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Diodes

1
Diode
Class of non-linear circuits
having non-linear v-i Characteristics

Uses
Generation of :
DC voltage from the ac power supply
Different wave (square wave, pulse) form generation

Protection Circuits

Digital logic & memory circuits
Creating a Diode

A diode allows current to flow in one
direction but not the other.

When you put N-type and P-type silicon
together gives a diode its unique
properties.
.





























































Diode
Equivalent circuit in the reverse direction
Equivalent circuit in the forward direction.
Reverse Bias
-ve voltage is applied to Anode
Current through diode = 0 (cut off operation)
Diode act as open circuit

Forward Bias
+ve voltage applied to Anode
Current flows through diode
voltage Drop is zero (Turned on)
Diode is short circuit
Operation
The two modes of operation of ideal diodes
Forward biased
Forward Current 10 mA
Reverse biased
Reverse Voltage 10 V
Ex 3.2
v v
D
5 . 1 =
A i
D
5 . 1
1
5 . 1
= =
0 =
D
v
v 5 . 1
O 1
D
v
+

P
i
D
v
+

0 =
D
i
O 1
v 5 . 1
Rectifier circuit
Input waveform
Equivalent circuit when vi

> 0
Equivalent circuit when vi 0
Waveform across diode


Output waveform.
Exercise 3-3
mA
k
i
D
10
1
0 10
=
O

=
}

=
2
1
1 2
1
t
t
i D
dt v
t t
v
(

+ =
} }
t t
t
u
t
0
2
0 sin 10
2
1
dt v
D
( ) V v
D
18 . 3
10
1 1
2
10
cos 10
2
1
0
= = = =
t t
u
t
t
Battery Charger
cycle of third one
Angle Conduction

120 2
30
2
1
sin
0
0

= =
= =
u t
u u
V 12 24sin = u
Figure 3.6 Circuits for Example 3.2.
Diodes are ideal , Find the value of I and V
Example 3.2.
Assumption
Both Diodes are conducting

0 , 0 = =
B
V V
mA
k
I
D
1
10
0 10
2
=

=
( )
mA
k
I I I
D D k
2
5
10 0
2 1 5
=

= + =
O
possible not is It
mA be should I equation above From
D

1
1
Node A
Node B
Assumption
Both Diodes are conducting
Not Possible
Thus assumption of both diode
conducting is wrong
Example 3.2(b). Assumption # 2
Diodes 1 is not conducting
Diodes 2 is conducting
( )
mA I
D
33 . 1
15
20
15
10 10
2
= =

=
mA I I V V
D D A B
33 . 1 , 0 , V 3 . 3
2 1
= = = =
Assumption is correct
( )( ) v k V
A
3 . 3 5 33 . 1 10 = =
( )( ) v k V
B
3 . 3 10 10 33 . 1 = =
Figure E3.4
Diodes are ideal , Find the value of I and V
Figure E3.4
Diodes are ideal , Find the value of I and V
I= 2mA
V= 0V
I= 0A
V= 5V
I= 0A
V= -5V
I= 2mA
V= 0V
Figure E3.4 Diodes are ideal , Find the value of I and V
I= 3mA
V= 3V
I= 4mA
V= 1V
Figure P3.2
Diodes are ideal , Find the value of I and V
Figure P3.2 Diodes are ideal , Find the value of I and V
Diode is conducting
I = 0.6 mA
V = -3V
Diode is cut-off
I = 0 mA
V = 3V
Diode is conducting
I = 0.6 mA
V = 3V
Diode is cut-off
I = 0 mA
V = -3V
D1 Cut-Off & D2 Conducting
I = 3mA
Problem 3-3
D1 Cut-Off & D2 Conducting
I = 1mA , V=1 V
Diodes are ideal , Find the value of I and V
Figure P3.4
In ideal diodes circuits, v
1
is a 1-kHz, 10V peak sine wave.
Sketch the waveform of v
o
In ideal diodes circuits, v
1
is a 1-kHz, 10V peak sine wave.
Sketch the waveform of v
o
V
p+
= 10V
V
p-
= 0V
f = 1 K-Hz
V
p+
= 0V
V
p-
= - 10V
f = 1 K-Hz
V
o
= 0V
Figure P3.4 In ideal diodes circuits, v
1
s a 1-kHz, 10V peak sine wave.
Sketch the waveform of v
o
V
p+
= 10V
V
p-
= 0V
f = 1 K-Hz
V
p+
= 10V
V
p-
= -10V
f = 1 K-Hz
V
p+
= 10V
V
p-
= 0V
f = 1 K-Hz
Figure P3.4 In ideal diodes circuits, v
1
s a 1-kHz, 10V peak sine wave.
Sketch the waveform of v
o
Figure P3.4
In ideal diodes circuits, v
1
s a 1-kHz, 10V peak sine wave.
Sketch the waveform of v
o
V
p+
= 0V
V
p-
= -10V
f = 1 K-Hz
V
0
= 0V V
p+
= 10V
V
p-
= -5V
f = 1 K-Hz
Figure P3.4 In ideal diodes circuits, v
1
s a 1-kHz, 10V peak sine wave.
Sketch the waveform of v
o
V
p+
= 10V
V
p-
= -5V
f = 1 K-Hz
Problem 3-4(k)
t v
H frequency peak V v
i
z i
t 2000 sin 10
1000 @ 10
=

For Vi >0 V D1 is cutoff D2 is conducting v


o
=1V
For Vi < 0 V is conducting D2 is cutoff v
o
=v
i
+1V
- 9 V
Problem 3-4(k)
Figure P3.6
X = A . B
X = A + B
Problem 3-4 (c)
t v
H frequency Vpeak v
i
z i
t 2000 sin 10
1000 @ 10
=

v
o
=zero

Problem 3-4(f)
+ve Half Cycle with 10 V peak
at 1 KHz
Vi is a 1kHz 10-V peak sine wave.
Problem 3-4(h)
t v
H frequency Vpeak v
i
z i
t 2000 sin 10
1000 @ 10
=

v
o
=zero

t v
H frequency Vpeak v
i
z i
t 2000 sin 10
1000 @ 10
=

Problem 3.5
v
i
is 10 V peak sine wave and I = 100 mA current source. B is battery
of 4.5 V . Sketch and label the i
B
4.5 v
100 mA
Solution P3-5
v
o
battery thru flows current all , 5 . 4
1
cutoff D V v
i
>
0
0 0 1
6 . 126 2
3 . 153 , 7 . 26 ) 45 . 0 ( sin 5 . 4 sin 10

