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Ch 24 Project Mgmt Concepts Ch 27 Project Scheduling
Coming up: Project Management – 4 Ps
Why care about project management?
10% of projects successful between 1998 and 2004
Project Management – 4 Ps
People — the most important element of a successful project Product — the software to be built Process — the set of framework activities and software engineering tasks to get the job done Project — all work required to make the product a reality
Coming up: Stakeholders are people to
Stakeholders are people too
Senior managers who define the business issues that often have significant influence on the project. Project (technical) managers who must plan, motivate, organize, and control the practitioners who do software work. Practitioners who deliver the technical skills that are necessary to engineer a product or application; often make poor team leaders Customers who specify the requirements for the software to be engineered and other stakeholders who have a peripheral interest in the outcome. End-users who interact with the software once it is released for production use.
Your job is to organize and bring value from these people
Coming up: Your job as a leader
Your job as a leader
The MOI Model
Motivation. The ability to encourage (by ―push or pull‖) technical people to produce to their best ability. Organization. The ability to mold existing processes (or invent new ones) that will enable the initial concept to be translated into a final product. Ideas or innovation. The ability to encourage people to create and feel creative even when they must work within bounds established for a particular software product or application.
Coming up: Your job as a manager
Your job as a manager Make sure these happen Formal risk management Empirical cost and schedule estimation Metrics-based project management Tracking – amount of work done. work remaining. costs. etc… Defect tracking against quality targets People aware project management Coming up: Project Manager .
management with poor leadership will fail. Coming up: Motivating People .Project Manager Management is using tools and techniques Leadership is inspiring people to do the right thing Leadership with poor management practices can be successful.
Motivating People Use monetary rewards cautiously Use intrinsic rewards Recognition Achievement The work itself Responsibility Advancement Chance to learn new skills Coming up: Understanding the problem .
people. tools. database) will be needed? Barry Boehm Coming up: Define success and failure .Understanding the problem At the beginning you should ask yourself these questions Why is the system being developed? What will be done? When will it be accomplished? Who is responsible? Where are they organizationally located? How will the job be done technically and managerially? How much of each resource (e. software..g.
Define success and failure Don’t lie to yourself! Be confident. trust yourself for success! Quantify your project outcomes to allow success or failure A vague or un-measurable outcome is much less helpful .Dan Fleck Coming up: Leadership Case Study: 3M .
"Mistakes will be made. are going to want to do their jobs in their own way. Those men and women to whom we delegate authority and responsibility.Leadership Case Study: 3M Philosophy: As our business grows. the mistakes he or she makes are not as serious in the long run as the mistakes management will make if it undertakes to tell those in authority exactly how they must do their jobs. And it's essential that we have many people with initiative if we are to continue to grow." . if they are good people. This requires considerable tolerance.” "Management that is destructively critical when mistakes are made kills initiative. But if a person is essentially right. it becomes increasingly necessary to delegate responsibility and to encourage men and women to exercise their initiative. but not in 1940s when 3M codified them Coming up: 3M Results . These are common themes now.
Art works with Spence. who wants to pay for scraps of paper?‖. Within 1 year PostIt notes named ―Outstanding New Product‖ and today generates $100 million in US sales This is possible because of a culture in the company to empower. making sure to include executive’s assistants Demand rises – finally the product is introduced. will be costly‖ Response: If it’s hard to make that’s great. Creates little notepapers. Marketing says ―not enough market. encourage. no one but 3M will be able to do it! Fry sends out ―free samples‖ across the company. engineering says ―too hard to make.3M Results Encouragement and a culture of innovation yields: 1968 Dr. Spence Silver does an experiment that yields an adhesive that sticks. 3M scientist Art Fry was trying to mark his place in his church choir hymn book with bits of paper that kept falling out. but not strongly Presents around the company for 5 years with no ―takers‖ In 1973. and experiment! Coming up: Avoid team toxicity .
org OpenWorkbench.org Coming up: Planning .Scheduling One of the most important things you can do is schedule. Also one of the first things you should do! Tools help Microsoft Project OpenProj.
Planning The bad news: time flies The good news: you’re the pilot! You must begin planning immediately Given limited information Plan anyway and then revise Coming up: Creating a plan: Things to know .
What function does the software perform to transform input data into output? Are any special performance characteristics to be addressed? Software project scope must be unambiguous and understandable at the management and technical levels. Coming up: Creating a plan: Things to do . How does the software to be built fit into a larger system. or business context and what constraints are imposed as a result of the context? • Information objectives.Creating a plan: Things to know Scope • Context. product. What customer-visible data objects (Chapter 8) are produced as output from the software? What data objects are required for input? • Function and performance.
