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Designing Products and Services

Production and Operations Management B.Sc Industrial Engineering and Management

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Design Process
► Effective

design can provide a competitive edge

 matches product or service characteristics with customer requirements  ensures that customer requirements are met in the simplest and least costly manner  reduces time required to design a new product or service  minimizes revisions necessary to make a design workable

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Design Process…

Product design
 defines appearance of product  sets standards for performance  specifies which materials are to be used  determines dimensions and tolerances

Service design
 specifies what physical items, sensual benefits, and psychological benefits customer is to receive from service  defines environment in which service will take place

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Design Process… 4 .

Idea Generation Sources ► Company‟s own R&D department ► Customer complaints or suggestions ► Marketing research ► Suppliers ► Salespersons field ► Factory workers ► New technological developments ► Competitors in the 5 .

Idea Generation Sources…  Perceptual Maps  Visual comparison of customer perceptions  Benchmarking  Comparing product/service against best-in-class  Reverse engineering  Dismantling competitor‟s product to improve your own product 6 .

Perceptual Map of Breakfast Cereals GOOD TASTE A LOW NUTRITION HIGH NUTRITION D Rice Krispies B Cheerios C Wheaties E Shredded Wheat BAD TASTE 7 .

sales volume  Price range  Cost/benefit analysis. 8 . focus groups  Whether there is enough demand for the proposed product ► Economic analysis  Production and development costs vs. net present value etc.Feasibility Study ► Market analysis  Customer surveys. IRR. interviews.

Feasibility Study… ► Technical/strategic analysis  Does the new product require new technology?  Does the company has sufficient labor or management skills?  Is sufficient capacity available for production? ► Performance specifications  Describe the function of the product  What the product should do to satisfy the customer needs? 9 .

Rapid Prototyping ► Build a prototype  form design  functional design  production design ► Test prototype ► Revise design ► Retest 10 .

Form and Functional Design ► Form Design  how product will look? ► Functional Design  reliability  maintainability  usability 11 .

Reliability ► Reliability is the probability that a given part or product will perform its intended function for a specified length of time under normal conditions of use product or system‟s reliability is a function of the reliabilities of its component parts and how the parts are arranged 12 ►A .

90 0.90 = 0.90 0.81 Conclusion? 13 . Rs = (R1)(R2)….(Rn) Components in series 0. then the system reliability is the product of the component part reliabilities.Computing Reliability If all parts must function for the product or system to operate.90 x 0.

Computing Reliability… To increase the reliability of the original parts.95)(1-0. The components are said to operate in parallel.90) = 0.995 .95 Conclusion? 14 R2 R1 1-(1-0. Rs = 1-(1-R1)(1-R2) Components in parallel 0. redundant parts can be built in to back up a failure.90 0.

98 x 0.98 Rs = 0.98 0.92 0.90)=0.98 1-(1-0.98 0.99 0.951 15 .99 x 0.System Reliability 0.90 0.98 = 0.92)(1-0.

20=5 hours 16 . and MTBF=1/0.20. Its failure rate would be 4/20=0.MTBF and Failure Rate ► MTBF: Length of time a product or service is in operation before it fails ► MTBF is another way of measuring reliability MTBF = Time / Number of failures ► MTBF is the reciprocal of failure rate If a laptop‟s battery fails four times in 20 hours of operation.

Maintainability ► Also ► Ease called serviceability and/or cost with which a product is maintained or repaired products in modules. like computers for consumers ► Assembling ► Instructions ► Specifying regular maintenance schedules 17 .

System availability (uptime) = MTBF MTBF + MTTR where: MTBF = mean time between failures MTTR = mean time to repair 18 .MTTR ► Mean time to repair ► Quantitative measure of maintainability MTBF and MTTR can be combined to calculate the average availability or „uptime‟ of a system.

0 19 .0 2. which provider should she choose? Provider MTBF (hr) MTTR (hr) A B C 60 36 24 4.Example ► Amy Russell must choose a service provider for her company‟s e-commerce site. Given the following server performance data. she will base her decision on server availability. Other factors being equal.0 1.

75% SAB = 36 / (36 + 2) = .0 1.Solution Provider A B C MTBF (hr) 60 36 24 MTTR (hr) 4.0 SAA = 60 / (60 + 4) = .74% SAC = 24 / (24 + 1) = .9474 or 94.9375 or 93.96 or 96% Amy should choose provider C 20 .0 2.

