrete . max.

Placing . use the concrete within 45 minutes after the water is mixed. – Depute QE at placing point of concrete. – Does not drop concrete freely from a height exceeding 2. PM must be at mixture machine point to control the quality of the mix and ensure slump. The edges of old concrete are broken to give a firm bonding.Concrete – Dump the measured quantity or materials as per proportion specified in the drawing in the Drum of mixer machine and thoroughly mix with required quantity of water for a period of not less than 2 minutes after all material the water are in the drum. Fresh concrete should not be deposited against concrete which is in position more than 45 minutes. – Lay concrete from one end & then continuously proceed to the other end. Control water quantity by measuring slump. – Make level or reference pillars with concrete before concreting operation proceeds.00 M not deposit concrete in large quantities at any point exceeding 450 mm thick. Slump not to exceed 50 mm.

Concrete • Compacting: – Compact the concrete immediately after placing by internal vibrator till scum of mortar appears. Leveling & Curing: – Check and finish the top surface of concrete at every 37 from the reference painted or nail mark. • . – Do not vibrate much longer & stop vibrating as soon as laitance of mortar appears on the surface. Apply vibration in the area of freshly deposited concrete. Do not allow vibrator to the concrete 2 hours after compaction. – Keep the concrete surface after 24 hours continuously wet with water till the removal of Formwork with pounding of water or covering with wet Hessian cloth. – Do not apply vibrator directly against the reinforcement or against the concrete which has developed initial set. Excessive vibration segregates the mix. Compact within 20 minutes the mixture is placed in position. – Keep scratch in the slab or provide keys in the column lift to put subsequent concrete in the proceeding days.

. – The nuts & boils should be lightly fixed with the base plate and no gaps should be there within the parts of cylinder on cubes. – The cylinder or cube should be properly cleaned & thinly oiled but no excess oil should be visible on the inner surface. – Procedure for making & curing of Cubes and Cylinder. – Materials (concrete) for specimen should be taken from three on four random mixes.Concrete • Testing & Inspect: – During concreting. – It is necessary that the cylinder & cube should be on the level surface before making. Correct the mixture by adding cement and sand till the slump value is within 50mm. take slump of concrete for every 20 cum of concrete.

Once the concrete develops adequate strength. moulds. bolts. V-Heads. steel. ties. • Form Work: Forms or moulds or shutters are the receptacles in which concrete is placed. so that it will have the desired shape or outline when hardened. struts. wedges. walrus. leizers. the forms are removed.Form Work • Shuttering and Scaffolding : The term „Shuttering‟ or „Formwork‟ includes all forms. etc. posts. plywood. shuttering planks. and all other temporary supports to the concrete during the process of sheeting. Forms are generally made of the materials like timber. . and structure. poles. walling steel rods. sheeting. prights. standards.

– Sheet metal lining. – Steel shutter.Form Work • Material Requirements: – Mango wood plank of various sizes. – Use wooden form for footing. runner & tics etc. – Use thin metal 32G sheet lining in between the joints of wooden form & properly nailing it to make form watertight. – Use steel shutter for Beam where directed. Height should not exceed 2m. – Wooden planks of size 125mm in width & 25mm in depth minimum for slab form. – Props. • . made of 16 SWG steel sheets with necessary holes & clamps and strong MS Angle Frame. struts. – MS Plain sheet. Do not use warp wood for shutter. beam and slab made of mango wood planks with minimum thickness of 25mm and include necessary battens. Clear gap between each plank should not exceed 150mm. Construction Methods: – Use all column form made of 16 SWG steel sheet with holes for fixing & tighten.

no loose props should be used.2100 mm C/C depending on size of room space. – In addition to turn bolt &. encrustations of mortar or other foreign materials. – Check the Vertical Alignment both transverse and longitudinal & after proper verticality fix the steel shutter with turn bolt and tie bolt Then again check vertical alignment by adjusting turn bolts – Use Bamboo post 3" dia as prop @ 600 mm C/C for slab. • Propping and Centering: . – Use horizontal bracing at 12000mm level for height more than 3m. Wipe out excess Form oil. – Tighten the column with nuts & bolts at any holes and with T-Bolts. – Before concreting.Form Work • Form fixing: – Clean the steel Forms with steel scraper or steel brush to make it free of rust. – Apply oil to the Form either Mobil or thin tar to avoid sticking of the concrete with Form. – In between bamboo props use steel post @ 1800 . check the props are intact and during casting keep 2 carpenter/shuttering men for constant watch on prop and take immediate remedial measure as soon as any of props get loosened. – Tight the props at both ends. T -bolt fixing in the column shutter use bamboo/steel prop as strut in inclined.

