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Background of Lung cancer

• According HK Cancer Registry of Hospital Authority (2011),

– Lung cancer = 1st leading cancer types and 1st leading causes of cancer death in HK – In 2010, 3 696 persons died from lung cancer (28.3% of all cancer deaths)

Definition – Lung cancer • Two types: primary and secondary • Primary lung cancer – a malignant nodule or mass originating in the bronchial epithelium – mainly classified as small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer • Secondary lung cancer – malignant spread to lung via vascular and lymphatic networks from extra pulmonary sites – often associated with thyroid or breast cancer primary sites White & Truax (2007) .

. Hammar & Colby.Clinical Manifestation • Coughing • Hemoptysis • Shortness of breath or wheezing • Hoarseness • Fatigue • Fever • • • • • Chest pain Clubbing of fingernails Difficulty in swallowing Weight loss Frequent lung infections Dail. (1995).

Health Problem – Risk Factors • Smoking and Secondhand smoke • Exposures at Home and Work (radon. asbestos. etc. • 正氣虛損, 陰陽失調, 邪毒乘虛入肺,致肺 臟失調 • 津液失於輸布,津聚 為痰,痰凝氣滯,瘀 阻絡脈,於是瘀毒膠 結,日久形成積塊 • 肺癌病理因素 – 痰、 瘀、毒、虛、鬱 . arsenic.) • Family History • Radiation Therapy to the Chest • Diet CDC-Lung Cancer Risk Factors (2013).

Treatments  For early / middle stages of sizable cancerous cells  Surgery ( partial / whole lobes)  Chemotherapy  Radiotherapy  Chinese medicines  For late stages of cancer / inappropriate for surgery or chemotherapy  Adopt Chinese medicine or integration with Western and Chinese medicine .

reduce anxiety. • Do something more to help with own care. such as N/V and pain • Comfort themselves and relief anxiety brought by cancer treatment.Reasons patients with cancer choose CAM • Cope with the side effects of cancer treatments.National Cancer Institute (2013). reduce side effects and improve quality of life Thinking About Complementary and Alternative Medicine . . Patients with lung cancer usually use CAM as integrative therapies with standard treatment to control pain. • Try to treat cancer Acupuncture: An Introduction | NCCAM (2007).

dyspnea. or to soothe symptoms of pain or nausea and vomiting Alberts. chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. solid. W. metallic needles • practiced in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years • one of the key components of TCM Complementary and Alternative Therapies .American Lung Association (2013).2nd.Selected CAM Therapies (1) • Acupuncture • stimulation of points on the body by penetrating the skin with thin. . • Evidence-based guidelines published by the American College of Chest Physicians in Sep 2007 recommend acupuncture for relief fatigue. Initial (2007).

Treatment Protocol (1) (a) Acupuncture site: 大椎,足三里,血海, 關元 • Method:每天毫針刺 • Appropriate for lower number of WBC after Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy (b) Acupuncture site: 肺俞,足三里,氣海, 膏肓, 太溪 • Method:毫針刺,用灸,每天 1 – 2 次 • Appropriate for late stage for lung and renal deficiency (兩虛) .

不疚,once daily • Appropriate for fever (e) Acupuncture site:孔最 • Method:快速強刺激. 心俞. 留針30-60mins • Appropriate for relieving chest pain . 足三里 • Method:毫針刺. 內關. once daily • Appropriate for relieving nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy and radiotherapy (d) Acupuncture site: 肺俞. 尺澤. 脾俞. 曲池 • Method:毫針刺,用瀉.Treatment Protocol (2) (c) Acupuncture site: 隔俞.

Retrieved May • • • • (2011). Initial (2007). Retrieved May 1. (1995). P. 132 (3_suppl). Chest. • • • • . Retrieved May 1. S. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.. H. T.ha. Dail. S. 2013 from National Institutes of Health.html Alberts. (2007).pdf White.National Cancer Institute (2013). W.cancer. V. CDC-Lung Cancer Risk Factors (2013). & Colby. Diagnosis and management of lung cancer executive summary*: accp evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). B.American Lung Association (2013). Retrieved May 1. Thinking About Complementary and Alternative Medicine .cdc. 2013 from National Institutes of Health. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Web site: 2013 from Division of Cancer Prevention and Control. Web site: http://www. Pulmonary Pathology--tumors.ha. D. 2013 from Hospital Authority. CancerStat2010. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web site: http://nccam.htm Acupuncture: An Introduction | NCCAM (2007).hk/cancereg/Summary%20of%20CanStat%202010. National Cancer Institute Web site: 1S-19S. Retrieved May 1. & D.lung. 2013 from American Lung Association. Springer-Verlag. The nurse practitioner in long-term care: guidelines for clinical practice. Hong Kong Cancer Registry Web site: Complementary and Alternative Therapies ..