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Angular momentum

The equivalent of linear momentum for rotating bodies. Definition: Consider a particle moving with a momentum p, a distance r from the origin of a non-inertial frame. Then:

Lrp

Angular momentum

Since p=mv, the angular momentum can also be written as

L r mv

Angular momentum

The direction of the angular momentum is given by the right hand rule. The magnitude of the angular momentum is

Angular momentum

Note that the angular momentum depends on our choice of origin. Usually, we calculate the angular momentum about the axis of rotation.

Angular momentum

If the object is rotating about the CM axis (aka symmetry axis) or any axis parallel to it, then the angular momentum is given by:

L I

The kinetic energy can therefore be written as:

1 2 L K I 2 2I

Recall: Force is related to the linear momentum by

dp Fnet dt

The torque is related to the angular momentum by

net

dL dt

If the body is rigid and the axis is fixed, then I is constant, and we have

net

d I I dt

Angular momentum is conserved if there is NO NET EXTERNAL TORQUE acting on the object.

Li Lf

VECTOR!

Conceptual Exercise 1

A ball is attached to one end of a piece of string. You hold the other end of the string and whirl the ball in a circle around your hand. If the ball moves at constant speed:

is p constant? is L constant?

Conceptual Exercise 2

A figure skater on a frictionless ice rink stretches out her arms and then pulls her arms in. What happens to her angular momentum?

decrease, increase, or remain the same?

For each object in the system, find:

moment of inertia, I angular velocity (include signs)

>0 CCW rotation; <0 CW rotation

If there are N objects:

L I11 ... I N N

SIGNS of are VERY IMPORTANT!!!

If angular momentum is conserved

Li L f (sign of included)

SIGNS of are VERY IMPORTANT!!!

Example 1

Y&F 10.42. A large turntable rotates about a fixed vertical axis, making one revolution in 6.00s. The moment of inertia of the turntable about this axis is 1200kg-m2. A child of mass 40.0kg, initially standing at the center of the turntable, runs out along the radius.

What is the net external torque on the turntable+child system? Is angular momentum conserved?

Example 1

Y&F 10.42. A large turntable rotates about a fixed vertical axis, making one revolution in 6.00s. The moment of inertia of the turntable about this axis is 1200kg-m2. A child of mass 40.0kg, initially standing at the center of the turntable, runs out along the radius.

Find the angular speed of the turntable when the child is 2.00m from the center. Treat the child as a particle. (Ans. 0.924rad/s)

Exercise 1

Y&F ex. 10.13. You stand at the center of a turntable, rotating at 0.5 rev/s, holding your arms extended horizontally with a 5.0kg dumbbell in each hand, 1.0m from the axis. You rotate about an axis passing through the center of the turntable. You pull the dumbbells in to your stomach, 0.20m from the axis, and your moment of inertia (w/o dumbbells) drops from 3.0kg-m2 to 2.2kg-m2.

What is your angular velocity after pulling the dumbbells in to your stomach? (Ans.2.5 rev/s)

Angular momentum is conserved if there is no net external force. For inelastic collisions, the two objects stick together.

hence, they have the same angular velocity

I AA I BB ( I A I B )F

Example 2

A disk is rotating with initial angular speed i about a frictionless shaft through its symmetry axis. Its moment of inertia about this axis is I1. It drops onto another disk of moment of inertia I2 that is initially at rest on the same shaft. Because of surface friction, the two disks eventually reach a common angular speed f.

Find f.

Exercise 2

Disk A (I=IA) is rotating counterclockwise with a speed Ai about a frictionless shaft through its symmetry axis. It drops onto disk B (I=IB) that rotates clockwise with speed Bi. If they stick together after the collision:

what is their final angular speed? in what direction will the disk rotate?

Example 3

A child (m=25kg) runs with an initial speed 2.5m/s along a path tangential to the rim of a merry-go-round (R=2m, I=500kg-m2) initially at rest. The child jumps on the rim of the merry-go-round. Using the conservation of angular momentum:

find the final angular speed of both the child and the merry-go-round (Ans. 0.208 rad/s)

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