• Verticality of the Structure – All the outer columns of the frame were checked for plumb by plumb-bob as the work proceeds to upper floors. – That all wedges are secured and firm in position. – The tightness of joint between panels of sheathing and between these and any hardened core. shavings. – That provision is made for traffic on formwork not to bear directly on reinforcement steel. and especially connections of bracing. sawdust and other refuse by brushing and washing. Jack were used to lift the supporting rods called props . Internal columns were checked by taking measurements from outer row of columns for their exact position. – The correct location of tie bars bracing and spacers.Form Work • Immediately before concreting is commenced. the formwork is carefully examined to ensure the following: – Removal of all dirt.

5m span) 21 days – Gradually and uniformly lower the props to avoid shock or vibration and damage to concrete.5m span) 14 days. Do not allow nail bending by hammering against the face of wooden form Board. walls. – Footing 1 days – Columns. vertical members: 2 days. . • (Above 4. – Soffits of slabs and beams • (Up to 4. Operation should go from middle for slab bounded at all sides and for cantilever from free end. – Pull from wood all nails.Form Work • Removal of Form work: – Remove the Formwork as per time elapse after concreting.

Common Reasons for Leak in Concrete
Common Reasons for Leak of Quality in Concrete Work
– Use of too much or too little water for mixing, or water carelessly added during mixing – Incomplete mixing of aggregate with cement – Improper grading of aggregates resulting in segregation or bleeding of concrete. – Inadequate compaction of concrete – Using concrete which has already begun to set. – Placing of concrete on a dry foundation without properly wetting it with water. – Use of dirty aggregate or water containing earthy matter, clay or lime. – Too much troweling of the concrete surface. – Leaving the finished concrete surface exposed to sun and wind during the first ten days after placing without protecting it and keeping it damp by proper methods of curing.

Brick Work and Plaster Work
• Brick Work and Plaster Work
– Instruments use for Brick Work and Plaster Work
• • • • • • • • • Measuring steel tape Leveling pipe Sprit level Tri square Plum bob Trowel Wooden float Mental float Level gauge

Brick Wall
Brick Wall Work Procedure
• Before setup the layout floor should be keep clean • Identification of proper curing period of brick so that the water penetrates to its full thickness. Normally 6 to 8 hours of wetting is sufficient. • Before work, cured brick should be dry at least 1 hour • Chipping the area before brick place • Grouting by the water cement paste • Brick will place according to layout • Checking the verticality of brick work by plum bob • Vertical joints shouldn‟t be continuous but staggered. • All bricks should be placed on their bed with frogs on top • Thread, plumb bob and spirit level should be used for alignment, verticality and horizontality of construction. • A maximum of one meter wall height should be constructed in a day. • The joint thickness shouldn‟t exceed 1 cm. It should be thoroughly filled with the cement mortar 1:4 to 1:6 (Cement: Sand by volume) • Joints should be raked and properly finished with trowel or float, to provide good bond • Brickwork should be properly cured for at least 10 days

False Slab & Grill
False Slab
• • • • Leveling by water level Checking of reinforcement distribution Position check for exhaust fan Maintain proper distance with fan to light

• • • • Thickness check by slide calipers Measurement checks (width, length, diagonal etc.) Vertical alignment check Proper wielding for Grill

(Ratio 1:4 to 1:6 depends on Surface) • Grouting the surface by the water cement paste • Set up the distance between two wall face • Vertical level check by gauge w. greasy spots and efflorescence and loose materials. r. • CC will be as like as paste. • Wash the surface with water and kept surface moist (but no surface water) before commencing plaster Surface will be saturated surface dry.Brush and scrap the cured surface to make it free from mortar oil.Plaster Work Plaster Work Procedure • Chipping . to beam face • Maintaining door‟s wood in same level with plaster face .

• Slab – Ponding should be done on the slab by constructing bunds of mortar • Beams and columns – The beams and columns can be maintained wet by tying gunny bags around the periphery and by maintaining it wet always. Roof Beam should be sprinkled from the top such that it covers the whole area of the beam and it should be remain wet.Curing • Following are the methods for curing different building parts:• Walls – Water should be sprinkled from the top such that it covers the whole area of the wall and it should be remain wet. .

