Introduction to Finite Elements
Numerical Integration in 2D
Prof. Suvranu De
Reading assignment:
Lecture notes, Logan 10.4
Summary:
• Gauss integration on a 2D square domain
• Integration on a triangular domain
• Recommended order of integration
• “Reduced” vs “Full” integration; concept of “spurious” zero
energy modes/ “hourglass” modes
1D quardrature rule recap
¿
}
=
÷
~ =
M
i
i i
f W d f I
1
1
1
) ( ) ( ç ç ç
Weight
Integration point
Choose the integration points and weights to maximize accuracy
NewtonCotes Gauss quadrature
1. „M‟ integration points are
necessary to exactly integrate
a polynomial of degree „M1‟
2. More expensive
1. „M‟ integration points are
necessary to exactly integrate a
polynomial of degree „2M1‟
2. Less expensive
3. Exponential convergence,
error proportional to
M
M
2
2
1

.

\

Example
ç
f(ç)
1
1 3 / 1 ÷
3 / 1
( ) 3 / 1 f ÷ ( ) 3 / 1 f
)
3
1
( )
3
1
( ) (
1
1
÷ + ~
}
÷
f f d f ç ç
A 2point Gauss quadrature rule
is exact for a polynomial of degree 3 or less
dt ds t s f I
} }
÷ ÷
=
1
1
1
1
) , (
2D square domain
s
t
1
1
1 1


.

\

3
1
,
3
1


.

\

÷
3
1
,
3
1


.

\

÷ ÷
3
1
,
3
1


.

\

÷
3
1
,
3
1
¿¿
¿¿
}
¿
} }
= =
= =
÷
=
÷ ÷
=
~


.

\

~
=
M
i
M
j
j i ij
M
i
M
j
j i j i
M
j
j j
t s f W
t s f W W
ds t s f W
dt ds t s f I
1 1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (
Using 1D Gauss rule to integrate along „t‟
Using 1D Gauss rule to integrate along „s‟
Where W
ij
=W
i
W
j
)
3
1
,
3
1
( )
3
1
,
3
1
( )
3
1
,
3
1
( )
3
1
,
3
1
(
) , (
2
1
2
1
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ + =
~
¿¿
= =
f f f f
t s f W I
i j
j i ij
For M=2
W
ij
=W
i
W
j
=1
Number the Gauss points IP=1,2,3,4
IP
IP
IP
f W dt ds t s f I
¿
} }
=
÷ ÷
~ =
4
1
1
1
1
1
) , (
¿¿
} }
= =
÷ ÷
~ =
M
i
M
j
j i ij
t s f W dt ds t s f I
1 1
1
1
1
1
) , ( ) , (
The rule
Uses M
2
integration points on a nonuniform grid inside the
parent element and is exact for a polynomial of degree (2M1)
i.e.,
1 2
1 1
1
1
1
1
÷ s + =
¿¿
} }
= =
÷ ÷
M for t s W dt ds t s
M
i
M
j
j i ij
exact
 o
 o
 o
A M
2
–point rule is exact for a complete polynomial of degree (2M1)
CASE I: M=1 (Onepoint GQ rule)
t
s
1
1
1 1
s
1
=0, t
1
=0
W
1
= 4
) 0 , 0 ( 4 ) , (
1
1
1
1
f dt ds t s f I ~ =
} }
÷ ÷
is exact for a product of two
linear polynomials
CASE II: M=2 (2x2 GQ rule)
)
3
1
,
3
1
( )
3
1
,
3
1
( )
3
1
,
3
1
( )
3
1
,
3
1
(
) , (
2
1
2
1
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ + =
~
¿¿
= =
f f f f
t s f W I
i j
j i ij
is exact for a product of two
cubic polynomials
s
t
1
1
1 1


.

\

3
1
,
3
1


.

\

÷
3
1
,
3
1


.

\

÷ ÷
3
1
,
3
1


.

\

÷
3
1
,
3
1
CASE III: M=3 (3x3 GQ rule)
is exact for a product of two 1D polynomials of degree 5
s
t
1
1
1 1
¿¿
} }
= =
÷ ÷
~ =
3
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
) , ( ) , (
i j
j i ij
t s f W dt ds t s f I
5
3
5
3
5
3
5
3
1
2 3
4 5
6
7
8
9
81
40
81
25
,
81
64
9 8 7 6
5 4 3 2
1
= = = =
= = = =
=
W W W W
W W W W
W
Examples
If f(s,t)=1
4 ) , (
1
1
1
1
= =
} }
÷ ÷
dt ds t s f I
A 1point GQ scheme is sufficient
If f(s,t)=s
0 ) , (
1
1
1
1
= =
} }
÷ ÷
dt ds t s f I
A 1point GQ scheme is sufficient
If f(s,t)=s
2
t
2
9
4
) , (
1
1
1
1
= =
} }
÷ ÷
dt ds t s f I
A 3x3 GQ scheme is sufficient
2D Gauss quadrature for triangular domains
Remember that the parent element is a right angled triangle with unit
sides
s
t
1
1
s=1t
t
t
} }
=
÷
=
=
1
0
1
0
dsdt ) , ( f
t
t
s
t s I
The type of integral encountered
¿
} }
=
=
÷
=
~
=
M
IP
IP IP
t
t
s
f W
t s I
1
1
0
1
0
dsdt ) , ( f
Constraints on the weights
if f(s,t)=1
2
1
2
1
dsdt ) , ( f
1
1
1
0
1
0
=
=
= =
¿
¿
} }
=
=
=
÷
=
M
IP
IP
M
IP
IP
t
t
s
W
W
t s I
Example 1. A M=1 point rule is exact for a polynomial
t s
t s f 1 ~ ) , (

.

