A. Mesolithic 1. Began approximately 12,000 years ago 2.

Warmer, drier climate with disappearance of large herd animals such as mammoths and wooly rhinoceros. 3. Greater reliance on small game, wild plants, fishing 4. Stone tool technology changes: microliths, smoothly ground stone axes, harpoons 5. Natufians in Southwest Asia (Fertile Crescent) a. For example, the village of Jericho b. Hunters and gatherers, but settled into a village c. Storage pits for grains. 6. Transition for Nomadic Hunting and Gathering way of life to Settled Agricultural lifestyle.

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Peru. . Mexico. This happened 10. 3.B. The Neolithic means the new Stone Age. 4. 2.500 years ago in Southwest Asia. However what's really important is the domestication of plants and animals and the development of sedentary communities. The Neolithic 1. And 8000 years ago in southeast Asia.

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2. e. The development of tough stems.g.. Characteristics of Plant domesticates. corn. 1. wheat so seeds can be harvested easily . 3.. Loss or reduction of husk.g.C. teosinte to corn. e. Increase size of edible parts. wheat.

Maize Evolution .Teosintle.

Southeast Asia: millet. peanuts . avocado. yams. amaranth. barley. rye. rice. lentil. quinoa 7. beans. flax. 6. squash. 4. taro. cotton.D. 2. 3. Melanesia: yams 5. Southwest Asia: wheat. Major Cultigens (Plant Domesticates) 1. Mesoamerica: corn. Highland South America: potato. Africa: sorghum. Tropical south America: manioc . chili.

Taro Root for Sale .

Sorghum .

Quinoa .

Manioc .

Characteristics of Animal Domesticates 1. Reduction in the size of teeth. pigs F. Greater number of woolly follicles. High newborn mortality due to diseases in corrals. b. Reduction or loss of horns. 3. Identification of domesticated animals in the archaeological record 1. Butchering of male sheep in Iraq. Why? a. sheep. 2.E. higher percentage of remains of young and male animals. female sheep. llamas in Peru .

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dog.G. honey bee. chickens. llama. horses. South America: guinea pig. dogs. cattle. 5. goats. Major Animal Domesticates 1. Mexico: turkey. 2. alpaca. ducks. camels. 3. water buffalo. geese. Southwest Asia: sheep. pigs. 4. ducks. Southeast Asia: silk worm. Egypt: cat .

Silk Worm .

com . © Jarno Gonzalez Zarraonandia/Shutterstock.Alpaca (Lama pacos).

Xoloitzcuintli. Mexican hairless dog .

People collected the seeds of wild grasses 5.000 years ago. 4. Gordon Childe. This led to animal domestication. A type of environmental determinism. 3. Problem: Domestication did not occur first at oases . Southwest Asia became drier 12 to 15. 2.H. This led to plant cultivation. 1. 6. People congregated around oases. 1950s. Cultivation of plants attracted wild cattle and sheep and goats. Theories for the origins of domestication The oasis theory by V. 8. 7.

Assumes domestication was intentional. Problems. people cannot predict which plants or animals could be domesticated. b. More people needed more food 4. fishing and gathering were very productive 2. Hunting. Domestication is gradual and would not provide people with more food in the short term. a.Population growth by Cohen. So productive that population grew. People in marginal areas decided to domesticate animals and plants to provide new food 5. . 3. However. 1.

which meant that plants with tough stems and seeds that did not readily scatter were the most likely to be carried back to settlements. Annuals are best adapted to this environment. for example. They used sickles. wheat. 2. 5. 1. 4. the climate became warmer with seasonal droughts (these are seasonal stresses. . barley. the Jordan River Valley. For example. and rye.) 3.Seasonal stress theory of plant domestication in SW Asia by McCorriston and Hole. garbage pits. 6. Some lost seeds germinated at disturbed sites such as latrines. a. People collected wild plants. People began to promote growth of these annuals. Beginning in the Mesolithic. wild cereal and grains produce abundant seeds and survive for long periods of drought. 7. The earliest plant domestication took place around the margins of evaporating lakes. and burned over areas.

6.The hilly flanks theory of animal domestication by Hole. Females were spared for breeding and people were feasting on ram lambs. 1. 5. Sheep and goats grazed in the lowlands during the winter and in the high pastures in the summer. Wild sheep and goats were domesticated in the hilly flanks or the foothills of the Zargos Mountains in present day Iraq and Iran 2. the percentage of male lamb remains increased. . People follow these animals. By 8000 years ago. and became very familiar with their behavior and habits By 11. domesticated sheep and goats were being kept at villages like Jericho. 7.000 years ago. This indicates the presence of herd management a. 4. 3. Wild sheep and goats migrated up and down mountains due to the seasonal availability of grasses.

the farmers were raising animals. Jericho was first settled by hunters and gatherers. 10. 7.350 years before present. . 2. Jericho in the Jordan River Valley. 400 to 900 people – 5. Mud brick houses with courtyards. goats. 8000 years before present. Massive stone walls to prevent flooding. sheep. 9. Storage rooms. Stone Tower. centralized cemetery 6. egalitarian. and cultivating plants. 8. 3. 4. barley. Neolithic life. Wheat.I. 1.

Stone Tower in Jericho .

Foundation of Round House in Jericho .

d. hoes. mortar and pestle. a. Pottery . Tools. plow c. Polished stone.1. 2. bone. forks. Scythes. horn. b. Obsidian turquoise and shells traded with other villages. wood.

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1.transmitted from domesticated animals. 7. Airborne diseases. malaria.J. Neolithic health. Carbohydrate related diseases. enamel hypoplasias 6. 3. Harris lines in long bones. 5. 4. Zoonoses such as smallpox and chickenpox -. Periodic epidemics and food shortages lead to malnutrition and stunted growth. Sickle cell anemia. 2. There were waterborne diseases and gastrointestinal diseases due to poor sanitation. and farming .

Enamel Hypoplasia .

Harris Lines .

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