• Work on Dry timbers. Cracks. Properly glued and secured with hardwood screws. . it will bad • Dimension check • Sand paper the member to remove roughness & ensure plainness before assembling them. • If the color of wood is light. large holes or any defects or diseases affecting appearance and strength.Wood Work Quality control for Door’s wood Frame • Use wood which is free from sap. Joints must be well matched and tight. Knots.

. Check the vertical alignment with spirit level and with plumb bob.Wood Work – Finish the surfaces smooth by sand papering and planer as to perfectly make the surface free from: » » » » » » » » Disfiguring Effects Stain Dents Of Chisel Uneven Planning Uneven Sanding Tool Marks Scratches Uneven Trimming and Gouges. – Paint the unexpected face of Frame in contact with masonry or concrete surface with 2 coats of tar paint before fixing. – Fix the frames truly vertical.

– However. highly level surface attained. No grain showed be detectable by touch with Hand and planning to continue till a smooth. – Properly store the door shutters in a dry well ventilated damp proof area. Do not store in area prove to alternated wet and driving. Excess oil be removed to avoid sticky surface as it catch dust.Wood Work • Shutter – Do not use wood as mentioned in above for shutters and that each plank must be straight without any wrap or bow. – Take planner machine with fine abrasive paper for smooth leveling of the shutter. – Use Lacquer polish (either yacht of elite or original China Lacquer) as final touch over 3 coats polish/Varnish. dirt adhesives and other foreign substances lightly rub down with abrasive paper each coat before applying the next No excess polish or polish mark be visible. Evenly spread the polish. – Before varnishing polishing properly clean surface free of dust. – Fix locks and other fastening only before fixing various sanitary and electrical fixtures. Prefabricated shutter in touch with water will swell become disfigured & warped. . for fabricated door shutters procured as for example for PARTEX Boards.

. coverage area 52sqm/4liter(1 Gallon). – Completely dry the surface. Scrape off hard and cement splashes. Do not use paint on wet or damp surface. – Apply water base sealer with brush/roller. Add 20% water as thinner. – Brush down thoroughly with stiff Brush/Sand paper to remove loose surface contamination and particles.Painting • Plastic Emulsion Paint: – Do not apply paint on the surface not cured for at least 14 days and which is not at least 45 days old. Apply sealer uniformly so that surface is whitish. – Make defects with cement sand cure & completely dry the patch. Use only in Interior.

– Paint to be applied after minimum 4 days of application of putty. After application of putty sand preparing to be continued till the visibility of plaster surface. . – Percentage of water mixing with the paints for painting 1st coat.Painting Putty preparation and application: • Preparation: • • • • Chalk Powder (England) Enamel paint Plastic Paint Water = = = = 1 bag 1 Liter 1 gallon as required as per surface condition to make paste • Applications – Days putty should be used on that day of preparation. 20% water subsequent coats. 15% water interval 7 days minimum between successive coats. – Coverage Area: 32 sqm/4 liters can for spot less.

• Surface preparation • Apply primer as follows.Painting Enamel Paint • Use enamel paint in steel structure Pipe rail or steel Gate etc.I surface use Zinc Chromed primer. – For G. . – Use steel brush and emery paper no. Each coat thin with maximum 5% T-3. – For MS surface Red oxide/ Read Lead primer. – 1st Coat: Thin with 5% max T-6 thinner and then apply after 2 days of primer application. 320 to rub the surface until rust/any scale/concrete mortar on the steel surface are removed. 2nd & 3rd coat same as mentioned for plastic paint.Thinner.

• Apply with Brush or roller. Do not mix with any other paint or powder. Thoroughly mix the paste with water to make unifom1 consistency. . • Add water to the Distemper. Mixing ratio of water to paint = 2:3.Painting Distemper • Use in interior wall & ceiling over plastered surface where recommended. • Surface preparation is same as plastic paint. • Apply 2nd coat and 3rd coat in the above manner as for 1st coat but interval between successive coats be minimum 48 hours. Do not keep thinned material for more than 1 how' for reuse.

Use 2 coats with primer or 3 coats without premier. . – Apply 1st coat with Roller.Painting • Outside Paint: – Use paint instructs color exterior cl\1ubion. – Touch putty may be allowed if undulation is visible. – Use white cement mixed with Aica/Glue as primer and then cure for at least 7 days. – Completely dry the 1st coat. – Thoroughly stir the paint and thin with 15% clean tap water.