\

~
3
1
,
3
1
2
1
f I
s
t
1
1
1/3
1/3
Why?
t s t s f
3 2 1
) , ( o o o + + =
Assume
3 2 1
1
0
1
0
! 3
1
! 3
1
2
1
dsdt ) , ( f o o o + + =
} }
=
÷
= t
t
s
t s
Then
But
( )
1 3 1 2 1 1 3 2 1
1 1 1
1
0
1
0
! 3
1
! 3
1
2
1
) , ( dsdt ) , ( f
t s W
t s f W t s
t
t
s
o o o o o o + + = + +
=
} }
=
÷
=
Hence
! 3
1
;
! 3
1
;
2
1
1 1 1 1 1
= = = t W s W W
Example 2. A M=3 point rule is exact for a complete polynomial
of degree 2
2 2
1 ~ ) , (
t st s
t s
t s f

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

~
2
1
, 0
6
1
0 ,
2
1
6
1
2
1
,
2
1
6
1
f f f I
s
t
1
1
1/2
1/2
2
1
3
Example 4. A M=4 point rule is exact for a complete polynomial
of degree 3
3 2 2 3
2 2
1 ~ ) , (
t st t s s
t st s
t s
t s f
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 . 0 , 6 . 0
96
25
2 . 0 , 2 . 0
96
25
6 . 0 , 2 . 0
96
25
3
1
,
3
1
96
27
f f f f I + + +

.

\

÷ ~
s
t
1
1
2
1
3 4
(1/3,1/3)
(0.2,0.2)
(0.2,0.6)
(0.6,0.2)
Recommended
order of
integration
“Finite Element
Procedures”
by K. –J. Bathe
“Reduced” vs “Full” integration
Full integration: Quadrature scheme sufficient to provide exact
integrals of all terms of the stiffness matrix if the element is
geometrically undistorted.
Reduced integration: An integration scheme of lower order
than required by “full” integration.
Recommendation: Reduced integration is NOT recommended.
Which order of GQ to use for full integration?
To computet the stiffness matrix we need to evaluate the following integral
} }
÷ ÷
=
1
1
1
1
T
dsdt ) det( B D B J k
For an “undistroted” element det (J) =constant
Example : 4noded parallelogram
st
t s N
i
1
~
~ B
1
s t
~ B D B
T
1
s t
s
2
st t
2
Hence, 2M1=2
M=3/2
Hence we need at least a 2x2 GQ scheme
Example 2: 8noded Serendipity element
~
i
N
1
s t
s
2
st t
2
s
2
t st
2
~ B
1
s t
s
2
st t
2
~ B D B
T
1
s t
s
2
st t
2
s
3
s
2
t st
2
t
3
s
4
s
3
t s
2
t
2
st
3
t
4
Hence, 2M1=4
M=5/2
Hence we need at least a 3x3 GQ scheme
“Spurious” zero energy mode/ “hourglass” mode
The strain energy of an element
dV D d k d U
e
V
T T
c c
}
= =
2
1
2
1
Corresponding to a rigid body mode,
0 0 = ¬ = U c
If U=0 for a mode d that is different from a rigid body mode, then
d is known as a “spurious” zero energy mode or “hourglass” mode
Such a mode is undesirable
Reduced integration leads to rank deficiency of the stiffness matrix
and “spurious” zero energy modes
Example 1. 4noded element
y
x
1
1
1 1
( )
i
T
NGAUSS
i
i
V
T
D W dV D U
e
c c c c
¿
}
=
~ =
1
2
1
Full integration: NGAUSS=4
Element has 3 zero energy (rigid
body) modes
Reduced integration: e.g.,
NGAUSS=1
( )
0
0
4
=
=
~
y
x
T
D U c c
Consider 2 displacement fields
0 =
=
v
xy C u
xy C v
u
=
= 0
y
x
y
x
0
0 0
= ¬
= = = = =
U
y x At
xy y x
¸ c c
We have therefore 2 hourglass modes.
Propagation of hourglass modes through a mesh
Example 2. 8noded serendipity element
y
x
1
1
1 1
( )
i
T
NGAUSS
i
i
V
T
D W dV D U
e
c c c c
¿
}
=
~ =
1
2
1
Full integration: NGAUSS=9
Element has 3 zero energy (rigid
body) modes
Reduced integration: e.g.,
NGAUSS=4
Element has one spurious zero energy mode corresponding to
the following displacement field
) 3 / 1 (
) 3 / 1 (
2
2
÷ ÷ =
÷ =
x y C v
y x C u
y
x
Show that the strains corresponding to
this displacement field are all zero at the
4 Gauss points
Elements with zero energy modes introduce uncontrolled
errors and should NOT be used in engineering practice.