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# Nurture – refers to environmental experiences

CONTINUITY VS. DISCONTINUITY
cumulative changes. (like a
a tree)
Discontinuity – distinct
changes, abrupt (like
caterpillar becoming a
butterfly)

# RESEARCH DESIGNS

## MS. JOHANNA C. SALDO

Steps of the Scientific Method
What is the five-step procedure used to answer questions with empirical research
and data-based conclusions?
Curiosity
1
Develop hypothesis
2
Test hypothesis
3
Raise a question
A prediction that
can be tested
Design and conduct
research; gather
empirical evidence
Draw conclusions
4
Report results
5
Support or refute
hypothesis
Share data, conclusions,
alternate explanations
scientific method: A way to answer questions using
empirical research and data-based conclusions.
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# original hypotheis

The Survey as a Way to Test Hypotheses
What happens when a survey is taken?
Randomly
selected
Information is
Survey
collected from a
large number of
people
Acquiring valid
survey data is not
easy
Survey
Some people
influenced by wording
lie and some
and sequence of
questions
change their
minds
survey: A research method in which information is collected from a large
number of people by interviews, written questions, or some other means.
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# isolate cause

Correlation and Causation
How do variables correlate?
correlation:
A number
between +1.0
Quiz on Correlation
and -1.0 that
indicates the
degree of
relationship
between two
Two Variables
Positive, Negative,
or Zero Correlation?
Why?
(Third Variable)
variables,
1.
Ice cream sales
third variable:
expressed in
terms of their
likelihood that
one variable
will (or will not)
occur when the
Positive
and murder rate
heat
2.
third variable:
Negative
number of baby teeth
age
other variable
no third variable:
3.
does (or does
not).
their average number
of offspring
Zero
each child must
have a parent of
each sex
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# results & Hawthorne effect

The Experiment as a Way to Test Hypotheses
independent variable: In an
experiment, the variable that is
introduced to see what effect it has
on the dependent variable.
dependent variable: In an
experiment, the variable
that may change as a result of
whatever new condition or
(Also called experimental variable.)
How Do You Design an Experiment?
Experimental
Special treatment
Significant change
Many participants,
group
(independent
in the dependent
measured on many
variable)
variable
characteristics,
including the
dependent
variable
(the behavior
(two equal
(predicted
groups)
outcome)
being studied)
Comparison
(or control) group
No special
treatment
No change in the
variable
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# Weaknesses: complex, expensive and time-consuming

Studying Change Over Time
cross-sectional research:
Does one of these patterns
accurately represent intelligence
as people age?
A research design that compares
groups of people who differ in
age but are similar in other
important characteristics.
Longitudinal
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longitudinal research: A
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same individuals are followed
over time and their
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development is repeatedly
assessed.
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Cross-Sectional
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cohort: A group defined by the
shared ages of its members.
35
30
25
32
39
46
55
60
67
74
81
88
Age
Source: Schale, 1988
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T = Score

DATA GATHERING
TECHNIQUES

• # 5. Life History Records

Scientific Observation as a Way to Test Hypotheses
Where do
scientific observation: A method of testing
scientific
a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and
observations
take place?
recording participants’ behavior in a
systematic and objective manner.
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Project:
Form a group with 5 members
Choose a topic issues that concerns child and