Do not allow successive coat till the proceeding coat is completely dry. Do not allow painting during rain or in excessive humidity. Check the brush or rollers are properly cleaned. Check the surface properly cleaned. this is important. Do not use old thinned paint. . Do not over thin paint. Check by touch the paint should not adhere with finger or palm. Keep the painted surface well ventilated during and at least month after painting. brushed and dust off.Painting • Inspection: – – – – – – – – – – Check the surface is properly dry. Check the contents thoroughly stirred. Check the water or thinner mixed as per specification or otherwise as per manufacturer's instruction.

5) Ordinary Port Land Cement Potable Water • Construction Methods: – Thickness: Provide 25mm to 38mm depending on the finished level and existing floor level. • Mixing of Materials: .Patent Stone • Material Requirement: Pie Chips - Sand Cement Water - Brick chips of sizes 12mm downgrade. – Mix the material in presence of Engineer in Charge to control the ration & quantity of mix.2 – 1. Coarse Sand (FM 1. sand & pie chips in the ratio of 1:2:4 by volume. – Proportion: Mix cement.

– Take levels by concrete @ 2m C/C.Patent Stone • Placing & Compaction: – Clean the old surface of dirt. – Curing: Moist & cure the patent stone concrete for at least 7 days before lying. – Rough the surface by room for adherence of the finish surface over it. . – Make the check by straight edge (aluminum) or by spirit level. laitance and all loose materials by wire brush and chipping. Wash by clear water. • Check: – Mark the top level of surface finish mark patent stone tip level with this reference deducting finish thickness. – Check and keep the level of patent stone uniform by filling or renewing patent stone concrete which still green to keep the surface finish thickness equal. – Compact by straight edge and wooden floats. – Apply cement slurry before placing patent stone concrete.

• Do not allow movement over patent stone to break glass strip. • Keep 125mm margin and 125mm skirting. • Plaster Background of skirting mosaic must be rough & cured for at least 20 days. • Keep top surface of patent stone rough. • Make and lay 25-38mm patent stone as per spec. “Patent Stone”. • • . • Take floor as dead level and keep sufficient slop in verandah & bath. Making under Layer: • Place 5mm glass strip with reference to finish level in equal panels. • Keep top of patent stone 10mm (Pucca) below glass strip. • Soak and cure patent stone with water for 7 days at least.Mosaic Work • Material Requirement: – White Cement : – Marble Chips : 10-6mm downgraded – Water : Potable – Polishing Material : – Grey Cement in case of silver grey mosaic Construction methods: – Surface Preparation: • Property chip and clean the existing floor surface.

inferior quality and colored mosaic chips. Store on a clean platform and sort out bigger sizes.Mosaic Work • Processing Mosaic Materials: – Sieve white cement by wire mesh and reject the Lumps of white cement over screening sieve. – Add water gradually and mix 3 times until the mix is a stiff paste of plastic consistency and every marble chips become coated with cement mortar. At this stage. no marble chips will be visible . – Repack the screened white cement before use in tightly close bags. • Mixing of Mosaic Materials: – Batch the materials from those selected for a flat with a can in the ratio of 5 parts Marble chips to 4 parts white cement which can be laid in 1 hour. Cover the mosaic chips after sorting with polythene. – Screening of white cement and sorting of marble chips should be in a lot requiring for a flat in complete. – Mix the materials on a clean Area. – Wash mosaic chips. Thoroughly mix the materials 3 times in dry condition.

e. • Keep top of patent stone 16mm below top of mosaic. • Soak the surface properly with water. • Sand cement Mortar (3. • White Cement.Glazed Tiles • Material Requirement: • Prefabricated Glazed Tiles. • Make and lay patent stone . patent stone and cure patent stone for 7 days keep the surface of patent stone rough.1) Construction Methods: • Receive tiles only having same caviler no. • • . dust or concrete mortar clean & wash thoroughly. • Take finish level of floor tile 10mm below the room level and give slope to the out let. • Make under layer i. Surface Preparation: • Chip the surface from dirt.

– Fill joints with white cement mix with suitable pigment to match the color & tiles. – Keep the surface kept wet for 7 days minimum. – Tamp the tiles and correct to proper plane and lines checking with thread fixed at ends. Keep the tiles surface perfectly level. – Tap the Tiles with wooden mallet & if sound hollow remove the tile that sound so & prefix with fresh mortar.Glazed Tiles • Fixing Tiles: – Does not use crack spotted or variable glazing tiles. in the same apartment. . – Apply Cement slurry at the back of tiles to fix in bedding mortar. – Soak and wash the tiles in water. Do not use tiles different caliber no. – Remove all loose mortar then & then after a wall or day7‟s job before the mortar becomes dry with moist soft cloth. Keep each Horizontal line truly straight & keep vertical joint truly vertical one above another. – Keep the joints fine & uniform joint not exceed 2mm. Remove the protruding or depressed tile and re fix when the back and bedding mortar is still green.

