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By Faculty of Agrotechnology and Food Science, UMT - Malaysia

H.M. Edi Armanto and Swaditya Rizki

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Experimental Classification Assumptions CRD (2 Slides) Field Layout (4 Slides) The Linear Model Hypothesis One-Way-ANOVA (3 Slides) Post Hoc Test Example 1: Diet Medicines Example 2: Pesticide Formulas

Single Factor Experiment (One way ANOVA):
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Two or More Factor Experiment (Two ways ANOVA):
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Completely Randomized Design (CRD) Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) Latin Square Design (LS)

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Factorial Experiment in CRD Factorial Experiment in RCBD Factorial Experiment in LS Split Plot Design (SPD) Strip Block Design (SBD)

Homogeneity of Variance • Populations (for each condition) have equal variances . Randomness & Independence of Errors • Independent random samples are drawn for each condition 2.1. Normality • Populations (for each condition) are Normally Distributed 3.

laboratory and not suitable in the Agricultural fields Environmental effects are relatively easy to control It is assumed that there is no interaction .CRD (1) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Experimental Units (object) are assigned randomly to treatments (subjects are assumed homogeneous) Experimental units receive the same treatment One factor of treatment (2 or more treatment levels ) Analyzed by One-Way ANOVA Appropriate for homogenous experimental unit. i.e.

ij is a random error.Subjects are sampled from t existing groups  Statistical model yij is measurement from the jth subject from group i: yij     i   ij   i   ij where  is the overall mean. and i is the population mean for group i .CRD (2)  Controlled Experiments . i is the effect of treatment i .Subjects assigned at random to one of the t treatments to be compared  Observational Studies .

Treatment 1 Replications 2 3 4 Experimental units are randomly assigned to treatments .

2. r Xij = the observation in ith treatment and the jth replication  = overall mean t = the effect of the ith treatment i ij = random error .….2.…. t j = 1.The Linier Model X =μ + t +ε ij i ij i = 1.

.. = t • All Population Means are Equal • No Treatment Effect H1: Not All i Are Equal • At Least 1 Pop.  t .H0: 1 = 2 = 3 = .. Mean is Different • Treatment Effect NOT 1  2  ..

. Mean is Different • Treatment Effect NOT 1  2  .  t f(X) H1 : 1 = 2 = 3 f(X) X 1 =  2  3 X . = t • All Population Means are Equal • No Treatment Effect Not All i Are Equal • At Least 1 Pop....H0: 1 = 2 = 3 = .

then Means Are Not Equal 4. Compares 2 Types of Variation to Test Equality of Means 2. If Treatment Variation Is Significantly Greater Than Random Variation. Comparison Basis Is Ratio of Variances 3. Variation Measures Are Obtained by ‘Partitioning’ Total Variation .1.

Total variation Variation due to treatment     Variation due to random sampling   Sum of Squares Among Sum of Squares Between Sum of Squares Treatment (SST) Among Groups Variation  Sum of Squares Within Sum of Squares Error (SSE) Within Groups Variation .

 The One-Way ANOVA procedure produces a one-way analysis of variance for a quantitative dependent variable by a single factor (independent) variable. This technique is an extension of the two-sample t test. Analysis of variance is used to test the hypothesis that several means are equal. .

 In addition to determining that differences exist among the means. There are two types of tests for comparing means: a priori contrasts and posthoc tests. You can also test for trends across categories. you may want to know which means differ. Contrasts are tests set up before running the experiment. and post hoc tests are run after the experiment has been conducted. .

Range tests identify homogeneous subsets of means that are not different from each other. post hoc range tests and pairwise multiple comparisons can determine which means differ.05. Once you have determined that differences exist among the means. Pairwise multiple comparisons test the difference between each pair of means and yield a matrix where asterisks indicate significantly different group means at an alpha level of 0. .

the observed significance level is adjusted for the fact that multiple comparisons are being made. . Bonferroni. but controls overall error rate by setting the error rate for each test to the experiment wise error rate divided by the total number of tests. Hence. Uses t tests to perform pairwise comparisons between group means.

Makes pairwise comparisons using a stepwise order of comparisons identical to the order used by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. but sets a protection level for the error rate for the collection of tests.  Duncan. Uses the Studentized range statistic to make all of the pairwise comparisons between groups. Sets the experimentwise error rate at the error rate for the collection for all pairwise comparisons. Uses the Studentized range statistic. Tukey.  And many more… . rather than an error rate for individual tests.