Creating a plan: Things to do Problem Decomposition: Sometimes called partitioning or problem elaboration Once scope is defined … It is decomposed into constituent functions It is decomposed into user-visible data objects It is decomposed into a set of problem classes or Decomposition process continues until all functions or problem classes have been defined (this won’t be far at the beginning of your project) Coming up: Create a schedule .
Schedule List of tasks With dates With assigned resources (people) With durations With predecessors and successors How do you get buy-in from the team for a schedule? History Increments Coming up: Schedule Terms .
Schedule Terms Critical path Sequence of tasks that form the longest path to completion of the project. Amount of time a task can be delayed without affecting the overall completion date.amount before task needs to start • Finish slack . • Start slack .An import date in the schedule Dependencies .relationship between tasks Coming up: Schedule Dependencies . Any delay on any of these will make the overall completion date move.amount before task needs to finish Slack Milestone .
B doesn’t start until A has started Project funded SS project management activities begin A SF B.Start to start SF . A=parent comes home FF .Schedule Dependencies FS .Finish to start (most common) A FS B. B doesn’t start until A is finished Build wall FS Paint wall A FF B.Start to finish Coming up: Resource Leveling . B is allowed to finish B=Baby sit a child.Finish to finish SS . B doesn’t finish before A is finished Write final chapter FF Complete Index A SS B. B doesn’t finish before A has started Once A starts.
Resource Leveling A process to examine a project for an unbalanced use of people and to resolve over-allocations or conflicts Happens when multiple tasks are scheduled at the same time for the same person Solution: Make tasks sequential by introducing ―fake‖ dependencies Split resource usage among tasks (50% on task 1. 50% on task 2) Coming up: Auto Resource Leveling .
Auto Resource Leveling Some tools (not Open Project) provide auto resource leveling Tool automatically ensures no person works over 100% of the time (automatically makes tasks sequential) Advantageous because this does not introduce ―fake‖ dependencies Coming up: Gantt Chart .
Gantt Chart Coming up: Finding Critical Path .
earliest time the activity can start ES = Max(ESprevNode + DurationPrevNode) ES: 4 A ES: 2 ES: ?? C B Coming up: Finding Critical Path .Finding Critical Path Draw a network diagram of the activities Determine the Early Start (ES) of each node. Work from beginning node (ES=0) to final node ES .
Finding Critical Path Determine the Late Start (LS) of each node.DurationNode) LS: 13 For the last node LS = ES B LS: ? A LS: ? Coming up: Example B LS: 12 LS: ? C A LS: 12 C . The latest time the activity can start without changing the end date of the project LS = MIN(LSnext . Work from the final node to the beginning node.
E H F. G.Example Here's the example: Activity Description A Product design B Market research C Production analysis D Product model E Sales brochure F Cost analysis G Product testing H Sales training I Pricing J Project report Coming up: Example Node Network Predecessor (None) (None) A A A C D B. I Duration 5 months 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 1 1 .
G.Example Node Network ES:5 ES(H) LS: ES(E)+dur(E) = 5 + 2 =7 ES(J) C ES:0 LS: ES(B)+dur(B) 1=1 ES(F)+dur(F) == ? 0 +ES:5 A Maximum = 7 == ES(H) ES(G)+dur(G) ? LS: D ES(I) + dur(I) = ? ES:0 ES:5 LS: Maximum = ? = ES(J) LS: B E ES:7 LS: F ES:12 LS: G ES:8 LS: J I ES:9 LS: Here's the example: H ES:7 LS: Coming up: Example Node Network Activity A B C D E F G H I J Description Predecessor Product design (None) Market research(None) Production A Product model A Sales brochure A Cost analysis C Product testing D Sales training B. I Duration 5 months 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 1 1 . E Pricing H Project report F.
I Duration 5 months 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 1 1 .Example Node Network ES:5 LS:7 ES:0 LS:0 LS(A) = LS(C) – dur(A) = 7 – 5 = 2 LS(D) – dur(A) = 5 – 5 = 0 LS(E) – dur (A) = 7 – 5 = 2 Minimum = 0 = LS(A) ES:7 LS:9 C ES:5 LS:5 F ES:12 LS:12 A ES:0 LS:8 D B ES:5 LS:7 G ES:8 LS:8 J E I ES:9 LS:11 LS(F) LS(J)-dur(F) = 12 – 3 =9 Coming up: Example Node Network H ES:7 LS:9 Here's the example: Activity A B C D E F G H I J Description Predecessor Product design (None) Market research(None) Production A Product model A Sales brochure A Cost analysis C Product testing D Sales training B. E Pricing H Project report F. G.