= =
= = =

u t
u u
angle Conduction
V
angle Conduction
35 . 0
360
126.6
flows 100mA i that cycle of Fraction

B
= = of
V . B t v
H frequency Vpeak v
i
z i
5 4 2000 sin 10
1000 @ 10
= =

t
A , i ru D t flows th All curren
cutoff D conducts D V v
B
i
0
, 5 . 4
1
2 1
=
<
4.5 v
100 mA
Problem 3-5
100 mA
4.5 v
Problem 3-5
4.5
10
100 mA
| | mA T
T
dt i
T
i
B Baverage
35 35 . 0 100
1 1
= = =
}
REVERSE POLARITY
PROTECTOR
The diode in this circuit protects a radio or
a recorder etc... In the event that the
battery or power source is connected the
wrong way round, the diode does not allow
current to flow.
REVERSE POLARITY
PROTECTOR
D1& D2 Conducting
I
1
=1mA
I
3
=0.5 mA
I
2
=0.5 mA
V= 0 V

D1=off, D2=On
I
1
= I
3
=0.66 mA
V = -1.7 V

Problem 3-9
I
1
I
3
2
I
1
I
3
2
Problem 3-10
D conducting
I=0.225 mA
V=4.5V
D is not conducting
I=0A
V=-2V
Problem 3-16
V RED GREEN

3V On Off D
1
conducts
0 V Off Off
-3 V Off On D
2
conducts
Quiz No 3 DE 28 EE -A
Sketch v
O
if v
i
is 8 sin u
Find out the conduction angle for the diode &
fraction of the cycle the diode is conducting
Solution Quiz No 3
8V
I
1
I
2
V Vo
mA I I
I I
I I
3 2 1 1
1 2 2
3 2 2
2 4 8
2 2
2 1
2 1
= + =
= =
+ =
=
v
i
/2
I
V Vo
mA I
3 2 1 1
1
2
2
2
8
= + =
=

=
10-10-07
% 33
3
1
2
2

30 2 sin 4
60 2
= =

=
= =
=
t
u t
u u
u
conducts diode the Cycle of Fraction
angle Conduction
o
22-10-07
Sketch v
O
if v
i
is 10 sin u
Find out the conduction angle for the diode &
fraction of the cycle the diode is conducts
D
1
never conducts

Vi<5V D2 is cut-off, Vo=5V

Vi>5V D2 is conducts
V V
o
5 . 7
2
5 10
5
max
=

+ =
+12 V
5
D
1
D
2
% 33
3
1
2
2

30 5 sin 10
60 2
= =

=
= =
=
t
u t
u u
u
conducts diode the Cycle of Fraction
angle Conduction
o
Quiz No 3 DE 27 CE -B
D
1
never conducts

Vi<5V D2 is cut-off, Vo=Vi

Vi>5V D2 is conducts
Sketch v
O
if v
i
is 10 sin u
Find out the conduction angle for the diode &
fraction of the cycle the diode is conducts
V V
o
5 . 7
2
5 10
5
max
=

+ =
% 33
3
1
2
2

30 5 sin 10
60 2
= =

=
= =
=
t
u t
u u
u
conducts diode the Cycle of Fraction
angle Conduction
o
Problem
Assume the diodes are ideal,
sketch v
o
if the input is 10sinu
(9)

Find out the conduction angles
for Diode D
1
& D
2
(4) and the
fraction of the cycle these diodes
conduct. (2)

i o i
v v v = < < 1 2
V v V v
v
v V v
opeak ipeak
i
i
25 . 4 10
1 1
4
1
1
0
= =
+

= >
V v V v
o i
2 2 = <
i o i
v v v = < < 1 2
V v V v
v
v V v
o i
i
i
25 . 1 2
1 1
4
1
1
0
= =
+

= >
V v V v
o i
2 2 = <
V
v
v
i
1 1
4
1
0
+

=
-2V
Two-dimensional representation of the silicon crystal.
14 Electrons
Silicon and Germanium
Silicon Lattice
At room temperature, some of the covalent bonds are broken by
thermal ionization.
Each broken bond gives rise to a free electron and a hole, both of
which become available for current conduction.
Intrinsic Semiconductor


Electrons and holes
Semiconductor Current
.


The Doping of Semiconductors
Valence Electrons
N Type
P Type
p-n Junction
P Junction
Concentration of holes is high
Majority charge carrier are hole

N Junction
Concentration of electron is high
Majority charge carrier are electron

Diffusion Current I
D
Hole diffuse across the junction from the p
side to the n side & similarly electron

Two current components add together to
form the diffusion current with direction
from p to n side
Drift Current I
s
Diffusion current due to majority carrier
diffusion

A component due to minority carrier drift
exists across the junction

(a)The pn junction with no applied voltage (open-circuited terminals).
(b) The potential distribution along an axis perpendicular to the junction.
Forward Biased Conduction

The polarity of applied voltage which can't produce any current is
called Reverse Bias.
The polarity of applied voltage which causes charge to flow through
the diode is called Forward Bias.


Terminal Characteristics
of
a Junction Diode
The diode iv relationship with some scales expanded
and others compressed in order to reveal details.
The diode iv relationship
Terminal Characteristics of a
Junction Diode
Forward Biased Region v > 0

Reversed Biased Region v < 0

Breakdown Region v < -V
ZK

Forward Biased Region



I
s
Saturation current Scale Current

I
s
is constant at a given temperature

I
s
is directly proportional to Cross-Sectional
region of the diode, I
s
doubles if cross-sectional
area is double

I
s
is 10
-15
A for small size diode

Doubles in value for every 10
O
C rise in
temperature
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1
T
nV
v
s
e I i
Thermal Voltage V
T

V
T
= kT/q
K = Boltzmanns constant = 1.38 X 10
-23
Joules/Kelvin
T = Absolute Temperature in Kelvin (273 +Temp in C
o
)
q = Magnitude of charge = 1.6 X 10
-19
Coulombs

