Dr. Sunil Misra
Associate Professor Human Resource & Organizational Behaviour
Department of MBA
The most common vehicles to : Provide information Persuade readers
Research is complete only when the results are shared with the scientific community. Although such sharing is accomplished in various ways, both formal and informal, the traditional medium for communicating research is the scientific journal.
Kinds of Reports
Occasional Reports : to alert / update on a situation Activity Reports : to sum up a trip / conference / meeting / any other event Status / Progress Reports : to give a general review of activities in a department / progress on a particular project Formal Reports : to provide a comprehensive overview
Basics for all Reports
Objectives .the purpose for writing the Report. Readers – Identify the readers and focus on what they know about the context Scope
Organize the Findings F.Basics of Report Writing
A. Write the Report
. Identify and state the Problem B. Determine the Factors C. Interpret the Data E. Gather Information D.
SM / HSS / IIT-KGP
.What are Reports?
An Orderly and Objective Communication of Factual Information that Serves a Business Purpose.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE and the SAMPLE. Abbreviations should be avoided in the title.
A title page should summarize the main idea of the Report. The title should include the DEPENDENT VARIABLE.
. ‘Toward a…‟ should
be avoided.Title Page
The recommended length for a title is 10 to 12 words. Redundancies such as ‘A Study
of…’ „An Experimental
Investigation of…’ ‘Theory of….
Lathiya. Omit all titles (e.. Ph D. Dr. etc. Example: Sunil Misra OR Amit R. M Tech. and last name. Professor) and degrees (e.
The preferred form of an author‟s name is first name. M Sc. middle initial.g.)
Author/s name and institutional affiliation: Every manuscript must have a byline consisting of two parts: the name of the author/s and the institution where the investigation was conducted..
comprehensive summary of the contents of the report. Normally.Report Writing
An abstract is a brief. an abstract should consist of 100 to 250 words (empirical study) and in case of review article 75 words. It allows readers to survey the contents of an report quickly.
. Almost all the journals/thesis/reports require an abstract.
Before beginning to write one should consider the following three major characteristics:
Hierarchy of the ideas Tone: it should be in an interesting and compelling manner that reflects one’s involvement with the problem.
Introduction is the development of problem under investigation and statement of the purpose of the investigation.
In introduction the following things are considered:
What is the point of the study? How do the hypotheses and the experimental design relate to the problem? What are the theoretical implications of the study and how does the study relate to previous work in the area? What are the theoretical propositions tested and how were they derived?
the background: Discuss the literature but do not include an exhaustive historical review.Report Writing
Introduction should generally include:
of literature: relationship of variables established through theoretical background and the works done in the past by various researchers in the area.
. when relevant.Report Writing Demonstrate the logical continuity between previous and present work. and the major findings for a quick glance is desirable. should be treated fairly. author/s name. variables used for study. year of publication.
Report Writing INTRODUCTION SECTION
Review of literature Gap areas Objective of the study Conceptualization of variables Conceptual model Hypotheses/Research Questions
alpha value) Test administration
. The method section is usually divided into three parts:
(Sample characteristics.Report Writing
METHOD The method section describes in detail how the study was conducted.
b. demographic informationage. gender. number of dimensions. Such a description enables the readers to evaluate the appropriateness of one‟s methods and the reliability and validity of one‟s result.
. use the suitable statistics and report the findings.Report Writing
results section summarizes the data. then the data are reported with sufficient details to justify the conclusions. hypotheses are to be tested. First. briefly the main results or findings are stated.
. The degrees of freedom. to give a summary of findings at the end of the result section for a quick look. information about the value of the test to be included. It is desirable. the probability level and the direction of the effect needs to be mentioned..g. and chi-square).Report Writing
reporting inferential statistics (e. F.tests. t-tests.
interpret and qualify the results as well as to draw inferences from them.Report Writing
presenting the results. one should evaluate and interpret the implications especially with respect to one‟s original hypothesis. One should be guided by the following questions:
. is free to examine.
I have contributed here?
has my study helped to resolve the original problem?
conclusions and theoretical implications can I draw from my study?
of the study Contribution of the present work Limitation of the study Scope for future research
double spacing.Page numbering
Page numbers for the prefacing materials of the report should be in small Roman numerals and should be centered at the bottom of the pages. A4 size paper with 1” margin all the sides.
. Font: Times New Roman. 12 point. Page numbers for the body of the report should be in Arabic numerals and should be centered at the bottom of the pages.
Author note References Appendices
Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C. etc.
1976. & Pearce. Hackman. in the beginning of the sentence:
Goldhaber (1993). 1979. Steers. 1976)
. 1977) (Oldham. Porter and Roberts (1976) At the end of the sentence: (Gruneberg.Report Writing
In the text. Nemiroff & Ford.
Giles & W. M.. 561-584). & Potok. (2001). W. Gallois. Callan. The year in hate. M. New York: John Wiley & Sons. M.. 227237. P. Gradner.splcenter. (2008). Gruneberg. Holthouse. In H... Chichester.. V. from http://www. M. 10. The new handbook of language and social psychology (pp.org/intel/intelreport/article. (1979). C. An intergroup perspective on communication in organisations. Research in Nursing and Health. UK: Wiley. C. Understanding job satisfaction. (1987). P. & Mueller. Nurses job satisfaction.
. Paulsen. & Monaghan.jsp?aid=886. Retrived April 8. J.Report Writing In references:
Blegen. D.).. A longitudinal analysis. N. 2008. Robinson (Eds.
absolutely essential has been previously found small in size one and the same in close proximity completely unanimous just exactly very close to significance period of time summarize briefly the reason is because
A total of 65 participants They were both alike Four different groups saw instructions which were exactly the same as those used.
.g. Method and the results section should be written in the past tense. Mitra (1998) showed] or present perfect tense [e. past tense [e. Present tense should be used to discuss the results and to present the conclusions.Report Writing
Generally. The use of “I” first person pronoun should be avoided in the report writing...g. Mitra (1998) has shown] is appropriate for literature review.
of correct responses as well as the responses increase with
of correct responses as well as the responses increases with
Incorrect: The data indicates that Correct: The data indicate that
. Correct: The percentage the speed of practice.Report Writing
Incorrect: The percentage the speed of practice.
Incorrect: Neither the highest scorer nor the lowest scorer in the group had any doubt About their competency.
. Correct: Neither the highest scorer nor the lowest scorer in the group had any doubt about his/her competency. we divided the participants into two groups.
Incorrect: To test this hypothesis. the participants were divided into two groups. Correct: To test this hypothesis.
misconduct: Fabrication: (fake data) Distortion Plagiarism (stealing ideas and works of others) .RESEARCH ETHICS
It is a long-established and revered tradition in the international research community that research is conducted and documented sincerely and honestly. Breach of confidentiality
.Due acknowledgement must be given for the contribution of others.
and is the hypothesis explicit?
.Quality of presentation
d) e) f)
Is the topic appropriate for the journal to which the manuscript is submitted? Is the introduction clear and complete? Does the statement of purpose adequately and logically orient the reader? Is the literature adequately reviewed? Are the citations appropriate and complete? Is the research question clearly identified.
valid. and meaningful? Is the discussion thorough? Does it stick to the point and confine itself to what can be concluded from the significant findings of the study? Is the paper concise? Is the manuscript prepared according to APA style?
.g) h) i)
Are the conceptualization and rationale perfectly clear? Is the method clearly and adequately described? Are the techniques of data analysis appropriate. and the analysis clear? Are the results and conclusions unambiguous.