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M-RAM

(Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory or Magnetic-RAM)

Introduction
Immediate boot up No need to wait for your computer to boot up Non-volatile Information is saved even when there is no power MRAM, SRAM and DRAM MRAM is potentially capable of replacing both

DRAM, SRAM and many advantages over technology currently used in electronic devices

Reading Cell Data


Current is passed through the magnetic plates

Magnetic Tunnel Effect interprets the cell data If the fields are aligned, a low resistance is seen between the plates

Represents a 0

If the plates magnetic fields are not aligned, a relatively high resistance is seen between the plates Represents a 1

MRAM Reading Process


Measurement of the bit cell

resistance by applying a current in the bit line

MRAM read process - Current is passed through the bit, resistance of the bit is sensed

MRAM Writing Process


Currents applied in both lines. Current is passed through the programming lines generating magnetic fields. The sum of the magnetic fields from both lines is needed to program the bit

Storage and states of a bit.


MRAM: charge and spin.
Soft ferromagnet

[%]

Insulator Hard ferromagnet

TMR

0
Field [Oe]

Tunnel MagnetoResistance (TMR)

tunneling currents

i RP RAP

Tipically: RAP > RP

R RAP RP 2 PL PR TMR RP RP 1 PL PR

Sizes of MTJ.
4nm
1..2nm

NiFe (free layer)


Al2O3 (tunneling barrier)

Ferromagnet I

3nm

CoFe (fixed layer) Ru

Tunnel barrier

3nm

CoFe (pinned layer)

Ferromagnet II

Applications

Aerospace and military systems Digital cameras Notebooks Smart cards Mobile telephones Cellular base stations Personal Computers Battery-Backed SRAM replacement Data logging specialty memories (black box solutions)

ADVANTAGES
Fast Read/Write (nanoseconds) Random access Unlimited read/write (does not degrade with

usage like Flash) Radiation hard (military applications) Could also replace SRAM/DRAM use in embedded systems. Non-volatile

CONCLUSION
Higher Productivity Data not Lost in Power Failure Faster Read & Write Added Convenience Longer Battery Life on Portable Electronics Instant-On Computing MRAM will eliminate the boot up time MP3, instead of hundred on songs, MRAM will enable thousand of songs and movies

References
Bonsor,Kevin.How magnetic RAM will work

www.computer.howstuffsworks.com\mram.htm www.freescale.com www.motorola.com ^ IBM (2007-08-19). "IBM and TDK Launch Joint Research & Development Project for Advanced MRAM". www.research.ibm.com Japanese Satellite First to Use Magnetic Memory: Scientific American www.wikipedia.com