Made from 1st Class Bricks Crushed or ground below 2mm. • Add previously wetted khoa in the specified quantity over lime-surki mixture. • Soak the Brick Chips at least 3 hours before mix and allow standing. – Construction Methods: • Use lime.Lime Tracing – Material Requirement: • Lime • Surki • Brick Chips Slake Lime. till of uniform color. Made from 1st class Bricks crushed to sizes 20mm down graded. . • Mix lime & surki in the specified ratio on a clean platform in dry condition. till of uniform color. surki in the specified ratio on a clean platform in dry condition.

Sanitary and Plumbing – Material Requirement: • • • • • • • Galvanized Iron Pipes Polyvinyl chloride pipes Heavy Cast Iron Pipes Paints Thread Tape Solvent Cement Pipe Fittings. .

– Keep the pipes with water full & under hydraulic pressure for 1 month. The depth of thread be uniform and sharp. bend. – Carefully file the pipe ends so that no obstruction to the bore is offered.Sanitary and Plumbing • Construction Methods – GI/PVC – GI Pipe shall be of Branded. Screw the pipe in socket. – Do not start Groove cutting for pipes in wall. – Rectify the leakage by rethreading. Use Groove cutting machine for Groove cutting. tee and other fittings and fixtures in similar way. – Install the pipes straight & level vertical or horizontal. retightening or changing the pipes. Keep this rectified portion under watch for a month. – Conceal the pipe and joint showing no leakage with cement sand mortar (1:3). – Join pipes with thread tape and solvent cement or enamel paint wrapped round the thread and screwed end of pipe. Text hydraulic pressured at 50 psi at various locations weekly to detect leakage. . (RFL/ANOWER/PEDROLLO/MATADOR) – Do not use pipes which have cracks. scratch surface & to be cured for 7 days before application of surface plaster. – Provide 7 threads in joining pipe. surface flaws lamination & other defects. which is not cured for more than 7 days. Pipe broken at thread portion do not use. – Fill the pipes with water from overhead eater tank & plugged at opens. – Make Groove cutting straight. – Before joining the pipes clean the thread with steel brush. Use pipe wrench for jointing. Grip with at least 5 threads to make the joints watertight.

• Installation: – Fix the conduit under reinforcement straight and lined with reinforcement with GI wire @ 900mm c. pipe in work. – Remove & replace the broken P.V. Conduit Material Requirement: – P.C conduit before concreting.C. check the materials are of good quality. Do not use it.C pipe of various dia.V. Construction Methods: • P. – Circular box.V. Elbow. Use pipe which is ductile but not brittle. Bends. bend tees and other accessories to be supplied by the contractor.Electrical P.V.c.V. – Circular box. – GI Wire.C Pipe: – Do not use crack P. Place the conduits in the roof slab for points covering shortest route. give foot pressure on pipe and if pipe breaks. .C. Tee etc.

Cure the cement sand mortar over pipe continuously with water for 7 days. • Make groove cutting in wall which is cured at least for seven days.V.C. Conduit • “Close the open ends” of pipes and accessories with paper and sand so that concrete does no tender into them. • Do not exceed more than 10 mm around the pipe for groove cutting. • Conceal the pipes with sand cement mortar (4. • Make groove cutting by groove cutting machine.1) over the wire mesh and make the top surface rough with scratching for bonding with plaster. Do not allow groove cutting by hand.Electrical P. Make groove truly vertical and horizontal • Keep the pipes vertical by nailing @ 450 mm where there are three pipes. . Use wire mesh where there are more than three pipes in a group.

V. • Use circular box in the conducting works as per the required outlets. laid in the slab.Electrical P. • All fan hook boxes. • For exterior piping both solution joint and tapping compulsory. should be filled inside with papers or sand. socket.C. • Refer to conduit (Electrical) damage checking including proper fitting bend. Conduit Inspection: • The followings to be followed during slab casting: • Nitto tapping to be done in each joints of electrical conducting. Nitto tap should be of higher quality. All pipes should be fixed tightly with the fan hook outlets. elbows etc. . No circular box should be used with any open outlets.

