7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 1

CSE 4215/5431:
Mobile Communications
Winter 2010
Suprakash Datta
datta@cs.yorku.ca

Office: CSEB 3043
Phone: 416-736-2100 ext 77875

Course page: http://www.cs.yorku.ca/course/4215

Some slides are adapted from the book website
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 2
Last class
• Introduction to mobile communications
• Similarities and differences with wired
communication
• Review of the TCP/IP architecture
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 3
Today
• The physical layer for mobile
communications

• Let’s start with the very basic notions
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Signals, channels and systems
• What is a signal?
– Baseband signal
– Modulation
– Bandwidth
– Transmission/reception
• What is a channel?
– Bandwidth
– Noise
– Loss?
• What is a communication system?
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Types of signals
(a) continuous time/discrete time
(b) continuous values/discrete values
– analog signal = continuous time, continuous values
– digital signal = discrete time, discrete values
• Periodic signal - analog or digital signal that repeats
over time
– s(t +T ) = s(t ) -·< t < +·
• where T is the period of the signal
• signal parameters of periodic signals:
period T, frequency f=1/T, amplitude A, phase shift ¢
– sine wave as special periodic signal for a carrier:

s(t) = A
t
sin(2 t f
t
t + ¢
t
)
Sine Wave Parameters
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 7
Bandwidth
• Of a signal
• Of a channel

7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 8
The underlying mathematics
) 2 cos( ) 2 sin(
2
1
) (
1 1
nft b nft a c t g
n
n
n
n
t t
¿ ¿
·
=
·
=
+ + =
1
0
1
0
t t
ideal periodic signal
real composition
(based on harmonics)
Fourier representation of periodic signals
What about aperiodic signals ?
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 9
Frequency domain
• Fundamental frequency - when all frequency
components of a signal are integer multiples
of one frequency, it’s referred to as the
fundamental frequency
• Spectrum - range of frequencies that a signal
contains
• Absolute bandwidth - width of the spectrum of
a signal
• Effective bandwidth (or just bandwidth) -
narrow band of frequencies that most of the
signal’s energy is contained in
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 10
Transmitting rectangular signals
• Observations
– Any digital waveform will have infinite
bandwidth
– BUT the transmission system will limit the
bandwidth that can be transmitted
– AND, for any given medium, the greater the
bandwidth transmitted, the greater the cost
– HOWEVER, limiting the bandwidth creates
distortions
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 11
Bit rates, channel capacity
• Impairments, such as noise, limit data
rate that can be achieved
• For digital data, to what extent do
impairments limit data rate?
• Channel Capacity – the maximum rate
at which data can be transmitted over a
given communication path, or channel,
under given conditions
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 12
Nyquist Bandwidth
• For binary signals (two voltage levels)
– C = 2B
• With multilevel signaling
– C = 2B log
2
M
• M = number of discrete signal or voltage levels
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 13
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
• Ratio of the power in a signal to the power
contained in the noise that’s present at a
particular point in the transmission
• Typically measured at a receiver
• Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, or S/N)


• A high SNR means a high-quality signal, low
number of required intermediate repeaters
• SNR sets upper bound on achievable data rate
power noise
power signal
log 10 ) (
10 dB
= SNR
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 14
Shannon Capacity Formula
• Equation:

• Represents theoretical maximum that can be
achieved
• In practice, only much lower rates achieved
– Formula assumes white noise (thermal noise)
– Impulse noise is not accounted for
– Attenuation distortion or delay distortion not
accounted for
( ) SNR 1 log
2
+ = B C
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Example of Nyquist and Shannon
Formulations
• Spectrum of a channel between 3 MHz
and 4 MHz ; SNR
dB
= 24 dB



• Using Shannon’s formula


( )
251 SNR
SNR log 10 dB 24 SNR
MHz 1 MHz 3 MHz 4
10 dB
=
= =
= ÷ = B
( ) Mbps 8 8 10 251 1 log 10
6
2
6
= × ~ + × = C
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 16
Example of Nyquist and Shannon
Formulations
• How many signaling levels are
required?
( )
16
log 4
log 10 2 10 8
log 2
2
2
6 6
2
=
=
× × = ×
=
M
M
M
M B C
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 17
Modulation
• Why?
• How?




