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ISSUES IN HUMAN

ISSUES IN HUMAN

DEVELOPMENT

 
ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
 

Developmental Issues

Developmental Issues Nature and Nurture Extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture
Developmental Issues Nature and Nurture Extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture

Nature and Nurture

Extent to which development is

influenced by nature and by

nurture

Stability and

Degree to which early traits and

Change

characteristics persist through

life or change

Continuity-

Extent development involves

Discontinuity

gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)

Developmental Issues Nature and Nurture Extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture
Developmental Issues Nature and Nurture Extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture

NATURE VS. NURTURE

NATURE VS. NURTURE  Nature – refers to an individual’s biological inheritance  Nurture – refers
 

Nature – refers to an individual’s biological inheritance

Nurture refers to environmental experiences

 Nurture – refers to environmental experiences
 
CONTINUITY VS. DISCONTINUITY Continuity – involve gradual, cumulative changes. (like a seedling gradually growing into a
CONTINUITY VS. DISCONTINUITY
Continuity – involve gradual,
cumulative changes. (like a
seedling gradually growing into
a tree)
Discontinuity – distinct
changes, abrupt (like
caterpillar becoming a
butterfly)

STABILITY VS. CHANGE

STABILITY VS. CHANGE  Stability – Are we what our first experiences have made us? 
 

Stability Are we what our first experiences have made us?

Change Do we develop into someone

different from who we are at an earlier

point in development?

point in development?
 

Activity: Research

Activity: Research  Form a small circle  Identify the parts of the sample research you
 
  • Form a small circle

  • Identify the parts of the sample research you

have

  • Think of a research topic (it can be similar or different from the sample research), it should be about child and adolescent

development

  • TOPIC

  • RESPONDENTS

 
RESEARCH DESIGNS P R E P A R E D B Y : MS. JOHANNA C.

RESEARCH DESIGNS

RESEARCH DESIGNS P R E P A R E D B Y : MS. JOHANNA C.
 
RESEARCH DESIGNS P R E P A R E D B Y : MS. JOHANNA C.

P R E P A R E D

B Y :

MS. JOHANNA C. SALDO

 
Steps of the Scientific Method What is the five-step procedure used to answer questions with empirical
Steps of the Scientific Method
What is the five-step procedure used to answer questions with empirical research
and data-based conclusions?
Curiosity
1
Develop hypothesis
2
Test hypothesis
3
Raise a question
A prediction that
can be tested
Design and conduct
research; gather
empirical evidence
Draw conclusions
4
Report results
5
Support or refute
hypothesis
Share data, conclusions,
alternate explanations
scientific method: A way to answer questions using
empirical research and data-based conclusions.
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Scientific Method

Scientific Method 1. Identify and define the problem 2. Determine the hypothesis 3. Collect and analyze
 
  • 1. Identify and define the

1. Identify and define the

problem

  • 2. Determine the hypothesis

  • 3. Collect and analyze data

  • 4. Formulate conclusions

  • 5. Apply conclusions to the

original hypotheis

 
The Survey as a Way to Test Hypotheses What happens when a survey is taken? Randomly
The Survey as a Way to Test Hypotheses
What happens when a survey is taken?
Randomly
selected
Information is
Survey
collected from a
large number of
people
Acquiring valid
survey data is not
easy
Survey
answers are
Some people
influenced by wording
lie and some
and sequence of
questions
change their
minds
survey: A research method in which information is collected from a large
number of people by interviews, written questions, or some other means.
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Case Study

Case Study Description : An in-depth look at an individual Strengths : Provides information about an
 

Description: An in-depth look at an individual

Strengths: Provides information about an individual’s fears, hopes, fantasies,

traumatic experiences, family relationships, etc.

Weaknesses: Caution in generalizing information

 

Correlational Study

Correlational Study Description: determines associations Strengths: it can predict one from the other Weaknesses: no manipulation
 

Description: determines associations

Strengths: it can predict one from the other

Weaknesses: no manipulation of

factors, it is not dependable way to

isolate cause

 
Correlation and Causation How do variables correlate? correlation: A number between +1.0 Quiz on Correlation and
Correlation and Causation
How do variables correlate?
correlation:
A number
between +1.0
Quiz on Correlation
and -1.0 that
indicates the
degree of
relationship
between two
Two Variables
Positive, Negative,
or Zero Correlation?
Why?
(Third Variable)
variables,
1.
Ice cream sales
third variable:
expressed in
terms of their
likelihood that
one variable
will (or will not)
occur when the
Positive
and murder rate
heat
2.
Learning to read and
third variable:
Negative
number of baby teeth
age
other variable
no third variable:
3.
Sex of adult and
does (or does
not).
their average number
of offspring
Zero
each child must
have a parent of
each sex
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Experimental

