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MEL713 DESIGN OF I.C.

ENGINES: COMPONENTS & SUB-SYSTEMS

P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department

Inventions due to Biological Need of Humans !!! The Artificial Muscles!!! Enhances the Value of Energy Resource !!! An Artificial Horse/Cattle !!!

Earth and Energy


Life on Earth is driven by energy. Autotrophs take it from solar radiation and create Energy Reservoirs on Earth.

Creators and Exploiters of Energy Reservoirs


Heterotrophs take it from autotrophs.

Energy captured slowly by photosynthesis is stored up, and as denser reservoirs of energy have come into being over the course of Earth's history

Energy Cycles on Earth w/o Humans

A way of Reducing Rate of Entropy Generation on Earth

Human Evolution & Energy


The humans are extrasomatic heterotrophs. The ability to use energy extrasomatically enables human beings to use far more energy than any other heterotroph that has ever evolved. The human population modified more and more of its environment by using extrasomatic energy to suit human needs. The world's present population of over 5.5 billion is sustained and continues to grow through the use of extrasomatic energy. The human race expanded its resource base so that for long periods it has exceeded contemporary requirements.

Signatures of Extrasomatism

Water Mills Mechanical Heat Engines Machine free? Steam /gas turbines Wind Mills

The Powerful Extrasomatic Inventions : FIRE, FLAME and TORCH Fire is a discovery rather than an invention. Homo erectus probably discovered fire by accident. Fire was most likely given to man as a 'gift from the heavens' when a bolt of lightning struck a tree or a bush, suddenly starting it on fire. The flaming touch and the campfire probably constituted early man's first use of 'artificial' lighting. As early as 400,000 BC, fire was kindled in the caves of Peking man. Prehistoric man, used primitive lamps to illuminate his cave. Various Oils were used as fuels.

The Power God : Steam Power

~1760 : James Watt ~1820 : Sadi Carnot

George Brayton & W Rankine ~ 1860

Power Gods : Gas Power

Nicolaus A. Otto Rudolf Diesel

George Brayton

Power Gods : Hydro Power

Lester Allan Pelton James B. Francis

Viktor Kaplan

Power Gods : Electric Power

Michael Faraday

Why & How Earth is Special in The Universe..

The flow of energy from a source to a sink through an intermediate system orders that system.

Morowitz [1992]

Capital Resource
CO2 + H2O

SOLAR ENERGY

INCOMING RESOURCE

PHTOSYNTHESIS

WINDS
VELOCITY

VEGETATION

SOLAR RADIATION

CHEMICAL ENERGY THERMAL


FOSSILIZATION

WIND ENERGY

WAVE

CLOUDS
RAINS

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY


COAL

HYDRO ENERGY

FOSSIL FUEL

PETROLEUM NATURAL GAS

Thermodynamic Appreciation The Devices for development of mankind.

Control Mass

Control Volume