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Frequencies for wireless communication
• VLF = Very Low Frequency UHF = Ultra High Frequency
• LF = Low Frequency SHF = Super High Frequency
• MF = Medium Frequency EHF = Extra High Frequency

• HF = High Frequency UV = Ultraviolet Light
• VHF = Very High Frequency

• Frequency and wave length
– ì = c/f
– wave length ì, speed of light c ~ 3x10
8
m/s, frequency f
1 Mm
300 Hz
10 km
30 kHz
100 m
3 MHz
1 m
300 MHz
10 mm
30 GHz
100 µm
3 THz
1 µm
300 THz
visible light VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF infrared UV
optical transmission
coax cable twisted
pair
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 19
Frequencies for wireless communication
• VHF-/UHF-ranges for mobile radio
– simple, small antenna for cars
– deterministic propagation characteristics, reliable connections
• SHF and higher for directed radio links, satellite
communication
– small antenna, beam forming
– large bandwidth available
• Wireless LANs use frequencies in UHF to SHF range
– some systems planned up to EHF
– limitations due to absorption by water and oxygen molecules
(resonance frequencies)
• weather dependent fading, signal loss caused by heavy rainfall
etc.
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Frequencies and regulations
• ITU-R holds auctions for new frequencies, manages frequency
bands worldwide (WRC, World Radio Conferences)
Examples Europe USA Japan
Cellular
phones
GSM 880-915, 925-
960, 1710-1785,
1805-1880
UMTS 1920-1980,
2110-2170
AMPS, TDMA,
CDMA, GSM 824-
849, 869-894
TDMA, CDMA, GSM,
UMTS 1850-1910,
1930-1990
PDC, FOMA 810-888,
893-958
PDC 1429-1453,
1477-1501
FOMA 1920-1980,
2110-2170
Cordless
phones
CT1+ 885-887, 930-
932
CT2 864-868
DECT 1880-1900
PACS 1850-1910,
1930-1990
PACS-UB 1910-1930
PHS 1895-1918
JCT 245-380
Wireless LANs
802.11b/g 2412-2472 802.11b/g 2412-2462 802.11b 2412-2484
802.11g 2412-2472
Other RF
systems
27, 128, 418, 433,
868
315, 915 426, 868
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 21
• Multiplexing in 4 dimensions
– space (s
i
)
– time (t)
– frequency (f)
– code (c)

• Goal: multiple use
of a shared medium

• Important: guard spaces needed!
s
2

s
3

s
1

Multiplexing
f
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
f
t
c
channels k
i

7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 22
Frequency multiplexing
• Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller
frequency bands
• A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the
whole time
• Advantages
– no dynamic coordination
necessary
– works also for analog signals

• Disadvantages
– waste of bandwidth
if the traffic is
distributed
unevenly
– inflexible
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 23
f
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

Time division multiplexing
• A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain
amount of time

• Advantages
– only one carrier in the
medium at any time
– throughput high even
for many users

• Disadvantages
– precise
synchronization
necessary
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 24
f
Time and frequency multiplex
• Combination of both methods
• A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain
amount of time
• Example: GSM

• Advantages
– better protection against
tapping
– protection against frequency
selective interference
• but: precise coordination
required
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 25
Code multiplex
• Each channel has a unique code

• All channels use the same spectrum
at the same time
• Advantages
– bandwidth efficient
– no coordination and synchronization
necessary
– good protection against interference
and tapping
• Disadvantages
– varying user data rates
– more complex signal regeneration
• Implemented using spread spectrum technology
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 26
Example
• Lack of coordination requirement is an
advantage.
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Aside: Digital Communications
• What is coding?
• What is source coding?
• What are line codes?
• What is channel coding?