Usability ► Ease of use of a product or service      ease of learning ease of use ease of remembering how to use frequency and severity of errors user satisfaction with experience 21 .

Production Design ► How the product will be made ► Designs that are difficult to make often result in poor-quality products ► Over-designing the products ► Lack of knowledge of manufacturing capabilities ► Approaches to production design  Simplification  Standardization  modularity 22 .

assemblies.Production Design…  Simplification  reducing number of parts. or modules. or options in a product   Standardization  using commonly available and interchangeable parts Modularity  combining standardized building blocks. to create unique finished products 23 .

Design Simplification (a) Original design (b) Revised design (c) Final design Assembly using common fasteners One-piece base & elimination of fasteners Design for push-and-snap assembly 24 .

Final Design and Process Plans ► Final design ► Process plans equipment and  detailed drawings and specifications for new product or service  workable instructions ► necessary tooling ► component sourcing recommendations ► job descriptions and procedures ► computer programs for automated machines 25 .

Techniques for improving the design process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Make design decisions concurrently rather than sequentially Design for manufacture and assembly Reviewing designs to prevent failures and prevent value Designing for the environment Using Quality Function Deployment Designing for robustness Engage in collaborative design

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1. Concurrent Engineering
► An

approach used in product development in which the functions of design engineering, manufacturing engineering and other functions are integrated to reduce the elapsed time required to bring a new product to market called Simultaneous Engineering

► Also

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Participants from marketing, manufacturing, engineers, suppliers, accountants etc. are essential to effective product design.

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Concurrent Engineering 29 .

service. test. quality. assembly. and (2)…Assure the best cost. time-to-market. safety. delivery. procurement. and repair. Design For Manufacture & Assembly Design for manufacture and assembly is the process of proactively designing products to (1)…Optimize all the manufacturing functions: fabrication. 30 . reliability. and customer satisfaction.2. shipping.

Design for Manufacture and Assembly… About 70% of life cycle cost of a product is determined by the decisions made during product design ► Material for each part ► Part geometry ► Tolerances ► Surface finish ► Organizing parts into subassemblies ► Assembly methods 31 .

Where a pin is to be assembled into a hole that is only slightly larger in diameter. then it is much easier if the end of the pin or the entry to the hole (or both) are chamfered or finished with a radius.Design for Manufacture and Assembly… Term used to describe such attempts to favorably influence the manufacturability & assembly of a new product is Design for Manufacturing & Assembly (DFMA). 32 .

(A) Organizational changes (B) Design principles and guidelines 33 .Considerations for DFMA ► DFMA involves systematic consideration of manufacturability in the development of a new product design.

manufacturing engineers. to develop the new product design 34 .Organizational Changes in DFMA Purpose Making changes in an organization‟s structure so that closer interaction and better communication occurs between design and manufacturing personnel 1. By creating project teams consisting of product designers. quality engineers. material scientists etc.

Organizational Changes in DFMA… 2. By requiring design engineers to spend some career time in manufacturing to witness firsthand how manufacturability is impacted by a product's design By assigning manufacturing engineers to the product design department on either a temporary or full-time basis to serve as producibility consultants 35 3. .

General Design Principles and Guidelines in DFMA (1) Minimize number of components: ► ► ► ► ► ► Reduces the weight of the product which is advantageous Easier disassembly in maintenance and field service Reduced WIP and inventory control problems Reduced assembly cost Greater reliability in the final product Fewer parts to purchase. reduced ordering costs 36 .

General Design Principles and Guidelines in DFMA… (2) Use standard commercially available components: ► Avoids design of custom-engineered components ► Reduced design effort ► Quantity discounts possible ► Better inventory control possible 37 .

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General Design Principles and Guidelines in DFMA… (3) Design for ease of fabrication: ► Select processes compatible with materials ► Select processes compatible with production volumes ► Select materials that minimize processing time while meeting functional requirements ► Avoid unnecessary part features because they require extra processing effort 39 .

more the cost 40 .General Design Principles and Guidelines in DFMA… (4) Design Parts with tolerances that are within process capability: ► Avoid unnecessary tight tolerances ► Avoid tolerances less than process capability ► Specify bilateral tolerances ► Avoid unneeded surface finish requirements ► More the surface finish.

