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# Monroe L.

Weber-Shirk
School of Civil and
Environmental Engineering
Pipe Networks
Pipeline systems
Transmission lines
Pipe networks
Measurements
Manifolds and diffusers
Pumps
Transients

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Pipeline systems:
Pipe networks
Water distribution systems for municipalities
Multiple sources and multiple sinks connected
with an interconnected network of pipes.
Computer solutions!
KYpipes
WaterCAD
CyberNET
EPANET
http://www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/wswrd/epanet.html
Water Distribution System
Assumption
Each point in the
system can only
have one _______
The pressure change
from 1 to 2 by path a
must equal the
pressure change
from 1 to 2 by path b
a

p
1

+
V
1
2
2g
+ z
1
=
p
2

+
V
2
2
2g
+ z
2
+ h
L

p
2

p
1

=
V
1
a
2
2g
+ z
1

V
2
a
2
2g
z
2
h
L
a
b
1
2
pressure
Same for path b!

h
L
a
= h
L
b
a
b
1
2
Pressure change by path a
Water Distribution System
Assumption
Pipe diameters are constant or K.E. is small
Model withdrawals as occurring at nodes so
V is constant between nodes
Or sum of head loss around loop is _____. zero
(Need a sign convention)

V
1
a
2
2g
+ z
1

V
2
a
2
2g
z
2
h
L
a
=
V
1
b
2
2g
+ z
1

V
2
b
2
2g
z
2
h
L
b
Pipes in Parallel
A B
Q
1
Q
total
energy
proportion
Find discharge given pressure at A and B
______& ____ equation
add flows
Find head loss given the total flow
assume a discharge Q
1
through pipe 1
solve for head loss using the assumed discharge
using the calculated head loss to find Q
2

assume that the actual flow is divided in the same
_________ as the assumed flow
Q
2
S-J
Networks of Pipes
____ __________ at all nodes
The relationship between head
loss and discharge must be
maintained for each pipe
Darcy-Weisbach equation
_____________
Exponential friction formula
_____________

A
0.32 m
3
/s 0.28 m
3
/s
?
b
a
1
2
Mass conservation
Swamee-Jain
Hazen-Williams
Network Analysis
Find the flows in the loop given the inflows
and outflows.
The pipes are all 25 cm cast iron (c=0.26 mm).
A
B
C D
0.10 m
3
/s
0.32 m
3
/s
0.28 m
3
/s
0.14 m
3
/s
200 m
100 m
Network Analysis
Assign a flow to each pipe link
Flow into each junction must equal flow out
of the junction
A
B
C D
0.10 m
3
/s
0.32 m
3
/s
0.28 m
3
/s
0.14 m
3
/s
0.32
0.00
0.10
0.04
arbitrary
Network Analysis
Calculate the head loss in each pipe
f=0.02 for Re>200000

h
f
=
8fL
gD
5
t
2
|
\

|
.
|
Q
2
f
h kQ Q =
339
) 25 . 0 )( 8 . 9 (
) 200 )( 02 . 0 ( 8
2 5
1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
k
k
1
,k
3
=339
k
2
,k
4
=169
A
B
C D
0.10 m
3
/s
0.32 m
3
/s
0.28 m
3
/s
0.14 m
3
/s
1
4 2
3