7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 28
Transceivers
• How are signals sent and received in
wireless communications?
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 29
Antennas: isotropic radiator
• Radiation and reception of electromagnetic waves,
coupling of wires to space for radio transmission
• Isotropic radiator: equal radiation in all directions
(three dimensional) - only a theoretical reference
antenna
• Real antennas always have directive effects
(vertically and/or horizontally)
• Radiation pattern: measurement of radiation around
an antenna

z y
x
z
y x
ideal
isotropic
radiator
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 30
Antennas: simple dipoles
• Real antennas are not isotropic radiators but, e.g., dipoles with lengths
ì/4 on car roofs or ì/2 as Hertzian dipole
 shape of antenna proportional to wavelength



• Example: Radiation pattern of a simple Hertzian dipole



• Gain: maximum power in the direction of the main lobe compared to the
power of an isotropic radiator (with the same average power)
side view (xy-plane)
x
y
side view (yz-plane)
z
y
top view (xz-plane)
x
z
simple
dipole
ì/4
ì/2
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Antennas: directed and sectorized
side view (xy-plane)
x
y
side view (yz-plane)
z
y
top view (xz-plane)
x
z
top view, 3 sector
x
z
top view, 6 sector
x
z
• Often used for microwave connections or base stations
for mobile phones (e.g., radio coverage of a valley)
directed
antenna
sectorized
antenna
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 32
Antennas: diversity
• Grouping of 2 or more antennas
– multi-element antenna arrays
• Antenna diversity
– switched diversity, selection diversity
• receiver chooses antenna with largest output
– diversity combining
• combine output power to produce gain
• cophasing needed to avoid cancellation

+
ì/4 ì/2 ì/4
ground plane
ì/2
ì/2
+
ì/2
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 33
Antenna Gain
• Antenna gain
– Power output, in a particular direction,
compared to that produced in any direction
by a perfect omnidirectional antenna
(isotropic antenna)
• Effective area
– Related to physical size and shape of
antenna
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 34
Antenna Gain
• Relationship between antenna gain and
effective area



• G = antenna gain
• A
e
= effective area
• f = carrier frequency
• c = speed of light (~ 3 × 10
8
m/s)
• ì = carrier wavelength
2
2
2
4 4
c
A f A
G
e e
t
ì
t
= =
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 35
Back to modulation
• Digital modulation
– digital data is translated into an analog signal (baseband)
– ASK, FSK, PSK - main focus in this chapter
– differences in spectral efficiency, power efficiency, robustness
• Analog modulation
– shifts center frequency of baseband signal up to the radio carrier
• Motivation
– smaller antennas (e.g., ì/4)
– Frequency Division Multiplexing
– medium characteristics
• Basic schemes
– Amplitude Modulation (AM)
– Frequency Modulation (FM)
– Phase Modulation (PM)
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 36
Modulation and demodulation
synchronization
decision
digital
data
analog
demodulation
radio
carrier
analog
baseband
signal
101101001
radio receiver
digital
modulation
digital
data
analog
modulation
radio
carrier
analog
baseband
signal
101101001
radio transmitter
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 37
Digital modulation
• Modulation of digital signals known as Shift Keying
• Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK):
– very simple
– low bandwidth requirements
– very susceptible to interference

• Frequency Shift Keying (FSK):
– needs larger bandwidth


• Phase Shift Keying (PSK):
– more complex
– robust against interference
1 0 1
t
1 0 1
t
1 0 1
t
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 38
Advanced Frequency Shift Keying
• bandwidth needed for FSK depends on the distance
between the carrier frequencies
• special pre-computation avoids sudden phase shifts
 MSK (Minimum Shift Keying)
– bit separated into even and odd bits, the duration of each bit is
doubled
– depending on the bit values (even, odd) the higher or lower
frequency, original or inverted is chosen
– the frequency of one carrier is twice the frequency of the other
– Equivalent to offset QPSK