A capable process is one where almost all the measurements fall inside the specification limits 41 .

.General Design Principles and Guidelines in DFMA… (5) Design so that assembly is „foolproof‟: ► Components should be designed so that they can only be assembled in one way asymmetrical holes and stops can be used to mistake-proof the assembly process 42 ► Notches.

Fool-Proofing 43 .

General Design Principles and Guidelines in DFMA… (6) Minimize flexible components: ► Components made of rubber. ► Flexible components are more difficult to handle ► Flexibility makes assembly more difficult ► The use of circuit boards rather than electric wiring helps to minimize this problem 44 . belts. cables etc.

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General Design Principles and Guidelines in DFMA…
(7) Minimize the use of fasteners:
► Fasteners

can add significantly to costs ► Frequently the cost of installation will greatly exceed purchase cost ► If fasteners must be used then minimize the sizes and types ► Small fasteners and parts should be avoided
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Four types of snap fit design allow different types of disassembly

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Angled surfaces are used so assembly and disassembly can be accomplished conveniently with opposite forces. 48 .

General Design Principles and Guidelines in DFMA… (8) Design for ease of assembly: ► Include chamfers and tapers on mating parts ► Minimize number of distinct fasteners ► The product's design should enable assembly to begin with a base component with a large relative mass upon which other parts are added ► Find the fewest assembly steps ► Achieve the fewest number of reorientations of the parts during assembly 49 .

50 .General Design Principles and Guidelines in DFMA… (9) Use modular design: ► Each assembly should consist of 5-15 parts ► Easier maintenance and field service ► Reduces inventory requirements ► Reduces final assembly time Modular design means trying to subdivide an assembly in smaller parts (modules) that are easily interchangeably used.

General Design Principles and Guidelines in DFMA… (10) Shape parts and products for ease of packaging: ► Compatible equipment ► Facilitates shipment to customer ► Can use standard packaging cartons with automated packaging 51 .

Boothroyd Dewhurst's DFM Concurrent Costing Software ► The DFM Concurrent Costing software is a concurrent engineering software analysis tool that provides guidance in the selection of materials and processes and generates piece part and tooling cost estimates at any stage of product design is a critical component of the DFMA process that provides manufacturing knowledge into the cost reduction analysis of Design for Assembly 52 ► DFM .

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Design for life cycle ► Design for life cycle refers to the product after it has been manufactured and includes factors ranging from product delivery to product disposal ► Hence the price paid for the product may be a small portion of its total cost when life cycle costs are considered 55 .

Factors in design for life cycle 56 .

3. Design Review Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)  a systematic method of analyzing product failures ► Fault tree analysis (FTA)  a visual method for analyzing interrelationships among failures ► Value analysis (VA)  helps eliminate unnecessary features and functions ► 57 .

FMEA ►A group of activities intended to  Recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product or process and its effects  Identify actions that could eliminate or reduce the chance of potential failures  Document the process ► FMEA is a “before-the-event” action requiring a team effort to easily and inexpensively alleviate changes in design and production 58 .

The Design FMEA Document ► FMEA number ► Item ► Design responsibility ► Prepared by ► Model number/year ► Key date ► FMEA date ► Core team 59 .

Design FMEA Form 60 .

Minor defect. Minor Nonconformance.Severity (S) Severity of Effect Extreme May endanger machine or operator. Hazardous without warning May endanger machine or operator. Possible scrap. Loss of primary function. Possible jig lock. Requires repair or Minor Variance Minor disruption to production. may be reprocessed on-line. Product requires repair or Major Variance. Fit & Finish item. No effect None Low Moderate . Loss of secondary function performance. High Reduced primary function performance. Reduced secondary function performance. product repaired or "Use-As-Is" disposition. Medium disruption of production. Product must be repaired. 100% scrap. Hazardous with warning Rating 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 61 Major disruption to production line. Minor defect. may be reprocessed on-line.

1 in 2 1 in 3 1 in 8 1 in 20 1 in 80 1 in 400 1 in 2000 10 9 8 7 6 Moderate High 5 4 3 2 1 62 Process is in statistical control. Failure is unlikely. Process is in statistical control. Process is in statistical control but with isolated failures. Only isolated relatively fewer failures are likely to occur.5M Remote . No known failures associated with almost identical processes. Similar processes have experienced problems. Low 1 in 15k 1 in 150k 1 in 1. Occasional failure are likely to occur.Occurrence (O) Likelihood of Occurrence Very High Failure Rate Rating Failure is almost inevitable Process is not in statistical control.