Example Node Network ES:5 LS:7 ES:0 LS:0 C ES:5 LS:5 ES:7 LS:9 F ES:12 LS:12 A ES:0 LS:8 D B ES:5 LS:7 G ES:8 LS:8 J E I ES:9 LS:11 H ES:7 LS:9 Here's the example: Coming up: Game Development In-Class Exercise Activity A B C D E F G H I J Description Predecessor Product design (None) Market research(None) Production A Product model A Sales brochure A Cost analysis C Product testing D Sales training B. I Duration 5 months 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 1 1 . E Pricing H Project report F. G.
H .Game Development In-Class Exercise Find the critical path TASK A Graphics Engine B Sound Engine C Music Engine D Input Engine E Gameplay/general programming F Physics G 2D Artwork H 3D Artwork I Sound Effects J Music K Level Design Coming up: Review Questions DURATION (days) 14 5 5 10 31 7 14 21 14 9 21 PREDECESSORs I J A B. D E G F. C.
Review Questions What is the critical path? Do all nodes on the critical path have to be connected to each other? (directly) What is slack? When should you write your schedule for the work? What is resource leveling? Coming up: What about Agile? .
What about Agile? Planning and tracking is still important! Scrum Burndown Chart Release Burndown: Number of story points versus Release Sprint Burndown: Number of story points versus day Burndown chart shows amount of work remaining. and charts the trajectory to help predict success or failure Coming up: Sprint Burndown Chart .
Sprint Burndown Chart Story Points Remaining Day Coming up: Release Burndown Chart .
Release Burndown Chart Story Points Remaining Iteration Number Coming up: Burndown Chart .
Burndown Chart Vertical axis can be any metric describing amount of work remaining: Story points User Stories Use Cases Requirements Ideal developer hours Coming up: Earned Value Management .
Scheduling Rules of Thumb One person should always edit the schedule (you!) If you have two people that need to. coding is 20% of the effort Coming up: Schedule Example . create two files and link them together Keep it simple and useful Level your resources Share the schedule with your team 40-20-40.
Schedule Example Lets try to schedule this work among our three developers ―John. Carl‖ TASK A Graphics Engine B Sound Engine C Music Engine D Input Engine E Gameplay/general programming F Physics G 2D Artwork H 3D Artwork I Sound Effects J Music K Level Design DURATION (days) 14 5 5 10 31 7 14 21 14 9 21 F. H G I J A B. Mary. C. D E PREDECESSORs Coming up: Scheduling Steps .
Optimally (in Dan Fleck’s opinion) you want to schedule so the duration of each smallest task is at most 3-5 days Assign people (resources) to tasks Level your resources Coming up: Classic Mistakes .Scheduling Steps Add in all the tasks (preferably in a hierarchy) Add in all the dependencies Break down large tasks into smaller tasks.
Classic Mistakes Overly optimistic schedule Failing to monitor schedule Failing to update schedule Adding people to a late project Failure to manage expectations of others Leaving out a task Coming up: Scope Creep .
called Actual Cost The value. of the work accomplished by now (in dollars or hours). called the Earned Value! Idea is to link schedule and cost together to monitor both in the same “units” of value Coming up: Earned Value Management .Earned Value Management How much work you planned to have accomplished by now (in dollars or hours) called the Planned Value How much you have actually spent by now (in dollars or hours). in terms of your baseline budget.
Earned Value Management Planned value (PV) .actual amount of money you have spent so far.the value of all resources needed to meet the project’s objectives Each objective of a project has an associated planned value Budgeted (cost) at completion (BAC) .The sum of all the PVs Earned value (EV) .the amount of value completed at any point during the project Actual Cost (AC) . Coming up: Earned Value Management Example . In a perfect project AC and EV are the same.
setup. Setup .$50.$50. and thus our earned value (EV) is now $50.$25 • Our BAC is therefore $200 We’ve now completed phase one. network and test a new system Our planned values (PVs) of each task are: • Buy . To do this we spent $60 (our actual cost (AC)) Coming up: Earned Value Management Example . test .Earned Value Management Example We’ve budgeted $200 to buy.$75. network .
PV Cost Variance (CV) : EV . I get 83 cents worth of work.96 Memorization Hint: Most equations begin with earned value Estimated cost at completion (EAC) Schedule Variance (SV) : EV .htm .83 For every dollar spent. Our group is on schedule Cost performance index (CPI) EV / AC --> 50/60 = 0.hyperthot.com/pm_cscs.83 = $240. BAC / CPI = 200 / 0.Earned Value Management Example Schedule performance index (SPI) EV / PV --> 50/50 = 1 (perfect).AC Coming up: EVM Example 2 from: http://www.