• even higher bandwidth efficiency using a Gaussian low-
pass filter  GMSK (Gaussian MSK), used in GSM
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 39
Example of MSK
data
even bits
odd bits
1 1 1 1 0 0 0
t
low
frequency
high
frequency
MSK
signal
bit
even 0 1 0 1
odd 0 0 1 1
signal h n n h
value - - + +
h: high frequency
n: low frequency
+: original signal
-: inverted signal
No phase shifts!
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 40
Advanced Phase Shift Keying
• BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying):
– bit value 0: sine wave
– bit value 1: inverted sine wave
– very simple PSK
– low spectral efficiency
– robust, used e.g. in satellite systems
• QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift
Keying):
– 2 bits coded as one symbol
– symbol determines shift of sine wave
– needs less bandwidth compared to
BPSK
– more complex
• Often also transmission of relative,
not absolute phase shift: DQPSK -
Differential QPSK (IS-136, PHS)
11 10 00 01
Q
I
0 1
Q
I
11
01
10
00
A
t
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 41
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
• . Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
– combines amplitude and phase modulation
– it is possible to code n bits using one symbol
– 2
n
discrete levels, n=2 identical to QPSK
• Bit error rate increases with n, but less errors
compared to comparable PSK schemes
– Example: 16-QAM (4 bits = 1 symbol)
– Symbols 0011 and 0001 have
the same phase φ, but different
amplitude a. 0000 and 1000 have
different phase, but same amplitude
0000
0001
0011
1000
Q
I
0010
φ
a
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 42
Hierarchical Modulation
• DVB-T modulates two separate data streams onto a
single DVB-T stream
• High Priority (HP) embedded within a Low Priority
(LP) stream
• Multi carrier system, about 2000 or 8000 carriers
• QPSK, 16 QAM, 64QAM
• Example: 64QAM
– good reception: resolve the entire
64QAM constellation
– poor reception, mobile reception:
resolve only QPSK portion
– 6 bit per QAM symbol, 2 most
significant determine QPSK
– HP service coded in QPSK (2 bit),
LP uses remaining 4 bit
Q
I
00
10
000010 010101
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 43
Signal propagation basics
Many different effects have to be
considered
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 44
Signal propagation ranges
• Transmission range
– communication possible
– low error rate
• Detection range
– detection of the signal
possible
– no communication
possible
• Interference range
– signal may not be
detected
– signal adds to the
background noise

distance
sender
transmission
detection
interference
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 45
Signal propagation
• Propagation in free space always like light (straight line)
• Receiving power proportional to 1/d² in vacuum – much more in real
environments
(d = distance between sender and receiver)
• Receiving power additionally influenced by
• fading (frequency dependent)
• shadowing
• reflection at large obstacles
• refraction depending on the density of a medium
• scattering at small obstacles
• diffraction at edges
reflection scattering diffraction shadowing refraction
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 46
Real world example
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 47
Propagation Modes
• Ground-wave propagation
• Sky-wave propagation
• Line-of-sight propagation
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 48
Ground Wave Propagation
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 49
Ground Wave Propagation
• Follows contour of the earth
• Can Propagate considerable distances
• Frequencies up to 2 MHz
• Example
– AM radio
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 50
Sky Wave Propagation
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 51
Sky Wave Propagation
• Signal reflected from ionized layer of
atmosphere back down to earth
• Signal can travel a number of hops,
back and forth between ionosphere and
earth’s surface
• Reflection effect caused by refraction
• Examples
– Amateur radio
– CB radio
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 52
Line-of-Sight Propagation
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 53
Line-of-Sight Propagation
• Transmitting and receiving antennas must be
within line of sight
– Satellite communication – signal above 30 MHz
not reflected by ionosphere
– Ground communication – antennas within effective
line of site due to refraction
• Refraction – bending of microwaves by the
atmosphere
– Velocity of electromagnetic wave is a function of
the density of the medium
– When wave changes medium, speed changes
– Wave bends at the boundary between mediums
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 54
Line-of-Sight Equations
• Optical line of sight