V
T
@ 20
o
C is 25.2mV, ~ 25 mV

n is 1 or 2 depending on the material
and the physical structure of the diode
n = 1 for Germanium Diode & n=2 for
Silicon
Forward Biased Region
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1
T
nV
v
s
e I i
b Relationship of the current i to the voltage
v holds good over many decades of current
(seven decades, a factor of 10
7

s
T
s
T
nV
v
s
nV
v
s
I
i
nV v
I
nV
v
e I i
e I i
T
T
ln
ln ln ln
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
Forward Biased Region
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1
T
nV
v
s
e I i
i >> I
s
( )
( )
1
2
1
2
1 2
1
2
2
1
log 3 . 2 ln
1 2
2
1
I
I
nV
I
I
nV v v
e
I
I
e I I
e I I
T T
nV
v v
nV
v
s
nV
v
s
T
T
T
=
=
=
=

Forward Biased Region


for v drop changes by
for n = 1

for n = 2


v v 7 . 0 8 . 0 ~
10
1
2
=
I
I
mV nV
T
60 3 . 2 ~
mV 120
voltage in cut v v < - 5 . 0
v v 6 . 0 =
Forward Biased Region
( )
1
2
1 2
log 3 . 2
I
I
nV v v
T
=
At a constant current, the voltage drop decreases by
approximately 2 mV for every 1C increase in
temperature.
Illustrating the temperature dependence of the diode forward characteristic
If V=1V at 20
o
C, Find V at
40
0
C and 0
0
C
At 20
o
C Reverse current I
s
= 1V/1M = 1 A

Since the reverse leakage current doubles for every 10
0
C increase,

At 40
0
C I = 4*1 = 4 A V = 4 A * 1M = 4.0 V
At 0 C I = A V = 0.25 V
I
s
Figure E3.9
Forward biased Diode Characteristics
Example 3.3
A silicon diode displays a forward voltage
of 0.7 V at a current of 1mA. Find I
s
at n=1
& 2
A e I
A e I
ie I e I i
s
s
nV
v
s
nV
v
s
T T
10
10 25 2
7 . 0
3
16
10 25
7 . 0
3
10 3 . 8 10 2
10 9 . 6 10 1
3
3

= = =
= = =
= =

q
q
Ex 3.7
Silicon Diode with n=1 has V
D
=0.7V @
i=1mA. Find voltage drop at i=0.1mA &
10mA
V
I
i
V V mA i For
V
I
i
V V mA i For
A e I
ie I e I i
s
T
s
T
s
nV
v
s
nV
v
s
T T
76 . 0
10 9 . 6
10
ln 10 25 ln 10
64 . 0
10 9 . 6
10
ln 10 25 ln 1 . 0
10 9 . 6 10 1
16
2
3
1
16
4
3
1
15
10 25
7 . 0
3
3
=

= = =
==

= = =
= = =
= =

q
q
q
Solution P3-18
V v
e I I e I i
i
a
v
s S
nV
v
S
T
345 . 0
1000
1000I current Diode , 2
) (
3
10 25 2
S
=
= =
= = =


q
(a) At what forward voltage does a diode for which n=2 conduct a
current equal to 1000Is?

(b) In term if Is what current flows in the same diode when its forward
voltage is 0.7 V
S s
nV
v
S
I e I e I i
V v
b
T
6
05 . 0
7 . 0
10 2 . 1
7 . 0
) (
= = =
=
Problem 3-23
The circuit shown utilizes three
identical diodes having n=1 and Is=
10
-14
A. Find the value of the
current I required to obtain an output
voltage Vo=2 V. Assume n=1

If a current of 1mA is drawn away
from the output terminal by a load,
what if the change in the output
voltage. Assume n=1
Solution 3-23
mV . v v v
e e
I
I
mA . ore I mA, theref nt Load curre
(b)
O oY
.
) / (v
.
) v (v
DX
DY
DY
DY DX DY
8 22
81 2 1
01 2
025 0
3 2
025 0
= =
= =
= =

mA . e e I I
v
v
is ach diode e across e The voltag
V A,V , I able n Inf o avail
.
V
v
S DX
DX
o
o S
T
DX
81 3 10
3
2
3
2 10 1
025 0
3
2
14
14
= = =
= =
= = =

The circuit shown utilizes three identical


diodes having n=1 and I
s
= 10
-14
A. Find the
value of the current I required to obtain an
output voltage V
o
=2 V.
If a current of 1mA is drawn away from the output terminal
by a load, what if the change in the output voltage.
Problem 3-25
In the circuit shown,
both diode have n=1,
but D
1
has 10 times
the junction area of
D
2
. What value of V
results?

Solution 3-25(a)
2 ....... ..........
10
ln
1
2
1 2 0
D
D
T D D
I
I
V V V V q = =
1 .... .......... 1 . 0
10
10
2 2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2 1
T
D D
T
D
T
D
T
D
V
V V
V
V
S
V
V
S
D
D
V
V
S D
e
e I
e I
I
I
e I I
q
q
q
q

= =
=
2 1
2 2 1 1
10

2 1
S S
V
V
S D
V
V
S D
I I
e I I e I I
T
D
T
D
=
= =
q q
mV V V V
D D
2 . 92
2
80
ln 025 . 0
1 2 0
= = =
3 ..........
1 1 2 1 2 1 D D D D
I I I I I I = + =
mA I mA I
D D
8 2 10 , 2
2 1
= = =
In the circuit shown, both diode
have n=1, but D
1
has 10 times the
junction area of D
2
. What value
of V results?
solution 2-25 (b)
2 D1
, I Find , 50
D o
I mA V =
1 2
01 . 0
D D
I I =
mA I
e
I
I
e
I
I
D
D
D
V
V V
D
D
T
D D
25 . 4
1 . 0
01 . 0
1 . 0
2
2
2
2
1
2
2 2
=
=

= =

q
mA I
D
75 . 5 ) 25 . 4 10 (
1
= =
To obtain a value of 50 mV, what current
I
2
id needed.
Problem 3-26
For the circuit shown,
both diodes are identical,
conducting 10mA at 0.7 V
and 100 mA at 0.8 V.