h
f
1
= 34.7m
h
f
2
= 0.222m
h
f
3
= 3.39m
h
f
4
= 0.00m
h
f
i
i=1
4

= 31.53m
Sign convention +CW
2
5
s
m
Network Analysis
The head loss around the loop isnt zero
Need to change the flow around the loop
the ___________ flow is too great (head loss is
positive)
reduce the clockwise flow to reduce the head loss
Solution techniques
Hardy Cross loop-balancing (___________ _________)
Use a numeric solver (Solver in Excel) to find a change
in flow that will give zero head loss around the loop
Use Network Analysis software (EPANET)
clockwise
optimizes correction
Numeric Solver
Set up a spreadsheet as shown below.
the numbers in bold were entered, the other cells are
calculations
initially AQ is 0
use solver to set the sum of the head loss to 0 by changing AQ
the column Q
0
+ AQ contains the correct flows
Q 0.000
pipe f L D k Q0 Q0+Q hf
P1 0.02 200 0.25 339 0.32 0.320 34.69
P2 0.02 100 0.25 169 0.04 0.040 0.27
P3 0.02 200 0.25 339 -0.1 -0.100 -3.39
P4 0.02 100 0.25 169 0 0.000 0.00
31.575 Sum Head Loss
Solution to Loop Problem
A
B
C D
0.10 m
3
/s
0.32 m
3
/s
0.28 m
3
/s
0.14 m
3
/s
0.218
0.102
0.202
0.062
1
4 2
3
Q
0
+ AQ
0.218
0.062
0.202
0.102
Better solution is software with a GUI showing the pipe network.
Network Elements
Controls
Check valve (CV)
Pressure relief valve
Pressure reducing valve (PRV)
Pressure sustaining valve (PSV)
Flow control valve (FCV)
Pumps: need a relationship between flow and head
Reservoirs: infinite source, elevation is not
affected by demand
Tanks: specific geometry, mass conservation
applies
Check Valve
Valve only allows flow in one direction
The valve automatically closes when flow
begins to reverse
closed
open
Pressure Relief Valve
Valve will begin to open when pressure in
the pipeline ________ a set pressure
(determined by force on the spring).
pipeline
closed
relief flow
open
exceeds
Low pipeline pressure
High pipeline pressure
Where high pressure could cause an explosion (boilers, water heaters, )
Pressure Regulating Valve
Valve will begin to open when the pressure
___________ is _________ than the setpoint
pressure (determined by the force of the spring).
sets maximum pressure downstream
closed open
less
downstream
High downstream pressure
Low downstream pressure
Similar function to pressure break tank
Pressure Sustaining Valve
Valve will begin to open when the pressure
________ is _________ than the setpoint pressure
(determined by the force of the spring).
sets minimum pressure upstream
closed open
upstream greater
Low upstream pressure High upstream pressure
Similar to pressure relief valve
Flow control valve (FCV)
Limits the ____ ___
through the valve to a
specified value, in a
specified direction
Commonly used to limit
the maximum flow to a
value that will not
adversely affect the
providers system
flow rate
Pressure Break Tanks
In the developing world small water supplies in
mountainous regions can develop too much
pressure for the PVC pipe.
They dont want to use PRVs because they are too
expensive and are prone to failure.
Pressure break tanks have an inlet, an outlet, and
an overflow.
Is there a better solution?
Network Analysis Extended
The previous approach works for a simple
loop, but it doesnt easily extend to a whole
network of loops
Need a matrix method
Initial guess for flows
Adjust all flows to reduce the error in pressures
__________________________
_______________________________

Simultaneous equations
Appendix D of EPANET manual
Pressure Network Analysis
Software: EPANET
A
B
C D
0.10 m
3
/s
0.32 m
3
/s
0.28 m
3
/s
0.14 m
3
/s
0.218
0.102
0.202
0.062
1
4 2
3
junction
pipe
reservoir
EPANET network solution
2 n
i j ij ij ij
H H h rQ mQ = = +
0
ij i
j
Q D =

AH= F
ii ij
j
A p =

ij ij
A p =
1
1
2
ij
n
ij ij
p
nr Q m Q

=
+

h
f
=
8fL
gD
5
t
2
|
\

|
.
|
Q
2
5 2
8 fL
r
gD t
| |
=
|
\ .
2 n =
5 2
1
8
2
ij
ij
p
fL
Q
gD t
=
| |
|
\ .
i ij i ij if f
j j f
F Q D y p H
| |
= + +
|
\ .

( )
( )
2
sgn
n
ij ij ij ij ij
y p r Q m Q Q = +
( )
ij ij ij ij i j
Q Q y p H H
(
=