We wanted to find out which one can be delivered to the market (the best one according to statistical analysis).Three diet medicines (one is commonly used) were tested with 6 replications on the rats. The measured variable is weight loss after 30-days treatments. Replications Rat + Treatment Medicine 1 Rat + Treatment Medicine 2 Rat + no Medicine (Used a Control) 1 2 3 4 5 6 24 26 11 14 21 17 10 12 5 9 17 22 7 5 13 10 21 23 .

Treatments of Diet Medicine (M) Rat+Med 1 Rat+Med 2 Rat+ no Med Replications (6 times) Experimental units will be randomly assigned to treatments by using lottery or other methods .

R2. R3. M3) R : Rat (Replication. R5. M2. R1. R6) .Layout of Experimental Unit for field observations M1R1 M2R6 M2R2 M3R5 M3R3 M2R4 M1R3 M13R6 M1R5 M3R6 M3R1 M1R2 M2R3 M2R5 (6 times) Replication M3R2 M2R1 M1R3 M3R4 Note: M: Treatment (Diet Medicine. R4. M1.

Replication Medicine .

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.1. 3. Analyze using one-way ANOVA. 2. Make hypothesis to get a decision We consider that the data is normally distributed and homogeneous. Determine the data above is normally distributed and homogeneous.

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05 .Homogeneous because 0.772 >   0.

so the variance of each sample is homogeneous.05  If the significance obtained <  .Significance correction If the significance obtained >  .   0. so the variance of each sample is not homogeneous. .

Note: Between Group = Treatments Within Groups = Error .

H0 is received  If the significance obtained < 0. .05. (i=1.05 .05  If the significance obtained > 0. that means sig > 0.H0: μ1 = μ2 = μ3 H1: μi not all equal. There is no difference among the medicines.210. So all of the medicines have the same effect.3) Significance correction   0. H0 is rejected Conclusion : because of the sig is 0.2.05.

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 Mean difference of medicine 1  2. All of the mean difference is not significantly. all of the medicines don’t have different mean significantly. . 13 . From the Post Hoc table is obtained that all of the sig (table) have values more than 0. 32. that means. 31. 23.05 (significance correction). 21.

duncan test. sidak. . We can analyze using Benferroni. with the same analysis from Tukey Test. etc like the Post Hoc box below. scheffle.

The experimental results are presented in the Table. The UKM pesticide was already standardized (as control). Three same formulas of pesticides (made in UKM. We compare effectivity of pesticide to kill insects in the 6 experimental stations with the same doses. UMT). Replications A B C D E F G UKM (control) 50 30 12 30 12 30 20 UPM 120 70 70 65 90 70 70 UMT 140 125 80 90 70 80 80 . UPM. The measured variable was amount of killed insects in the fields.

UKM A B C D E F G Pesticides UPM UMT Replications (7 times) Experimental units will be randomly assigned to treatments by using lottery or other methods .

G : Replications . F. E. C. P2: UPM: P3: UMT) A. B. D.UKM P1A P2F P3B P2A P1C P3D P3G Pesticides UPM P2B P3E P3C P2D P1D P1F P2G UMT P1E P3F P3A P1B P2C P3E P1G Replications (7 times) Note: P: Pesticide (P1: UKM.

Value University .

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For Post Hoc and Options button is the same like example 1 .

05 Note: Between Group = Treatments Within Groups = Error .Homogeneous because 0.178 >   0.

  0. . so the variance of each sample is not homogeneous. so the variance of each sample is homogeneous.05  If the significance obtained <  .Significance correction If the significance obtained >  .

(i=1. H0 is received  If the significance obtained < 0. in other word.H0: μ1 = μ2 = μ3 H1: μi not all equal.05.05 . H0 is rejected Conclusion : because of the sig is 0. So H0 is rejected. there is pesticide which is different with other.2.000.05  If the significance obtained > 0. H1 is received. at least.3) Significance correction   0. that means sig < 0.05. .

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From the Post Hoc table obtained. UKM-UPM and UKM-UMT are significantly different. 2) There are sig = 0. for sig value is 0. between UPM – UMT or UMT-UPM have the same capability.05). i. That means: the two pesticides have the same results. 1) .348 (sig >0.e. that pesticides (made in UPM and UMT) are better than UKM pesticide. Both pesticides have the same ability to kill insects. that means: two pesticides have the different impacts.000 (sig < 0.05). Their causes are that both pesticides have better active components in the pesticides.

Many thanks for your attention See you in other occasions ‫وهللا أعلم‬ .