Find n

Find the value of R for
which V = 80 m V.
Solution 3-26 (a)
mA I V
mA I V
V
D
D
T
100 @ 8 . 0 V 2 Diode For
10 @ 7 . 0 V 1 Diode For
same are , , I therefore identical are Diodes
2 D2
1 D1
S
= =
= =
q
739 . 1
10
100
ln 025 . 0 7 . 0 8 . 0
ln
1
2
1 2
=
=
=
q
q
q
D
D
T D D
I
I
V V V
Find
O = =
=

= =
= =
1 . 57
4 . 1
80
4 . 1
01 . 0
ln 025 . 0 737 . 1 08 . 0
ln
1
1
1
1
2
1 2
R
mA I
I
I
I
I
V V V V
D
D
D
D
D
T D D
q
Find R if Vo=80mV
Problem 3.36
Assuming identical diodes for which V
D

=0.7V @ I
D
=1mA. Find R if V
0
= 3 V
O =

=
= + =
= = =
= =
=
= =

947
10 389 . 7
3 10
389 . 7
10
ln 7 . 0 75 .
389 . 7 1
75 . 0
4
3
3
2
3
2
10 25
) 7 . 0 75 . 0 (
) (
1 2
) (
1
2
3
2 2
2 2
1
2
R
mA I
I
V
mA e e I I
e
e
e
I
I
e I I
V V
D
D
T
V
V V
D D
V
V V
V
V
V
V
D
D
V
V
S DX
Dx
T
D D
T
D D
T
D
T
D
T
DX
q
q
q
q
q
q
Modeling the Diode
Forward
Characteristics
A simple circuit used to illustrate the analysis of circuits in which
the diode is forward conducting.
R
V V
I
D DD
D

=
T
D
V
V
S D
e I I
q
=
Graphical analysis of the circuit using the exponential diode model.
Iterative Analysis using the
Exponential Model
Determined the diode current I
D
and Diode
voltage V
D
with V
DD
=5V and R =1000
ohms. Diode has a current of 1mA @ a V
D
of .7 V, and that its voltage drop changes
by 0.1 V for every decade change in
current.
Solution
V V V
in change decade For V V V
I
I
V V V
mA e I I
V V iteration F
T
T
V
V
S D
D
T
D
763 . 0
0 . 1
3 . 4
log 1 . 0
current Every 1 . 0 3 . 2
log 3 . 2
3 . 4
7 . 0 irst
1 2
1
2
1 2
= + =
= = A
=
= =
=
q
q
V V
I
I
V V V
mA e I I
V V iteration S
T
V
V
S D
D
T
D
762 . 0
3 . 4
237 . 4
log 1 . 0 763 . 0
ln 3 . 2
237 . 4
763 . 0 econd
2
1
2
1 2
= + =
=
= =
=
q
q
V V
mA I
Solution
D
D
762 . 0
, 237 . 4
=
=
The Piecewise-Linear Model
Approximating the diode forward characteristic with
two straight lines: the piecewise-linear model.
The Piecewise-Linear Model
Exponential curve is approx into two
straight lines

Line No 1 with zero slope & Line 2 with a
slope of 1/r
d


The voltage change of less than 50 mV is
observed in case the current change from
0.1 mA to 10 mA.
0
0

) (
0 0
D D
D
D D
D
D D
V v
r
V v
i
V v i
>

=
= =
Piecewise-linear model of the diode forward characteristic and
its equivalent circuit representation.
Piecewise-linear model
The
Constant Voltage Drop
Model
Constant Voltage Drop Model
Forward conducting diode exhibits a
constant voltage drop V
D

The voltage change of less than 50
mV is observed in case the current
change from 0.1 mA to 10 mA.

Model is used when
Detailed information about diode
characteristics in not available
Constant-voltage-drop model
The constant-voltage-drop model of the diode forward
characteristics and its equivalent-circuit representation.
The Small Signal Model
A small ac signal is superimposed on the
DC components.

First determined dc Operating Point

Then small signal operation around the
operating point
Small portion of the curve is approximated as
almost linear segment of the diode
characteristics.
The Small Signal Model
Figure 3.17 Development of the diode small-signal model. Note that the numerical values shown are for a diode with n = 2.
T
D
s
V
V
e I
q
=
D
I
signal of absence In
| |
) ( ) (
)
V
v
1 ( ) (
1
V
v
signal small For very
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (
applied is signal Once
T
d
T
d
) (
) (
t i I t i
I t i

e I t i
e e I t i
V
t v V
e I t i
V
v
e I t i
t v V t v
d D D
D D
V
t v
D D
V
t v
V
V
s D
T
d D
s D
T
D
s D
d D D
T
d
T
d
T
D
+ =
+ =
<<
=
=
+
=
=
+ =
q
q
q
q
q
q q
The Small Signal Model
D
d
d D
d
d D D
T
d
D D
I
r
v I
t i
t i I t i
V
v
I t i
T
T
V
V
) (
) ( ) (
) 1 ( ) (
q
q
=
=
+ =
+ =
The Small Signal Model
D d
to I portional sely pro is inver r
Modeling the Diode Forward Characteristic
Table 3.1 (Continued)
+
-
V
D
I
D
+
-
v
d
Exp 3-6
) ( ,
2 n V, .7 of V a @ 1mA of current a has Diode
60 1 10
,
D
t v V r Find
Hz tude @ peak ampli V V,v V
d D d
d DD
=
= =
Solution
mA
R
V V
I
D DD
D
93 . 0
10
7 . 0 10
=

=
O =

= = 8 . 53
93 . 0
25 2 V
T
D
d
I
r
q
mV
r R
r
v v
d
d
speak dpeak
35 . 5
signal Small
=
+
=
Input variation of 10% resulted in output voltage
variation of 0.7+5.4mV(0.8%) Voltage regulation
Exercise 3-16
Design a circuit shown so that Vo=3v
when I
L
=0 A and Vo changes by 40 mV
per 1mA of diode current.
(a) Find the value of R
(b) The junction area of each diode
relative to a diode with ).7 V drop at 1mA
current. Assume n=1

Excercise 3-16
diode the times 0.34 area junction the have diodes The
34 . 0
7 . 0 , 1
75 . 4 / 3 V Point Operating dc At
8 . 4
5 . 2
3 15
5 . 2
10 4 / 40
40
10
04 . 0
1 1 1
1 1
DX
3
1
= =
=
= =
O =

=
= =
O = =
O = =
A
A
=

S
SX
nV
V V
S
SX
D
DX
D D
DX
T
DX
DX
o
o
DT
I
I
e
I
I
I
I
V V mA I
V
K
m
R
mA
r
nV
I
r
i
v
r
T
DX
Why 4 diodes and not 5? Diodes
will not conduct at 0.6 V
Diode Forward Drop in Voltage
Regulation
Small signal model is used.