Controls will almost certainly detect the existence of a failure. 10 Low Controls have a remote chance of detecting the failure. Very High High . 9 8 Moderate 7 Controls may detect the existence of a failure 6 5 4 3 2 1 63 Controls have a good chance of detecting the existence of a failure The process automatically detects failure.Detection (D) Likelihood that control will detect failure Very Low Rating No known control(s) available to detect failure mode.

Risk Priority Number ► RPN = (S) × (O) ×(D) ► Relative measure of the design risk ► Values for the RPN can range from 1 to 1000  1 being the smallest design risk possible ► RPN is used to rank various concerns in the design ► Efforts must be made to reduce RPN 64 .

Fault tree analysis (FTA) 65 FTA for potato chips breakage .

Value analysis (VA) ► ► ► ► ► Define the functions of the part Assign a value to each function. better. or faster by someone else?     66 . determine the cost of providing that function Calculate ratio of value/cost Improve this ration either by reducing cost of item or increasing its worth Questions to ask Can we do without it? Does it cost more than it is worth? Can something else do a better job? Can it be made by ► a less costly method? ► with less costly tooling? ► with less costly material?  Can it be made cheaper.

Design for Environment ► Design for environment  designing a product from material that can be recycled  design from recycled material  design for ease of repair  minimize packaging  minimize material and energy used during manufacture.4. consumption and disposal ► Extended producer responsibility  holds companies responsible for their product even after its useful life 67 .

) 68 .Design for Environment (cont.

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) ► Translates voice of customer into technical design requirements ► Displays requirements in matrix diagrams  first matrix called “house of quality”  series of connected houses 69 .5.

House of Quality Importance 5 Trade-off matrix 3 Design characteristics 4 Relationship matrix 2 Competitive assessment 1 Customer requirements 6 Target values 70 .

Competitive Assessment of Customer Requirements Scale: 10 being the most important. 1 being the least important In Competitive Assessment 5 being the best Competitive Assessment 1 9 2 B A 3 X 4 5 Customer Requirements Presses quickly Removes wrinkles Irons well Doesn’t stick to fabric Provides enough steam Doesn’t spot fabric Doesn’t scorch fabric Heats quickly Easy and safe to use Automatic shut-off Quick cool-down Doesn’t break when dropped 8 6 8 6 9 6 3 3 5 AB X AB X AB A XB X X AB B A B X BA X A ABX X A B71 Doesn’t burn when touched Not too heavy 5 8 AB X X .

+ + + + Doesn’t break when dropped Doesn’t burn when touched Not too heavy + + + + .+ + + + + + + .+ + + + + 72 Automatic shutoff Number of holes Size of soleplate Weight of iron Size of holes From Customer Requirements to Design Characteristics .+ + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + .Protective cover for soleplate Time required to reach 450º F Time to go from 450º to 100º Material used in soleplate Flow of water from holes Energy needed to press Thickness of soleplate Customer Requirements Presses quickly Removes wrinkles Irons well Doesn’t stick to fabric Provides enough steam Doesn’t spot fabric Doesn’t scorch fabric Heats quickly Easy and safe to use Automatic shut-off Quick cool-down - .

Energy needed to press Weight of iron Tradeoff Matrix - Size of soleplate Thickness of soleplate Material used in soleplate + - Number of holes Size of holes Flow of water from holes Time required to reach 450º Time to go from 450º to 100º Protective cover for soleplate Automatic shutoff + + 73 .

8x4 8x4 9x5 4 3 8x5 * cm 2 1 4 4 3 3 * ty SS MG T 5 4 SS * ea 27 27 35 4 3 30 * mm oz/s sec sec Y/N Y/N 15 15 15 3 3 0.Targeted Changes in Design Protective cover for soleplate N N N 3 5 74 Time to go from 450º to 100º Time required to reach 450º Material used in soleplate Flow of water from holes Energy needed to press Thickness of soleplate As long as the estimated impact exceeds the estimated cost.7 2 3 45 35 50 5 4 30 * 500 350 600 5 4 500 * Y Y Y 0 2 Automatic shutoff Number of holes Size of soleplate To decide which design characteristic to change we compare the estimated impact of the change with The estimated cost.7 4 3 1.2 * in. we should make a change Units of measure Iron A Iron B Our Iron (X) Estimated impact Estimated cost Targets Design changes Objective measures ft-lb 3 4 2 3 3 lb 1.3 0.4 1.5 0. Weight of iron Size of holes .2 1.