• Effective, or radio, line of sight


• d = distance between antenna and horizon
(km)
• h = antenna height (m)
• K = adjustment factor to account for
refraction, rule of thumb K = 4/3
h d 57 . 3 =
h d K = 57 . 3
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 55
Line-of-Sight Equations
• Maximum distance between two
antennas for LOS propagation:


• h
1
= height of antenna one
• h
2
= height of antenna two

( )
2 1
57 . 3 h h K + K
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LOS Wireless Transmission
Impairments
• Attenuation and attenuation distortion
• Free space loss
• Atmospheric absorption
• Multipath (diffraction, reflection,
refraction…)
• Noise
• Thermal noise
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 57
Attenuation
• Strength of signal falls off with distance over
transmission medium
• Attenuation factors for unguided media:
– Received signal must have sufficient strength so
that circuitry in the receiver can interpret the signal
– Signal must maintain a level sufficiently higher
than noise to be received without error
– Attenuation is greater at higher frequencies,
causing distortion
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 58
Free Space Loss
• Free space loss, ideal isotropic antenna



• P
t
= signal power at transmitting antenna
• P
r
= signal power at receiving antenna
• ì = carrier wavelength
• d = propagation distance between antennas
• c = speed of light (~ 3 × 10 8 m/s)
where d and ì are in the same units (e.g.,
meters)
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
4 4
c
fd d
P
P
r
t
t
ì
t
= =
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 59
Free Space Loss
• Free space loss equation can be recast:




|
.
|

\
|
= =
ì
td
P
P
L
r
t
dB
4
log 20 log 10
( ) ( ) dB 98 . 21 log 20 log 20 + + ÷ = d ì
( ) ( ) dB 56 . 147 log 20 log 20
4
log 20 ÷ + =
|
.
|

\
|
= d f
c
fd t
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 60
Free Space Loss
• Free space loss accounting for gain of
other antennas



• G
t
= gain of transmitting antenna
• G
r
= gain of receiving antenna
• A
t
= effective area of transmitting antenna
• A
r
= effective area of receiving antenna
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
t r t r t r r
t
A A f
cd
A A
d
G G
d
P
P
2
2 2
2
2 2
4
= = =
ì
ì
t
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 61
Free Space Loss
• Free space loss accounting for gain of
other antennas can be recast as
( ) ( ) ( )
r t dB
A A d L log 10 log 20 log 20 ÷ + = ì
( ) ( ) ( ) dB 54 . 169 log 10 log 20 log 20 + ÷ + ÷ =
r t
A A d f
Multipath Propagation
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 63
Multipath propagation
• Signal can take many different paths between sender
and receiver due to reflection, scattering, diffraction





• Time dispersion: signal is dispersed over time
– interference with “neighbor” symbols, Inter Symbol
Interference (ISI)
• The signal reaches a receiver directly and phase
shifted
– distorted signal depending on the phases of the different
parts
signal at sender
signal at receiver
LOS pulses
multipath
pulses
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 64
Atmospheric absorption
• Water vapor and oxygen contribute
most
• Water vapor: peak attenuation near
22GHz, low below 15Ghz
• Oxygen: absorption peak near 60GHz,
lower below 30 GHz.
• Rain and fog may scatter (thus
attenuate) radio waves.
• Low frequency band usage helps…
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 65
Effects of mobility
• Channel characteristics change over time and
location
– signal paths change
– different delay variations of different signal parts
– different phases of signal parts
–  quick changes in the power received (short term
fading)

• Additional changes in
– distance to sender
– obstacles further away
–  slow changes in the average
power received (long term fading)
short term fading
long term
fading
t
power
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 66
Next
• Channel effects (e.g. fading), noise
• Spread spectrum
• Cellular system basics

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