Voltage remains constant in spite of :
Changes in load current
Changes in the dc power supply voltages

One diode provides constant voltage of
0.7 V and for greater voltages diodes can
be connected in series.
Example 3-7

A string of three diodes is used to provide
a constant voltage of about 2.1 V. We
want to calculate the percentage change
in this regulated voltage caused by
(a) a + 10 % change to the power supply
voltage
(b) Connection of a 1 K ohms load
resistance , Assume n=2
Solution Exp 3-7
P 3-53
In a particular cct application, ten
20 mA diodes ( a 20 mA diode is
a diode that provides a 0.7 V drop
when the current thru it is 20 mA)
connected in parallel operate at a
total current of 0.1 A. For the
diodes closely matched, with n=1,
what current flows in each.
What is the corresponding small
signal resistance of each diode and
of the combination?
A i
Dx
01 . 0
10
1 . 0
== =
O = =
O = =
25 . 0
10
5 . 2
5 . 2
req
I
nV
r
Dx
T
dx
If each of the 20 mA diode has a
series resistance of 0.2 ohm
associated with the wire bonds to
the junction. What is the
equivalent resistance of the 10
parallel connected diodes?
What connection resistance would
single diode need in order to be
totally equivalent?
( ) O = + = 27 . 0 2 . 0 5 . 2
10
1
Req
The diode iv relationship
Reversed Biased Diode
Leakage current:
In the reverse direction there is a small
leakage current up until the reverse
breakdown voltage is reached.

This leakage is undesirable, obviously the
lower the better.

Diodes are intended to operate below their
breakdown voltage.
The Reversed Biased Region
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1
T
nV
v
s
e I i
) 25 ( & mV V negative is v
T
>>
S
I i =
Current in reserved biased diode circuit is due to leakage
current & increases with increase in reverse voltage

Leakage current is proportional to the junction area &
temperature but doubles for every 10
o
C rise in
temperature

Breakdown Region
Once reverse voltage exceeds a threshold value of diode
V
ZK
, this voltage is called breakdown voltage.
V
ZK
Z Zener, K Knee

At breakdown knee reverse current increases rapidly
with associated small increase in voltage drop

Diode breakdown is not destructive if power dissipated
by diode is limited by external circuitry.

Vertical line for current gives property of voltage
regulation
The diode iv characteristic with the breakdown
region shown in some detail.
Zener Diode
Zener Diode
Operation in the Reverse Breakdown
Region

Very steep i-v curve at breakdown with
almost constant voltage drop region

Used the designing voltage regulator

Diode manufactured to operate specifically
in the Breakdown region called Zener or
Breakdown Diode
I
Z
- V
Z
+
Zener Diode : Symbol
Model: Zener
Manufacturer specify Zener Voltage V
z
at a
specified Zener test current I
z,
the Max. power
that the device can safely dissipate 0.5 W @ 6.8
v at max 70mA

r
z
Dynamic resistance of the Zener and is the
inverse of the slope of the almost linear i-v
curve at operating point Q

Lower r
z
, the more constant Zener Voltage

The most common range of zener voltage is 3.3
volts to 75 volts,
z z z
r I V A = A
Model for the zener diode.





z z zo z
I r V V + =
zo z
zk z
V V
I I
>
>
Model: Zener
Designing of the Zener shunt regulator
+
-
V
o
Zener regulator
Supply voltage includes
a large ripple component
Vo is an output of the zener regulator
that is as constant as possible in spite of
the ripples in the supply voltage V
S
and the variations in the load current
Voltage regulator performance can be measured
Line Regulation & Load Regulation
Line Regulation = V
o
/V
s
Load Regulation = V
o
/I
L
Expression of performance : Zener regulator
I
I
L
+
-
V
o




Only the first term on right hand side is desirable one
Second and third terms depend upon
Supply Voltage V
s
and Load current I
L
Line Regulation =

Load Regulation =
L
z
zo o o s
I
r
) -V (V

R
) -V (V
+ =
||R) (r ) - I
r R
r
( V )
r R
R
( V V
z L
z
z
S
z
zo o
+
+
+
=
R) (r
r
/
V
V
z
z o
s
+
=
A
A
||R) - (r
I
Vo
z
L
=
Expression of performance : Zener regulator
I
I
L
+
-
V
o
An important consideration for the design is
To ensure that current through the zener
diode never becomes too low i.e less than
I
ZK
or

I
zmin

Minimum zener current I
zmin
occurs when
Supply Voltage V
s
is at its minimum V
Smin
Load current I
L
is at its maximum I
Lmax

Above design can be made be selecting proper
value of resistor R

) I (I
) I - r V (V
R
L z
z z ZO s
max min
min min
+
=
L
Z
L
R
V
I where =
max

The circuit with the zener diode replaced with its equivalent circuit model.
Example 3.8
Exp 3-8
Example 3-8

mA I
mA I
r
mA I
v V
k R
v v V
RL
zk
z
z
z
1
2 . 0
20
5
8 . 6
5 . 0
1 10
=
=
O =
=
=
O =
+ =
a) Find No Load Line Regulation
o o
V V A &
v r I V V
I r V V
z z z zo
z z zo z
7 . 6 10 20 5 8 . 6
3
= = =
+ =

Depending upon the manufacturer provide Data


First calculate V
zo
if V
z
=6.8 V & I
z
=5mA, r
Z
=20 ohm
Line Regulation
V V r I V V
mA
r R
V V
I
z z zo o
z
zo
z
83 . 6 827 . 6 10 20 35 . 6 7 . 6
35 . 6
20 500
7 . 6 10
3
~ = + = + =
=
+

=
+

v mv
V
V
o
/ 85 . 3
1
5 . 38
= =
A
A
Now connecting the Zener diode in the Cct as shown
Calculate actual I
z
and resulting Vo
Thus establishing operating Point
Now carry out Small Signal Analysis
Suppress DC source and calculate resultant change in Vo
Use voltage divider rule
mv
r R
r V
V
z
z
o
5 . 38
520
20 1
=

=
+
A
= A
+
b) Find v
O
if load resistance R
L
connected
& draws 1mA and load regulation


A mA I
mA
r R R
V Vs
I
V r I V V V
R R
k
mA
v
R
Z
Z L
Z
Z
Z Z ZO o Z
L
L
210 21 . 14 . 6 35 . 6
14 . 6
94 . 19 500
807 . 6 10
||
807 . 6 20 35 . 5 7 . 6
94 . 19
6850
6830 20
||
83 . 6
1
83 . 6
= = = A
=
+

