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Chapter3

Attitudes and Job Satisfication

心碩二 何育甄
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Attitudes
• Attitudes are evaluative statements-either favorable or unfavorable -concerning objects, people, or events. • They reflect how one feels about something. • “I like my job.”

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Attitudes  What are the main components of attitudes?  How consistent are attitudes ?  Does behavior always follow from attitudes ?  What are the major attitudes ?  How are employee attitudes measured ?  What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity ? 3 .

What are the main components of attitudes ? • Cognitive component – The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. 4 . attitudes are important because of their behavioral component. • In organization. • Behavioral component – An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. • Affective component – The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.

• No individual can completely avoid dissonce. • So how do people cope ? 5 . hence.How consistent are attitudes? • Cognitive dissonance – Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. the discomfort. • Festinger argued that any form of inconsistency in uncomfortable and that individuals will attempt to reduce the dissotency and.

6 . – The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements. – The rewards that may be involved in dissonance.• The desire to desire reduce dissonce would be determined by – The importance of the elementscreating the dissonance.

its accessibility. • Self-Perception Theory – Attitudes are used after the fact to make sence out of an action that has already occurred. its specificity. – The most powerful moderators of the attitudesbehavior relationship have been found to be the importance of the attitude. 7 .Does behavior always follow from attitudes? • The assumed relationship between attitudes and behavior was challenged by a review of the research in the late 1960s. whether there exist social pressures. and whether a person has direct experience with attitude.

What are the major job attitudes?  Job satisfaction – A positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.  Organizational commitment – The degree to which an employee indentifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. 8 . – Psychological empowerment. actively participates in it.  Job involvement – The degree to which a person identifies with a job. and considers performance important to self-worth.

 Organizational commitment • Affective commitment • An emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values. • Continuance commitment • The percieved economics values of remaining with an organization compared to leaving it. • Normative commitment • An obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons. 9 .

– Affective commitment was a predictor of various outcomes than the other two commitment dimensions. • Affective commitment – Affective commitment is more strongly related to organizational outcomes like performance and turnover than the other two commitment dimensions.• Organizational commitment • There is a positive relationship between organizational commitment ang job producttivity. 10 . • There us a negative relationships between organizational commitment and both absenteeism and turnover.

satisfaction with. and enthusiasm for the organization. Other job attitudes • Percieved organizational support (POS) Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being.  Are thes job attitudes really all that distinct? 11 . • Employee engagement An individual’s involvement with.

How are employee attitudes measured? • Attitude surveys – Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires on how they feel about their jobs. supervisors. and the organization. 12 . work groups. – The use of regular attitude surveys can alert management to potential problems and employees’ intentions early.

Sample Attitude Survey .

gender. – Exploring print and visual media that recount and portray diversity issues. 14 . – Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds.What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity • Managers are increasingly concerned with changing employee attitudes to reflect shifting perspectives on racial. • Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: – Participating in diversity training that provides for selfevaluation and group discussions. and other diversuty issues.

Job Satisfaction  How do we measure job satisfaction  How satisfied are employees in their jobs  What causes an employee to have a high level of job satisfaction  How do dissatisfied and satisfied employees affect an organization 15 .

Measuring job satisfaction?  A single global rating – Reply by circling a number between 1and 5 that corresponds to answers from “highly satisfied ” to “high dissatisfied”. • Is one of the foregoing approaches superior to the other 16 . – These factors are relaed on a standardized scale and than added up to creat an overall score.  A sumation score made up of number of job facets – It identifies key elements in a job and ask for the employee’s feelings about each.

How satisfied are people in their jobs • Are most people satisfied with there jobs • Research shows that satisfaction levels vary a lot depending on which facet of job satisfaction you’re talking about. • Exhibit 3-2 17 .

18 . • Pay (Exhibit 3-3) • Personality also plays a role.What cause job satisfaction? • Enjoying the work itself is almost always the facet most strongly correlated with high level of overall job satisfaction.

The impact of dissatisfied and satisfied employees on the workplace? • Exhibit 3-5 Active EXIT VOICE Destructive NEGLECT LOYALTY Constructive Passive 19 .

.How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction Exit Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. Loyalty Passively waiting for conditions to improve. Neglect Allowing conditions to worsen. Voice Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions.

Organizations with more satisfied employees tend to be more effective than organizations with fewer satisfied employees. Satisfaction and Turnover – Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Job satisfaction and OCB Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job 21  . – Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. • • Job satisfaction and job performance • “Myth or Science ” . Satisfaction and Absenteeism – Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.

upbeat. -The relation is moderate to weak organizations that provide liberal sick leave benefits. – They are experienced. Job satisfaction and customer satisfaction • Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: – They are more friendly. – They are less likely to turnover which helps build longterm customer relationships. • Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction. 22 .  Job satisfaction and absenteeism • There is consistent negtive relationship between satisfaction and obsenteeism. and responsive.

• The key is that if employees don’t like their work environment. Job satisfaction and turnover • Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover. 23 . -Some factors are important constrains on the actual decision to leave one’s current job.  Job satisfaction and workplace deviance • Job dissatisfaction predicts a lot of specific behaviors. -It is not always easy to forecast exactly how they’ll respond. they’ll respond somehow.