C.Electrical Wiring Material Requirement: – Single core low tension cable manufactured by BRB as per standard BDS 900/79 and BS 6004/75.C. – Construction Methods: – 2. conduit.1 Draw the wire with 14/16 SWG GI wire through P. – E.V. Take care that during drawing of the wire it docs not rupture. for out let‟s fitting and fixture as per drawing. – Do not allow any joint in the cable between outlets. other wise this operation may damage the conduit and spoil the insulation of wire.C. . (Earth continuity conductor). – Complete any nailing or hammering work before running of the wires.C. – Use E. Joint can be allowed only at the Junction box.C. – Use only black neutral cable. – Pull cables only after the conduit system is completely installed.

If the bulb glows then the wiring is ok. Size of the copper to be 4 SWG. .Electrical Wiring – Use one earthling for generator two earthlings for transformer. – Check that every out let is active testing with a bulb.5 mega ohm. one earthling for MDB and two Earthlings for lighting arrestor. 3S per drawing. – Use 3mm ebonite sheet for covering the joint box light point. Inspection: – Check the insulation resistance of cable and do not allow the resistance lower than 0. three nos. – Use 16rnm dia 450trm long copper rod as lighting arrestor minimum.

• Coarse Aggregate: – The aggregate particles retaining through sieve #4 (ASTM) is called coarse aggregate. 150 µm and 75 µm respectively. #100 and #200. khoa varies within 4 – 5. 300 µm. 12.2 – 2. For usual construction work the value of FM of fine aggregates i. For usual construction work the value of FM of coarse aggregate i. 37. 25 mm. 50 mm. 1. #50. #30.36 mm.5 mm respectively. #8.5 mm. .e.18 mm. fine & coarse sand varies within 1. 2. The standard sieve sizes are #4.e. # 16.0. The FM value of fine aggregates varies up to 3.. The standard sieve opening sizes are 75 mm.75 mm.5 mm. The opening sizes of sieves are 4. 19 mm.5. The FM value of coarse aggregate greater than 3.Materials Based on size aggregate are divided into two distinct categories• Fine Aggregate: – The aggregate particles passing through sieve #4 (ASTM) and retained in #200 sieve is called fine aggregate. 9. This value has an important effect on the workability of fresh concrete. 600 µm. 63 mm.

Materials .

It should be hard.Sand • Properties – – – – – – It should be chemically inert. It should be free from organic or vegetable matter. It should contain sharp. It should be free from salt. It should be well graded. angular and coarse grains. • Test – Salt – Vegetable Matter – Presence of Clay .

– If it feel salt test. – Then a small amount of clean water of the jar taken in a spoon and identify its test. – Shake the jars thoroughly so that sand can easily mixed with water and allow the mixture to stand for several hours.Sand • Salt test of sand:– Mix proper quantity of sand with water in a jar. then there is salt present in sand. .

but not enough to make it seriously objectionable. the sand contains objectionable quantity of vegetable matter. – Add 3% solution of caustic soda until 200cc mark is reached. – If dark colored. and should not be allowed to use without washing. – Fill the jar with the sample sand up to 130 cc mark.Sand Test for Vegetable Matter:– Take a straight sided glass jar and give 130cc and 200ce mark on it. – If straw colored. as soon as the solution of caustic soda is added and allow the – mixture to stand for 24 hours. . – Shake the bottle thoroughly. this indicates presence of some vegetable matter. the sand is free from vegetable matter. Observation:– Note the color of the liquid: – If colorless.

– Sand sample is then added gradually until the level of the top of the sand is at the 100ml mark and add more solution to bring the liquid level of the 150ml mark.Sand • Test for Presence of Clay – Take about 50ml of a 1% solution of common salt in water in a 250ml measuring cylinder. – The amount of clay and silt in the sand may be considered acceptable if it does not exceed 8%. – The thickness of the silt layer which settles above the sand is then measured and expressed as a percentage of the height of the sand below the layer. . – The cylinder is shaken vigorously and the content is allowed to settle for three hours.