=
+

=
= + = + = =
O =

=
O = ~
z
I mV mA I r V
z z o
20 1 20 = = A = A
mA mV
I
V
z
o
/ 20 =
A
A
=
Check
exact Calculations
1mA drawn by load would
decrease by same amount so
Load Regulation
c) for
mV I r V
mA I
mA
R
V
I
Z Z o
Z
L
Z
R
L
68
4 . 3
4 . 3
= A = A
= A
= =
o
V A
O = k R
L
2
1) Check





Zener at Breakdown region
v V
o
8 10
2500
2000
= =
2000
500
10 +
v 10
o
V
10
500
v 63 . 6
O 8 . 19
A
20
7 . 6

+
v
O k 2
O k 5 . 0
B
A
O =
=

=
8 . 19 Re
63 . 6
2020
2000 7 . 6
q
v V
oc
B
A
Zener is not operating
v
V V
v V
zk o
o
8 . 6 5
@
5
1000
500 10
<<
<<
=

=
O = 500 )
L
R d
500
10v
500
e) Min value of for which the diode still
operates in the breakdown region
z
I
at Breakdown Region
L
R
500
1 10 v +
z
I
L
R
v 7 . 6
mA 2 . 0
O = = =
= =
+ =
=

=
=
= =
= =
k
m I
V
R
mA I
I I I
mA I
v V
v V V
mA I I
RL
zk
L
RL
RL zk
DD
zk z
zk z
5 . 1
4 . 4
7 . 6
4 . 4 2 . 0 6 . 4
6 . 4
500
7 . 6 9
min 9
7 . 6
2 . 0
Problem D3.68
Design a 7.5-V zener regulator circuit using a 7.5-V
zener specified at 12mA. The zener has an incremental
resistance r
z
= 30 and a knee current of 0.5mA. The
regulator operates from a 10-V supply and has a 1.2-k
load.

(a) What is the value of R you have chosen?

(b) What is the regulator output voltage when the supply is
10% high? Is 10% low?

(c) What is the output voltage when both the supply is 10%
high and the load is removed?

(d) What is the smallest possible load resistor that can be
used while the zener operates at a current no lower
than the knee current while the supply is 10% low?
Solution 3-68
mA I
V V
V
mA I
V V
mA I
r
RL
ZO
ZO
Z
Z
Zk
z
25 . 6
2 . 1
5 . 7
14 . 7
10 30 12 5 . 7
12
5 . 7
5 . 0
30
3
= =
=
+ =
=
=
=
O =

O =

=
>
=
= =
=
250
10
5 . 7 10
W
75 . 3 that So
25 . 6
2 . 1
7.5
I
10
RL
R
I is hich
mA I
mA
mA I Select
Zk
Z
Design a 7.5-V zener regulator circuit using a
7.5-V zener specified at 12mA. The zener has
an incremental resistance r
z
= 30 and a knee
current of 0.5mA. The regulator operates from
a 10-V supply and has a 1.2-k load.

(a) What is the value of R you have chosen?
(b) What is the regulator output
voltage when the supply is 10%
high? Is 10% low?
7.6V to 4 . 7
1 . 0
) 03 . // 2 . 1 ( 250 . 0
03 . 0 // 2 . 1
1
1 For
+ + =
=
+
= A
= A
+
V V Thus
V
V
V V
O
O
V V
X
V
V V
V V
O
O
ZO O
55 . 7
03 . 0
28 . 0
11
0 I and 11 With
L
=

+ =
= =
+
(c) What is the output voltage when
both the supply is 10% high and
the load is removed?
V 11
O
V
R
V
X
mA
155 . 7
5 . 0 03 . 0 14 . 7
38 . 7
25 . 0
155 . 7 9
+
=

mA 5 . 0
O 250
min L
R
O =

=
1.04k
5 . 0 38 . 7
155 . 7
min L
R
(c) What is the smallest possible load resistor that can
be used while the zener operates at a current no
lower than the knee current while the supply is 10%
low? I
ZK
=0.5mA, V
ZO
=7.14 V
1
3
2
Rectifier Circuit Power Supply
Power supply must supply dc voltage to be constant in
spite of
variation is ac line voltage
Variation in current drawn by load, that is variable load resistance



Filter
Smoothes out pulsating dc but still some time-dependent
components-(ripple) remain in the output

Voltage Regulation
Reduces ripples
Stabilizes magnitude of dc output against variation in
load current
Regulation by Zener Diode or Voltage regulator I.C
Rectifier Circuits
Transfer characteristic of
the rectifier circuit
Input and output waveforms, assuming that r
D
>> R.
Half Wave Rectifier
Full Wave Rectifier
Input and output waveforms.
Diode in Reverse biased state
Anode @ - V
s
Cathode @ + V
o


PIV = 2V
s
- V
DO

Twice as in case of half wave rectifier

Full Wave Rectifier
Bridge Rectifier
The bridge rectifier: (a) circuit; (b) input and output
waveforms.
Bridge Rectifier
Bridge Rectifier
Peak Inverse Voltage



PIV => consider loop D3, R & D2
V
D3
(res) = V
o
+ V
D2
V
o
= V
s
2V
D
PIV = V
s
2V
D
+ V
D
= V
s
V
D

Half of PIV for Full wave Rectifier
Bridge Rectifier
D
4
D
1
D
2 D
3


Figure 3.28 (a) A simple circuit used to illustrate the
effect of a filter capacitor. (b) Input and output
waveforms assuming an ideal diode.
Peak detector with Load
Figure 3.29 Voltage and current waveforms in the peak
rectifier circuit with CR<<T.
Charge / Discharge Cycle
Peak detector with Load
L
s
D
L C D
o
L
i
dt
dV
C i
i i i
R
V
i
+ =
+ =
=
Figure 3.30 Waveforms in the full-wave peak rectifier.
When V
r
is small
V
o
= V
peak
i
L
is almost constant
DC components of i
L



Accurate value of output dc voltage
Average Value



R
V
i
P
L
=
r P o
V V V
2
1
=
Peak Rectifier : Output Voltage
Charge / Discharge Cycle
r P o
V V V
2
1
=
R
V
i
P
L
=
CR
T
e
CR
T
=