Experimental Description: determines cause and effect Strengths: only true reliable method of establishing cause and effect
 

Description: determines cause and effect

Strengths: only true reliable method of establishing cause and effect

Weaknesses: - limited to what is observable, testable and manipulable

  • - If there is no randomisation, may limit generalisability of the findings

  • - Experimentation with humans is subject to a

number of influences that may dilute the study

results & Hawthorne effect

 
The Experiment as a Way to Test Hypotheses independent variable: In an experiment, the variable that
The Experiment as a Way to Test Hypotheses
independent variable: In an
experiment, the variable that is
introduced to see what effect it has
on the dependent variable.
dependent variable: In an
experiment, the variable
that may change as a result of
whatever new condition or
(Also called experimental variable.)
situation the experimenter adds.
How Do You Design an Experiment?
Experimental
Special treatment
Significant change
Many participants,
group
(independent
in the dependent
measured on many
variable)
variable
characteristics,
including the
dependent
variable
(the behavior
(two equal
(predicted
groups)
outcome)
being studied)
Comparison
(or control) group
No special
treatment
No change in the
variable
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Naturalistic Observation

Naturalistic Observation Description: observing the children/ subject in their natural environment Strengths: it allows researcher to
 

Description: observing the children/ subject in their natural environment Strengths: it allows researcher to

directly observe the subject in the

natural setting

Weaknesses: difficult to determine the exact cause of behavior and cannot control outside variables

 

Longitudinal

Longitudinal Description: studies and follows through a single group over a period of time Strengths: record
 

Description: studies and follows through a single group over a period of time

Strengths: record and monitor developmental trends

Weaknesses: expensive and time- consuming, drop-out of subjects

 

Cross-sectional

Cross-sectional Description: individuals of different ages are compared at one time Strengths: record and monitor developmental
 

Description: individuals of different ages are compared at one time

Strengths: record and monitor developmental trends, not time

consuming, no need to wait

Weaknesses: gives no information about how individuals change or the stability of their characteristics

 

Sequential

Sequential Description: combined cross-sectional and longitudinal. Starts w/ cross-sectional then after a few months/ years ,
 

Description: combined cross-sectional and longitudinal. Starts w/ cross-sectional

then after a few months/ years , the

longitudinal

Strengths: record and monitor developmental trends, answers the

disadvantage in cross-sectional

Weaknesses: complex, expensive and time-consuming

 
Studying Change Over Time cross-sectional research: Does one of these patterns accurately represent intelligence as people
Studying Change Over Time
cross-sectional research:
Does one of these patterns
accurately represent intelligence
as people age?
A research design that compares
groups of people who differ in
age but are similar in other
important characteristics.
Longitudinal
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longitudinal research: A
research design in which the
60
55
same individuals are followed
over time and their
50
development is repeatedly
assessed.
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Cross-Sectional
40
cohort: A group defined by the
shared ages of its members.
35
30
25
32
39
46
55
60
67
74
81
88
Age
Source: Schale, 1988
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T = Score

Action Research

Action Research Description: reflective process of progressive problem-solving led by individuals working with others in teams
 

Description: reflective process of progressive problem-solving led by individuals working with

others in teams to improve the way they address issues and solve problems

Strengths: appropriate if they want to create changes and create information on processes and outcome of strategies used

-uses different methods, stakeholders are included

Weaknesses: results cannot be applied to other organization

 

Research Ethics

Research Ethics  Informed consent  Confidentiality  Debriefing  Deception

Informed consent Confidentiality Debriefing Deception

 
DATA GATHERING TECHNIQUES
DATA GATHERING
TECHNIQUES

DATA GATHERING TECHNIQUES

DATA GATHERING TECHNIQUES 1. Observation 2. Physiological measures 3. Standardized Tests 4. Interviews and Questionnaires 5.
 
  • 1. Observation

  • 2. Physiological measures
    3. Standardized Tests

2. Physiological measures 3. Standardized Tests
  • 4. Interviews and Questionnaires

  • 5. Life History Records

 
Scientific Observation as a Way to Test Hypotheses Where do scientific observation: A method of testing
Scientific Observation as a Way to Test Hypotheses
Where do
scientific observation: A method of testing
scientific
a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and
observations
take place?
recording participants’ behavior in a
systematic and objective manner.
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Project:  Form a group with 5 members  Choose a topic issues that concerns child
Project:
Form a group with 5 members
Choose a topic issues that concerns child and
adolescent
Conduct a research about that
Parts of research should have;
Introduction
Methods – what kind of research, respondents and # of
respondents, the questionnaire (if there is one)
Conclusion
References