gasdetection of flammable vapours, toxic vapours, and oxygen concentration

The fire-triangle



source of energy

Additional elements to support fire are:

presence of catalytical material mixture of oxygen and fuel

e x p lo s io n s fy s ic a le x p lo s io n s c h e m ic a le x p lo s io n s

c o n ta in e rc a n 't re s is t th ep re s s u rein s id e

c h e m ic a lc h a n g eo fp ro p e rtie so fin itia le le m e n ts h e te ro g e n o u se x p lo s io n

h o m o g e n o u se x p lo s io n

T h e rm a le x p lo s io n f.e . th ec o m b u s tio nind ie s e l-e n g in e s

fla m e /re a c tio n fro n t f.e . th ec o m b u s tio ninp e tro l-e n g in e s

d e fla g ra tio n 0 ,1 -2 0 0m /s

d e to n a tio n 5 0 0 -3 0 0 0m /s

tra n s fe ro fe n e rg yb yc o n v e c tio na n dc o n d u c tio n

tra n s fe ro fe n e rg yth ro u g hs h o c k w a v e

Explosions • Explosive limits • LEL • UEL .

.Flammable substances can only be ignited between the lower and upper explosive limits.

100% gas 0% air UEL LEL 0% gas 100% air .

100% gas 0% air Toluene 0% gas 100% air UEL 7vol% LEL 1.2vol% .

100% gas 0% air Ammonia UEL 29vol% 0% gas 100% air LEL 15vol% .

Flashpoint: The lowest temperature at which a flammable vapour/air mixture can be ignited. . Flammable liquids which posses a higher vapour pressure will ignite in general more readily.

The volume percentage of vapour at this temperature corresponds exactly with that at the LEL.The flashpoint-temperature depends however also on the LEL. .

Ignition sources: •open fire •hot surfaces •mechanical sparks •electric sparks •static electricity •stray currents .

Explosionmeter/gasindicator Analyses the flammability of the substances •catalytical combustion •by platinum wire •filament or pellistor •in air only ( oxidation ! ) •oxygen content is important .

e. in lubricants ) •corrosive substances •monomers ( polymerisation of catalysor ) .Explosionmeter/gasindicator With high concentrations wrong indication explosionproof by means of flame-arrestor poisoning of catalysor by: •lead ( heavy metals ) •silicones ( f.

Explosionmeter/gasindicator Calibration on: •methane: 2.7 vol% = 50% LEL .2 vol% = 50% LEL •pentane: 0.

Explosionmeter/gasindicator Electrical circuit .

Electrical balance is changed by the increase of resistance due to the increase of temperature of the active filament.Flammable gasindicators Electrical scheme: bridge current. “Bridge of Wheatstone”. .

Flammable gases each have their own specific combustion energy. .The increase of temperature depends on the combustion energy of the substance which passes the active filament. Indications on the meters therefore differ.


7 0.4 3.7 1.2 heat of combustion at LEL 2x3 3925 4686 4891 4915 4953 4999 5292 4364 4255 4719 5729 3681 1.Examples of combustion energy Substance heat of comb.2 1.8 0.7 1.9 1.4 1.0 2.1 0.4 . kJ/mol 2 892 1592 2223 2587 3538 4166 4811 5455 6079 6741 3370 2629 1 methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane nonane decane MTBE butanol LEL vol% 3 4.

Flammable gasindicators • Flammable gasdetectors must be accompanied by a correct conversion table. . • The table should be specifically for the type of gasdetector and the kind of calibrationgas the detector is calibrated on.

Flammable gasindicators .

are not be used. silicones. Tubes made of natural rubber. etc. .Flammable gasindicator Tubes should be made of chemical-resistant material. because the pores inside will absorb the molecules of the sample passing through.

.Oxygen analysers Usually oxygen analysers operate with a electrochemical sensor.

O2-analyser The Taylor Servomex uses the paramagnetic principles of oxygen .

entry of enclosed spaces .Oxygen analysers The O2-analysers operating on the electrochemical principle are for general purposes: f.e.

.Oxygen analysers The Servomex is more accurate and therefore the better analyser for the testing of cargotanks prior to loading.

The paramagnetic cell is not susceptible to this. such as in exhaust fumes or human breath. .Oxygen analysers The electrochemical cell’s life is dramatically shortened by CO2.

toxicity Exposure to toxic substances • via the skin • by inhalation • by ingestion .

The figures are subject to the present knowledge. 40 hours per week.toxicity The Threshold Value: The uppermost concentration of a toxic substance in the air a human may be exposed to during an 8 hour workday. a worklife long. .

but the uppermost level. TLV -levels are unfortunately regularly reduced. due to research.o.Toxicity The TLV’s are valid only for healthy people (not pregnant). . a. The TLV is not a level to aim for.

.Toxicity TLV-twa: Time Weighted Average If the TLV is exceeded a corresponding time of exposure to an equal concentration below the TLV should be maintained.

Toxicity TLV-C: C for ceiling. . even not instantaneously. In this case the TLV must not be exceeded.

Toxicity TLV-S: S for skin. . When the TLV is accompanied by an S this means that the subject substance will enter the bloodstream via the skin as an additional hazard.

.Toxicity STEL: Short Term Exposure Value. No more than 4 x a day and no further contact with the substance during that day. Only for a few products. The maximum concentration for 15 minutes.

Toxicity Also: TLV-TWA15min. only.: As with normal TLV-TWA but over-exposure max. . 15 min.

infrared. etc.Toxicity A variaty of detectors for toxic vapours are available: • • • • • electrochemical sensors.. . portable chromatographs. detection tubes.

Usually the scale is marked in Parts Per Million ( PPM ). . Gastech. A reagent inside the tube reacts with the sample flowing through. etc. The length of discolouration of the reagent is indicated on a scale..Toxicity The gasdetection test tubes are widely spread and commonly known. Popular are: Draeger. MSA/Auer.

000 ppm = 1 vol.Toxicity 1.% 10.000 ppm = 100 vol.% 100 ppm = 0.% .01 vol.000.

deviations.Toxicity To operate the test-tubes it is of vital importance to understand the instructions folded inside the tube-package thoroughly. since the reagent may degenerate rapidly. Items such as cross-sensitivity. The storage conditions and temperatures must be observed. operating temperatures should be fully understood prior to sampling. .

Toxicity Pump and extension-tubes should be tested for leakages prior to sampling. Leakage-test with an unopened test tube. A test with leaking equipment may be fatal! .

Even then all efforts must be employed to improve conditions.Toxicity Test-results close to the TLV should be done twice to be sure. .

End of this presentation .

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