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Background of Lung cancer

• According HK Cancer Registry of Hospital Authority (2011),

– Lung cancer = 1st leading cancer types and 1st leading causes of cancer death in HK – In 2010, 3 696 persons died from lung cancer (28.3% of all cancer deaths)

Definition – Lung cancer • Two types: primary and secondary • Primary lung cancer – a malignant nodule or mass originating in the bronchial epithelium – mainly classified as small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer • Secondary lung cancer – malignant spread to lung via vascular and lymphatic networks from extra pulmonary sites – often associated with thyroid or breast cancer primary sites White & Truax (2007) .

. Hammar & Colby.Clinical Manifestation • Coughing • Hemoptysis • Shortness of breath or wheezing • Hoarseness • Fatigue • Fever • • • • • Chest pain Clubbing of fingernails Difficulty in swallowing Weight loss Frequent lung infections Dail. (1995).

Health Problem – Risk Factors • Smoking and Secondhand smoke • Exposures at Home and Work (radon. asbestos. etc. • 正氣虛損, 陰陽失調, 邪毒乘虛入肺,致肺 臟失調 • 津液失於輸布,津聚 為痰,痰凝氣滯,瘀 阻絡脈,於是瘀毒膠 結,日久形成積塊 • 肺癌病理因素 – 痰、 瘀、毒、虛、鬱 . arsenic.) • Family History • Radiation Therapy to the Chest • Diet CDC-Lung Cancer Risk Factors (2013).

Treatments  For early / middle stages of sizable cancerous cells  Surgery ( partial / whole lobes)  Chemotherapy  Radiotherapy  Chinese medicines  For late stages of cancer / inappropriate for surgery or chemotherapy  Adopt Chinese medicine or integration with Western and Chinese medicine .

reduce anxiety. • Do something more to help with own care. such as N/V and pain • Comfort themselves and relief anxiety brought by cancer treatment.Reasons patients with cancer choose CAM • Cope with the side effects of cancer treatments.National Cancer Institute (2013). reduce side effects and improve quality of life Thinking About Complementary and Alternative Medicine . . Patients with lung cancer usually use CAM as integrative therapies with standard treatment to control pain. • Try to treat cancer Acupuncture: An Introduction | NCCAM (2007).

dyspnea. or to soothe symptoms of pain or nausea and vomiting Alberts. chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. solid. W. metallic needles • practiced in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years • one of the key components of TCM Complementary and Alternative Therapies .American Lung Association (2013).2nd.Selected CAM Therapies (1) • Acupuncture • stimulation of points on the body by penetrating the skin with thin. . • Evidence-based guidelines published by the American College of Chest Physicians in Sep 2007 recommend acupuncture for relief fatigue. Initial (2007).

Treatment Protocol (1) (a) Acupuncture site: 大椎,足三里,血海, 關元 • Method:每天毫針刺 • Appropriate for lower number of WBC after Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy (b) Acupuncture site: 肺俞,足三里,氣海, 膏肓, 太溪 • Method:毫針刺,用灸,每天 1 – 2 次 • Appropriate for late stage for lung and renal deficiency (兩虛) .

不疚,once daily • Appropriate for fever (e) Acupuncture site:孔最 • Method:快速強刺激. 心俞. 留針30-60mins • Appropriate for relieving chest pain . 足三里 • Method:毫針刺. 內關. once daily • Appropriate for relieving nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy and radiotherapy (d) Acupuncture site: 肺俞. 尺澤. 脾俞. 曲池 • Method:毫針刺,用瀉.Treatment Protocol (2) (c) Acupuncture site: 隔俞.

Retrieved May 1.gov/cancer/lung/basic_info/risk_factors.Reference • • • • www3.nih.hk (2011). Initial (2007). Retrieved May 1. (1995). P. 132 (3_suppl). Chest. • • • • . Retrieved May 1. S. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.. H. T.ha. Dail. S. 2013 from National Institutes of Health.html Alberts. (2007).pdf White.National Cancer Institute (2013). W.cancer. V. CDC-Lung Cancer Risk Factors (2013). & Colby. Diagnosis and management of lung cancer executive summary*: accp evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). B.American Lung Association (2013). Retrieved May 1. Hammar.gov/health/acupuncture/introduction.htm Thinking About Complementary and Alternative Medicine .cdc. 2013 from National Institutes of Health. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Web site: http://www.org/lung-disease/lungcancer/treating-lung-cancer/how-is-lung-cancer-treated/complementary-and-alternativetherapies. 2013 from Division of Cancer Prevention and Control. Web site: http://www. Pulmonary Pathology--tumors.ha. D. 2013 from Hospital Authority. CancerStat2010. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web site: http://nccam.htm Acupuncture: An Introduction | NCCAM (2007).hk/cancereg/Summary%20of%20CanStat%202010. National Cancer Institute Web site: http://www..org. 1S-19S. Retrieved May 1. & Truax.2nd.org. D.lung. 2013 from American Lung Association. Springer-Verlag. The nurse practitioner in long-term care: guidelines for clinical practice. Hong Kong Cancer Registry Web site: http://www3.gov/cancertopics/cam/thinking-about-CAM/page2 Complementary and Alternative Therapies ..