1
CR
T
P r P o
e V V V V

~ =
CR
t
P o
e V v

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

CR
T
P r
e V V 1
p r
L
r
V V provided
fC
I
V << = ,
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
CR
T
V V
P r
1 1
R
V
I
P
L
=
fCR
V
CR
T V
V
P P
r
=
During Discharge cycle

At the end of discharge cycle



Since CR >> T
CR
T
e
CR
T
=

1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
~ =

CR
T
P r
CR
T
P r P o
e V V
e V V V V
1
CR
t
P o
e V v

=
Peak Rectifier : Ripple Voltage


Ripple Voltage
p r
L
r
V V provided
fC
I
V << = ,
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
CR
T
V V
P r
1 1
fCR
V
V
P
r
=
R
V
I
P
L
=
CR
T
e
CR
T
=

1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

CR
T
P r
e V V 1
fCR
V
CR
T V
V
P P
r
=
Peak Rectifier : Ripple Voltage




( )
P
r
r P P
V
V
t
V V
t
V
2
2
1
2
= A
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
A

e
e
( )
r P P
V V t V = A e cos
small is Hence t A e
( )
( )
...
! 2
1
2
+
A
= A
t w
t w Cos
Peak Rectifier : Conduction Interval
When Vr<<Vp, the conduction angle will be small
Deduction
Average Diode Current During Conduction
r lost
CV Q = Discharge During
L Dav Cav
L Cav Dav
L C D
I i i
I i i
i i i
=
+ =
+ =
L Dav Cav
cav
I i i
t i Q
=
A =

Charge During
supplied
r cav
CV t i Q Q = A =
supplied supplied
L Dav P r
r
P
L L
P
P
r
Dav
I i V V
V
V
i I
R
V
V
V
i
>> <<
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =

2
1
2
2
t
t
t i CV Q Q
cav r plied lost
A = =
sup
R
T V
CV
CR
T V
V
P
r
P
r
= = =
Average Diode Current During Conduction
( ) t I i
R
T V
L Dav
P
A =
P
r
P
r
V
V T
V
V
f
t
2
2
2
2
1
t t
= = A
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
P
r
L Dav
P
V
V T
I i
R
T V 2
2t
As waveform of is almost right angle r
triangle
Dav D
P r
i i
V V
2
max
=
<<
Deduction
Observations
Diode current flows for short interval and
must replenish the charge lost by the
capacitor. Discharge interval is long &
discharge is through high resistance

Maximum diode current

T CR
I i
L L
>>
= & constant almost is that Assuming
L D
R r <<
L
i
D
i
dt
CdV
i + =
Dav
r
p
L D
i
V
V
i i 2
2
2 1
max
~
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = t
Example N0 3-9
Consider a peak rectifier fed by a 60 Hz
sinusoidal having a peak value of Vp =
100 V. Let the load resistance R =10 k
Ohms.
(a) Find the value of the capacitance C that
will result in peak to peak ripple of 2 V
(b) Calculate the fraction of the cycle during
which the diode is conduction
(c) Calculate the average and peak value of
the diode current.
Example 3.9



Find value of C for V
r
=2V (peak to peak)

Find fraction of cycles that diode conducts

=> Diode conducts of cycle
% 18 . 3 100
2
2 . 0
=
t
t Sin 60 2 100 H
O k 10
F
fR V
V
C
r
P
3 . 83
10 60 2
100
4
=

= =
radian
V
V
t
P
r
2 . 0
2
= = A e
Solution Exp 3-9
Find &
mA i i
mA i
mA
R
V
I
V
V
I i
Dav
Dav
P
L
r
P
L Dav
648 2
324
2
100 2
1 10
10
10000
100
2
1
max
= =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
= = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
t
t
max D
i Dav
i
Full wave peak Detector
In full wave rectifier, the capacitor
discharge for almost T/2 time interval. that
mean ripple frequency is twice the input,
so
fCR
V
V
P
r
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
r
P
L Dav
V
V
I i i
2
2 1 2
max
t
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
r
P
L Dav
V
V
I i
2
1 t
Applications
Peak Rectifier Peak detector is used for

Detecting the peak of the an input signal for
signal processing systems

Demodulator for amplitude modulated (AM)
signals
.





Precision Half Wave Rectifier
Super Diode
Normal Diodes V
D
= 0.7v are used for
rectifier of input of much larger amplitude
then V
D

For smaller signals detection,
demodulation or rectification Operational
Amplifiers (Op Amp) are used
Wave form Generation Limiting
Clamping
Limiter Circuit
V
o
is limited between two levels upper (L
+
)
and lower (L
-
) thresholds

Figure 3.33 Applying a sine wave to a limiter can
result in clipping off its two peaks.
Figure 3.34 Soft limiting.
Wave form Generation
Limiting / Clamping
Double Limiter
Clips off both negative & positive peaks
Single Limiter
Clips off only one side of the input peak
Application
Limits the inputs to operation Amplifier to a limit
lower than the breakdown voltage of transistors
of input stage of operational Amplifier

Half / Full Rectifier for Battery Charger
Threshold and limiting
Figure 3.35 A variety of basic limiting circuits.
Figure E3.27
Solution Ex 3-27
( ) ( )
5 . 2
2
1
5
5
2
1
5
10 10
10
+ = + =
=
(

+
=
i R o
i i R
v v v
v v v
i o i
v v v a = s s 5 5 ) (
off - cut D1 Conduct, D2 V 5 ) (
o
+ >
I
V b
off is D2 & Conducts D1 V 5 ) ( s
i
v c
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 5 . 2
2
1
5 5
2
1
5
2
1
5
10 10
10
= + =
+ = +
(

+
=
i i o
i i R
v v v
v v v
D C Restorer
The output waveform will have its lower
peak Clamped to O V therefore known
as Clamped Capacitor

Output waveform will have a finite average
value & is entirely different and unrelated
to the average value of the input waveform
Application

T X R

DC
Restorers
v 4
6 +
4
v 2 +
v 0
v 4
Figure 3.36 The clamped capacitor or dc restorer with
a square-wave input and no load.
Figure 3.37 The clamped capacitor with a load
resistance R.
Figure 3.38 Voltage doubler: (a) circuit; (b) waveform
of the voltage across D
1
.
Figure P3.97
Figure P3.98
Figure P3.102
Figure P3.103
Figure P3.105
c i
V V + =
0
V Off Diode




on D
6
4 +
0
off D
v
i
V
C
v
o
The Voltage Doubler
1 C
t V
P
e sin
- V
P
+

+
D1
V
D1
+

P
V 2
- V
P
+
t V
P
e sin
Restorer DC
circuit Clamp C
1 1
a D
Special Diode Type
Schottky-Barrier Diode (SBD)
Shottky-Barrier Diode is formed by
bringing metal into contact with a
moderately doped n type semiconductor
material