System) Therefore: Schedule Variance = 40 .hyperthot.EVM Example 2 from: http://www.8 Perfect is? Coming up: What is earned value? .htm Line is at 16.com/pm_cscs. Schedule Performance Index = 40 / 50 = 0.50 = -$10 Earned – Planned. blue bar ends at 14 Line is at 6 PLANNED VALUE (Budgeted cost of the work scheduled) = 18 + 10 is + 16 + 6 = $50 What planned value at time X? EARNED VALUE (Budgeted cost of the work performed) = 18 + 8 + 14 + 0 = $40 What is earned value at time X? ACTUAL COST (of the work performed) = $45 (Data from Acct.
The value of all activities planned to be completed by now in the schedule Coming up: Why do you use earned value management? .What is earned value? A. The value of the work completed by now in the schedule D. The amount of money you get upon completion of a task B. The value of an activity C.
Why do you use earned value management? A.It is required by my contract B. Measuring value give you more information than measuring cost or time alone C. I don’t use it D. It guarantees my project will be done on time Coming up: Scheduling Rules of Thumb .
and really unavoidable… that’s fine. features or people accordingly) Coming up: Why would scope changes occur? . The scope is ―creeping‖ up… Scope changes are OK. Scope creep is when your project gets new tasks throughout it’s lifetime without adding more resources to handle new tasks. However you must update the resources (time.BOO! Scope Creep Scope The scope of your project is all the work you initially planned to do.
All of these Coming up: Which are causes of scope creep? . The customer asks you to do something extra because ―it is critical for success‖ C. A competing product has a feature that you must have to be competitive D.Why would scope changes occur? A. You get more money to do more things B.
and I’ll increase the contract to $2million dollars Manager: Certainly! Scope creep: Customer: please add all these requirements. Scope change: Customer: please add all these requirements. Manager: Certainly! .Scope Change versus Creep Change is good! Your company has a $1million dollar contract with a defined scope. and I’ll be really happy.
a weak project manager D. poor change control B. lack of proper initial identification of what is required to satisfy project objectives C.Which are causes of scope creep? A. all of these Source: Wikipedia: Scope Creep Coming up: Managing Scope .
Managing Scope Scope How to deal with the inevitable ―Scope creep‖? Joint Application Development and prototyping Formal change approval Defer additional requirements as future system enhancements Coming up: Managing Risk .
000 Exposure = Impact * Likelihood Mitigation strategy • How to lessen the impact of the risk • How to lessen the likelihood • An action plan if risk occurs Update and track your risks Communicate your risks to upper management Coming up: Projects get into trouble when… . or cost $20.Managing Risk Document your risks in a risk management plan 1 2 3 4 5 Description of risk Likelihood of occurrence (0-100%) Impact .1(low) 5 (high).
Projects get into trouble when… Software people don’t understand their customer’s needs. Users are resistant. Business needs change [or are ill-defined]. Deadlines are unrealistic. The product scope is poorly defined. The chosen technology changes. Changes are managed poorly. The project team lacks people with appropriate skills. Coming up: Common-Sense Approach to Projects . Sponsorship is lost [or was never properly obtained]. Managers [and practitioners] avoid best practices and lessons learned.
Maintain momentum. Make smart decisions. the team should emphasize quality in every task it performs..Common-Sense Approach to Projects Start on the right foot. the decisions of the project manager and the software team should be to ―keep it simple. sets of test cases) are produced and approved (using formal technical reviews) as part of a quality assurance activity.‖ Conduct a postmortem analysis. In essence. progress is tracked as work products (e. For a software project. Coming up: References . The project manager must provide incentives to keep turnover of personnel to an absolute minimum. Track progress. This is accomplished by working hard (very hard) to understand the problem that is to be solved and then setting realistic objectives and expectations. models. Establish a consistent mechanism for extracting lessons learned for each project.g. source code. and senior management should do everything possible to stay out of the team’s way.
.com Wikipedia: Project Management Pressman R.edu/619ch12. Earned Value Management.com/action/article. kazman. The CIO. People Issues.. Project & Change Management.projity.shidler. Ch 21 Pressman R.References www.ppt Pratt M. Software Engineering A Practical Approach. http://www.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleI d=110065&intsrc=article_pots_bot End of presentation .computerworld.hawaii. Slides for Ch 21 Kazman R. Software Engineering A Practical Approach..
Next week Review student essays (due in a week) Homework 6 due Please submit sceenshots (in a word document or pdf) to blackboard Testing .
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