Completed House of Quality SS = Silverstone MG = Mirorrglide T = Titanium 75 .

A Series of Connected QFD Houses Product characteristics Customer requirements A-1 Product characteristics Part characteristics Process planning Process characteristics Parts deployment Part characteristics House of quality A-2 Process characteristics A-3 Operations A-4 Operating requirements 76 .

Benefits of QFD      Promotes better understanding of customer demands Promotes better understanding of design interactions Involves manufacturing in design process Breaks down barriers between functions and departments Provides documentation of design process 77 .

settings) ► ► Controllable factors ► Uncontrollable factors ► The designer's job is to choose the values for the controllable variables that react in a robust fashion to the possible occurrences of uncontrollable factors 78 . and form of processing  user‟s control (length of use. maintenance. dimensions.6. Design for Robustness ► Robust product Robust design  designed to withstand variations in environmental and operating conditions  yields a product or service designed to withstand variations  design parameters such as material used.

Tolerance and Consistency ► Tolerance  allowable ranges of variation in the dimension of a part ► Consistency  consistent errors are easier to correct than random errors  parts within tolerances may yield assemblies that are not within limits  consumers prefer product characteristics near their ideal values ► Although all the parts or products within tolerances may be acceptable. they are not all of the same quality 79 .

Taguchi‟s Quality Loss Function ► Quantifies customer preferences toward quality Emphasizes that customer preferences are strongly oriented toward consistently Quality Loss ► Lower tolerance limit Target Upper tolerance limit 80 .

7. and improves quality of the design A complex design can involve hundreds of suppliers The web allows them to work together throughout the design and manufacturing processes 81 . between manufactures and suppliers. helps to resolve product launch issues. Collaborative Design ► ► ► ► ► ► Magnifies the benefits of CAD-designed products using internet Collaborative Design can take place between designers in the same company. or between manufacturers and customers Manufacturers can send out product designs electronically with request for quotes (RFQ) from potential suppliers Accelerates product development.

Designing Services 82 .

or performances ► Goods  tangible objects ► Facilitating ► Facilitating services goods  accompany almost all purchases of goods  accompany almost all service purchases 83 . deeds.Characteristics of Services ► Services  acts.

Continuum from Goods to Services 84 .

2. 5. Services are intangible 6. 8.Characteristics of Services… 1. Service output is variable Services have higher customer contact Services are perishable Service inseparable from delivery 7. 3. 85 . Services tend to be decentralized and dispersed Services are consumed more often than products Services can be easily emulated 4.

Service Design Process 5-86 .

Service Process Matrix 5-87 .

accommodate customer needs. Low Contact Services Design Decision Facility location High-Contact Service Convenient to customer Low-Contact Service Near labor or transportation source Designed for efficiency Facility layout Must look presentable. and facilitate interaction with customer 88 .High vs.

testing and rework possible to correct defects Quality control Capacity Planned for average demand 89 . customer expectations and perceptions of quality may differ. Low Contact Services… Design Decision High-Contact Service More variable since customer is involved in process.High vs. customer present when defects occur Excess capacity required to handle peaks in demand Low-Contact Service Measured against established standards.

High vs. Low Contact Services… Design Decision High-Contact Service Low-Contact Service Worker skills Must be able to interact well with customers and use judgment in decision making Must accommodate customer schedule Technical skills Scheduling Customer concerned only with completion date 90 .

service may change during delivery in response to customer Low-Contact Service Mostly back-room activities.High vs. includes environment as well as actual service Fixed. less extensive 91 . Low Contact Services… Design Decision High-Contact Service Mostly front-room activities. planned and executed with minimal interference Service process Service package Varies with customer.

and artifacts ► Quantitative ► Front-office/Back-office activities techniques 92 . symbols.Tools for Service Design ► Service blueprinting influence interaction visibility support ► Servicescapes     line line line line of of of of  space and function  ambient conditions  signs.

Service Blueprinting 5-93 .

Service Blueprinting… 94 .

The End 95 .