Resulting in flow of the conducting current
in one direction from metal anode to the
semiconductor cathode and acts as an
open circuit in the other direction
Gets two important properties

SBD switches on-off faster due to current
conducts due to majority carrier b (electrons)

Forward voltage drop is lower then P-n
junction diode
Schottky-Barrier Diode (SBD)
Varactor
Variable Capacitor
Depletion layer acts as junction capacitance
Depletion layer varies Capacitance






Used for voltage controlled Tuning Circuit

Region Depletion
Dielectric
D
Plate Metallic
Varactor
When a reverse voltage is applied to a p-n junction ,
the depletion region, is essentially devoid of
carriers and behaves as the dielectric of a
capacitor.

The depletion region increases as reverse voltage
across it increases; and since capacitance varies
inversely as dielectric thickness, the junction
capacitance will decrease as the voltage across the p-n
junction increases.

By varying the reverse voltage across a p-n junction the
junction capacitance can be varied .
Semiconductor diodes
The tunnel diode, the current through the
device decreases as the voltage is increased
within a certain range; this property, known as
negative resistance, makes it useful as an
amplifier.

Gunn diodes are negative-resistance diodes
that are the basis of some microwave oscillators.

Light-sensitive or photosensitive diodes can
be used to measure illumination; the voltage
drop across them depends on the amount of
light that strikes them.
SCR (Thyristor)
The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) is simply a
conventional rectifier controlled by a gate signal.

A gate signal controls the rectifier conduction.

The rectifier circuit (anode-cathode) has a low forward
resistance and a high reverse resistance.

It is controlled from an off state (high resistance) to the
on state (low resistance) by a signal applied to the third
terminal, the gate.

Most SCR applications are in power switching, phase
control, chopper, and inverter circuits.
Photodiode
If reversed biased PN junction is exposed
to incident light the photons impacting
the junction cause covalent bond to
break thus give rise to current known as a
photocurrent & is proportional to the
intensity of incident light.

Converts Light energy into a electrical
signals
Photodiode
Photodiode are manufactured using
Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)

Photodiodes are important element of
optoelectronics or photonics circuit
(Combination of Electronics & optics) used
for signal processing, storage &
transmission
Photodiode : Applications
Fiber optics Transmission of telephonic &
TV signals

Opto-storage are CD ROM computer disks

Wide bandwidth & low signal attenuation.

Solar Cell light energy into Electrical
energy
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Inverse of Photodiode

Converts a forward biased current into light

GaAs used for manufacturing LEDs

Used as electronics displays

Coherent light into a narrow bandwidth laser
diodes

Fiber Optics & CD ROM
LED
Double heterostructure laser
.
Optoisolator
LED & Photodiode
Electrical to light Light to electrical

Provides complete electrical isolation between electrical
circuits

Reduces the effects of electrical interference on signal
being fixed within a system

Reduces risk of shock

Can be implemented over long distance fiber optics
communication links
Laser Pointer
.

Laser Microphone
End
Problem 3-103
Sketch and label the transfer
Characteristics of the circuit shown over a
+ 10 V range of the input signal. All
diodes are V
D
=0.7 V @ 1 mA with n=1.

What are the slopes of the characteristic
at the extreme + 10 V levels?
+1 V
-2 V
-2 V
V
i
V
0
0 V 1 0
o
= < <
i
V
Problem 3-103
Ist Sessional
Q No 1 (12 Marks) In the circuit shown, input voltage is
a 1kHz, 10 V peak to peak sine wave. The diode is an
ideal diode.
(a) Sketch the waveform resulting at output
terminal vO.
(b) What are its positive and negative peak
values?
Q No 2 (15 Marks) A circuit utilizes three
identical diodes connected in series having n=1
and I
S
= 10
-14
A.
(a) Find the value of current required to
obtain an output voltage of 2 V across the three
diodes combined.
(b) If a current of 1 mA is drawn away from
the output terminal by a load
(i) What is the change in output voltage?
(ii) What is the value of the load?
Ist Sessional
Q No 3 (13 Marks) For the circuit shown,
sketch the output for the sine wave input of 10
volts peak. Label the positive and negative peak
values assuming that CR >>T.
Ist Sessional
Q No 4 (10 Marks) 9.25 V zener diode
exhibits its nominal voltage at a test
current of 28 mA. At this current the
incremental resistance is specified as 7
ohms.
(a) Find V
ZO
of the zener model.
(b) Find the zener voltage at a current of
10 mA.
Ist Sessional
Q No 5 (20 Marks) Consider a bridge rectifier
circuit with a filter capacitor C placed across the
load resistor R for the case in which the
transformer secondary delivers a sinusoid of 12
V (rms) having the 60 Hz frequency and
assuming VD = 0.8 V and a load resistance of
100 ohms.
Find the value of C that results in a ripple voltage no
larger than 1 V peak to peak.
Find the diode conduction angle.
Find the load current.
What is the average load current?
Ist Sessional
Q No 6 (10 Marks) In a circuit shown, the output
voltage is 2.4 V. Assuming that the diodes are
identical and are having 0.7 V drop at 1mA.
(a) Find the current following through the resistor R.
(b) What the value of resistor R.
Ist Sessional
Figure 3.31 The superdiode precision half-wave rectifier and its almost-ideal transfer characteristic. Note that when v
I
> 0
and the diode conducts, the op amp supplies the load current, and the source is conveniently buffered, an added advantage. Not
shown are the op-amp power supplies.
Figure P3.82
Figure P3.91
Figure P3.92
Figure P3.93
Figure P3.105
Figure P3.105
Quiz DE28 EE -B
(10 Marks) 9.25 V zener diode exhibits its
nominal voltage at a test current of 28 mA.
At this current the incremental resistance is
specified as 7 ohms.
(a) Find V
ZO
of the zener model.
(b) Find the zener voltage at a current of
10 mA.
Quiz DE 28 EE -A
A zener diode whose nominal voltage is
10 V at 10 mA has an incremental
resistance of 50 .

(a) What is the value of V
ZO
of the zener
model?
(b) What voltage do you expect if the diode
current is doubled?