– The aggregate should be well graded i.Coarse Aggregate Properties Density of Stone aggregate should be >26 KN/m3.5 to 2. (Ratio of maximum to minimum > 5) – Should be free from organic and chemical matter. – – – – – .e. equal amounts of various sizes of aggregates. Density of Brick aggregate should be >23 KN/m3 Aggregate shape should be angular.7. The aggregate should not be flaky and elongated. Specific Gravity should be in between 2.

it is supported 150mm apart and a weight of 15kg uniformly placed over it. The cement is then rubbed between the thumb and the forefinger. After removing. The block is then immersed under water for three days. If it does not have a lumpy or gritty feeling but gives a smooth feeling. If it shows no sign of failure the cement is good. Cement . It should not feel warm but cool. the cement is good. It is then immersed under water for 24 hours. the cement is good. • Shrinkage test – The test requires making a thick paste of cement with water on a piece of thick glass. • Feel Test – The hand is plunged into a bag of cement. • Flexure Test – The test requires making a 25mm × 25mm × 200mm (1”×1”×8”) block of cement with water. If it does not crack.Field testing • Visual Observation – There should be no visible lumps and the color should be greenish gray in bags.

5 m X 2 in high a shed of size 6 m X 3. 4.) • Sacks stored outside for long periods should be covered with tarpaulins or other waterproof coverings so that rain cannot reach either the cement or the platforms and to prevent circulation of moist air through the stock. Cement .5 m is enough to store 20 tons.Storing of Cement • The maximum storing period should not be more than 100 days.5 m X 2. If no shed is available. 10 in a row. • Cement should be stored for the shortest period possible but not at all in the rainy season. wooden platforms. • Not more than ten cement bags should be stacked one over another as due to heavy load air-setting takes place in bags in lowest layers. place the sacks on raised. • Damp godowns and floors should be avoided. because after 100 days the strength of cement reduces excessively. • Store-sacked cement in an airtight warehouse or shed. 10 layers deep in each stack. • Place them close together to reduce air circulation and away from exterior walls. (For example: 400 bags of cement can be stacked in 4 rows.

75 inches) • They should be free from cracks and other flaws such as air bubbles.5 x 4. (9.Brick Properties of Good Bricks • Bricks should be uniform in color.7Kg (6 lb. /cft).5 x 2. • They should be neither over-burnt nor under-burnt. size and shape. stone nodules. The standard dimension is 240 x 115 x 70mm.) per brick and the unit weight should be generally 2000 Kg/in' (125 lbs. • The weight should be generally 2. • The average compressive strength of bricks should be in the range of 2500 psi . . • Bricks should not change in volume when wet. • They should not absorb more than about 115 of their own weight of water when immersed in water for 24 hours 05 to 20% of dry weight). • They should give clear ringing or metallic sound when struck by another brick or hammer. etc.

2m (4 ft. – Take two bricks and form a 'T' as shown in the following figure and drop from a height of 1.Brick Field testing of Bricks – Take a brick and try to make a mark on its surface with nail. it is a good brick. If it gives a clear ringing or metallic sound. .) to 1. they are good bricks. and free from cracks and voids. they are not good bricks. – Color.5m (5 ft. If you can do this. If not. – Surfaces of good bricks should be smooth having square edges. If they remain unbroken. If they break. shape. it is not a good brick. it is sufficiently hard and compact.) on a more or less solid surface. size and structure of bricks should be uniform. – Take a brick and strike it with a hammer or another brick.

Water for Construction should be free from • Suspended Particles • Dissolved Salt • Acids and Alkalis .Water Water should be pure as far as possible as drinking water.

free from loose mil scales. the bar should be welded. • The overlap if given should be staggered. • Steel bars should not be clean by oily substance to remove the rust. • Overlapping bars do not touch each other and these should be kept apart with concrete. • The steel bars should not be disturbed while lying cements concrete. . • No overlap is given in the bar having a diameter more than 36 mm. the bar of full length is used. dust and loose rust coats of paints. • The cranks in the bar at the end should be kept in position by using spots.Steel General precautions for steel bars in reinforcement • Steel bars are clear. • Required cover under steel bars should be given before laying the cement concrete. • If possible. • Steel bars should be stored in such a way as to avoid distortion and to prevent deterioration and corrosion. oil or other coatings which may destroy or reduce bond strength. if required. • The bar is bent correctly and accurately to the size and shape as shown in drawings.

– Aldrin 0. In this process any one of the following chemical substance is mixed with water to prepare emulsion.Treatment of Termite • The most acceptable treatment is soil treatment.5% – Chlordane 1.5% – Heptachlor 0. .0% • The emulsion is applied to the periphery wall of the building on both side at ground level after construction of the wall in a rate 5 liter per sqm.

Testing of Concrete & Steel • Compressive Strength Test of Concrete – – – – – Mold sizes will 6” X 12” or 4” X 8” Tapping with Rod 25 times Curing for 28 days Tested in Laboratory by UTM Strength should satisfy with desire design strength • Tensile Strength Test of Steel – Tested in Laboratory by UTM – Strength should satisfy with desire design strength .

caissons & substructure walls 1-3 • Slabs.Slump test • Determining the consistency of the freshly mixed concrete by filling a conical frustum mold with a sample of concrete. beams & reinforced walls 1-4 • Building columns 1-4 . The size of the mold is height 12”. Handles are attached to the outside of the mold. Freshly mixed concrete is placed in the mold in three layers. After filling the mold with concrete the mold is removed smoothly and then the slump is measured with respect to the top of the mold. each being compacted separately with 25 blows of a 5/8” diameter and 2‟ long temping rod. Type of Construction Slump (inch) • RCC Foundation walls & Footings 1-3 • Plain Footings. top diameter 4” and bottom diameter 8”. the amount by which the concrete drops below the mold height measured and this represents the slump. Both top and bottom are left open. then placing it over a flat plate and removing the mold.

– Contact with moving machinery or object being machined. which resulted in serious accidents at different construction sites: – Accident occurred during lifting or carrying operations by accidental release of objects from the cranes. – Contact with electricity of electric discharge. . – Concrete bricks fell from the platform of a material hoist.g. – Fall of passenger hoist or appliance carrying persons. – Drowning e. – Collapse of a temporary excavation. two workers drowned during the construction of a pier in the sea in Hong Kong. – Exposure to fire.Accident scenarios • The following are some scenarios. work struck by a moving vehicle.

Safety Checklist • Contractors should issue a standardized safety checklist for the use of safety officers and safety supervisors for site safety inspections. And grade C represents “Immediate Action”. Items that may be included in the checklist are: 1. Grade A represents „Adequate‟. • Scores or grading should be allocated to items in the safety checklist. Grade B represents “Improvement is needed”. Site Layout: – Site hoarding and covered walkway – Site fence and main entrance – Internal transit and drive way .

Excavation work – Shoring and support – Ladder and other access – Safety barrier – Base plate and ground support – Vertical lateral and diagonal supports – Safety raising and toe boards 3. Ladder – Steel ladder should not be located near to high voltage over head cable. . Working platform 4.Safety Checklist 2. – The top portion of ladder should be at least 1 m above landing of the working platform.

. Work in confined space – Sufficient supply of fresh air/removal of toxic gases – Availability of respiration apparatus – Continuous monitoring by co-workers outside the confined working space.Safety Checklist 5. Structural steel installation – Provision of working platform – Fixing points for safety belt – Safety net – Demolition – Refer to structural drawing as built brawing – Provision of working platform – Removal of debris to prevent overloading. 6.

Transportation – Inspection and maintenance of transportation vehicles – Competent and qualified operatives – Reverse signaling and barks man 8.Safety Checklist 7. Tower crane / mobile crane – Inspection and testing certificate – Weekly inspection and inspection report 9. Fire prevention – Fire extinguisher – Unobstructed access and egress – Storage for inflammable goods 10. . Safety inspection – Site inspection should be carried out by safety officers and safety supervisors on daily basis to ensure safety procedures for construction operation.

• Guide up the construction work • Decide the proper step for any emergency need • Dealing with contractor • Quality assure of materials • Estimate the required materials as per actual • Follow up the project schedule • Implementation of final design and layout .Responsibilities of Project Engr.

4 – 0.5. it is 5 ft.4. It may be 72 hours take to start new one within this region.5 ft distance For false slab: reinforcement used in one layer Foyer: Space below the drop wall Wall cabinet: attached almirah with wall Rupban sheet: sheet use between wooden shutter Plaster generally ½ to ¾ in thick Kobla is unsymmetrical area with different face • • • • • • • • • • • • • . steel props used at 2. Honeycomb is a problem generally present in column U-rod is used for Column shutter‟s support Hessian cloth is used for curing of column Wooden props generally used at 2 ft distance. At a time maximum allowable brick wall height for 5 in. Slump test: if falls ≥6 in.Keynote • • Water Cement ratio (W/C) should be ≥ 0. After one pile casting has finished. Lintel thickness will 8 inches if opening is ≥ 5 ft. then it will be bad. wall is 4 ft and for 10 in. next pile work should not be within 10 to 15 ft distance before the final setting completed for first one. for any other case it is 6 in. generally 0. wall.

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