7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 1

CSE 4215/5431:
Mobile Communications
Winter 2010
Suprakash Datta
datta@cs.yorku.ca

Office: CSEB 3043
Phone: 416-736-2100 ext 77875

Course page: http://www.cs.yorku.ca/course/4215

Some slides are adapted from the book website
7/16/2013 CSE 4215, Winter 2010 2
Last class
• Introduction to mobile communications
• Similarities and differences with wired
communication
• Review of the TCP/IP architecture
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Today
• The physical layer for mobile
communications

• Let’s start with the very basic notions
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Signals, channels and systems
• What is a signal?
– Baseband signal
– Modulation
– Bandwidth
– Transmission/reception
• What is a channel?
– Bandwidth
– Noise
– Loss?
• What is a communication system?
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Types of signals
(a) continuous time/discrete time
(b) continuous values/discrete values
– analog signal = continuous time, continuous values
– digital signal = discrete time, discrete values
• Periodic signal - analog or digital signal that repeats
over time
– s(t +T ) = s(t ) -·< t < +·
• where T is the period of the signal
• signal parameters of periodic signals:
period T, frequency f=1/T, amplitude A, phase shift ¢
– sine wave as special periodic signal for a carrier:

s(t) = A
t
sin(2 t f
t
t + ¢
t
)
Sine Wave Parameters
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Bandwidth
• Of a signal
• Of a channel

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The underlying mathematics
) 2 cos( ) 2 sin(
2
1
) (
1 1
nft b nft a c t g
n
n
n
n
t t
¿ ¿
·
=
·
=
+ + =
1
0
1
0
t t
ideal periodic signal
real composition
(based on harmonics)
Fourier representation of periodic signals
What about aperiodic signals ?
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Frequency domain
• Fundamental frequency - when all frequency
components of a signal are integer multiples
of one frequency, it’s referred to as the
fundamental frequency
• Spectrum - range of frequencies that a signal
contains
• Absolute bandwidth - width of the spectrum of
a signal
• Effective bandwidth (or just bandwidth) -
narrow band of frequencies that most of the
signal’s energy is contained in
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Transmitting rectangular signals
• Observations
– Any digital waveform will have infinite
bandwidth
– BUT the transmission system will limit the
bandwidth that can be transmitted
– AND, for any given medium, the greater the
bandwidth transmitted, the greater the cost
– HOWEVER, limiting the bandwidth creates
distortions
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Bit rates, channel capacity
• Impairments, such as noise, limit data
rate that can be achieved
• For digital data, to what extent do
impairments limit data rate?
• Channel Capacity – the maximum rate
at which data can be transmitted over a
given communication path, or channel,
under given conditions
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Nyquist Bandwidth
• For binary signals (two voltage levels)
– C = 2B
• With multilevel signaling
– C = 2B log
2
M
• M = number of discrete signal or voltage levels
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Signal-to-Noise Ratio
• Ratio of the power in a signal to the power
contained in the noise that’s present at a
particular point in the transmission
• Typically measured at a receiver
• Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, or S/N)

• A high SNR means a high-quality signal, low
number of required intermediate repeaters
• SNR sets upper bound on achievable data rate
power noise
power signal
log 10 ) (
10 dB
= SNR
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Shannon Capacity Formula
• Equation:

• Represents theoretical maximum that can be
achieved
• In practice, only much lower rates achieved
– Formula assumes white noise (thermal noise)
– Impulse noise is not accounted for
– Attenuation distortion or delay distortion not
accounted for
( ) SNR 1 log
2
+ = B C
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Example of Nyquist and Shannon
Formulations
• Spectrum of a channel between 3 MHz
and 4 MHz ; SNR
dB
= 24 dB

• Using Shannon’s formula

( )
251 SNR
SNR log 10 dB 24 SNR
MHz 1 MHz 3 MHz 4
10 dB
=
= =
= ÷ = B
( ) Mbps 8 8 10 251 1 log 10
6
2
6
= × ~ + × = C
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Example of Nyquist and Shannon
Formulations
• How many signaling levels are
required?
( )
16
log 4
log 10 2 10 8
log 2
2
2
6 6
2
=
=
× × = ×
=
M
M
M
M B C
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Modulation
• Why?
• How?

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Frequencies for wireless communication
• VLF = Very Low Frequency UHF = Ultra High Frequency
• LF = Low Frequency SHF = Super High Frequency
• MF = Medium Frequency EHF = Extra High Frequency

• HF = High Frequency UV = Ultraviolet Light
• VHF = Very High Frequency

• Frequency and wave length
– ì = c/f
– wave length ì, speed of light c ~ 3x10
8
m/s, frequency f
1 Mm
300 Hz
10 km
30 kHz
100 m
3 MHz
1 m
300 MHz
10 mm
30 GHz
100 µm
3 THz
1 µm
300 THz
visible light VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF infrared UV
optical transmission
coax cable twisted
pair
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Frequencies for wireless communication
• VHF-/UHF-ranges for mobile radio
– simple, small antenna for cars
– deterministic propagation characteristics, reliable connections
• SHF and higher for directed radio links, satellite
communication
– small antenna, beam forming
– large bandwidth available
• Wireless LANs use frequencies in UHF to SHF range
– some systems planned up to EHF
– limitations due to absorption by water and oxygen molecules
(resonance frequencies)
• weather dependent fading, signal loss caused by heavy rainfall
etc.
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Frequencies and regulations
• ITU-R holds auctions for new frequencies, manages frequency
bands worldwide (WRC, World Radio Conferences)
Examples Europe USA Japan
Cellular
phones
GSM 880-915, 925-
960, 1710-1785,
1805-1880
UMTS 1920-1980,
2110-2170
AMPS, TDMA,
CDMA, GSM 824-
849, 869-894
TDMA, CDMA, GSM,
UMTS 1850-1910,
1930-1990
PDC, FOMA 810-888,
893-958
PDC 1429-1453,
1477-1501
FOMA 1920-1980,
2110-2170
Cordless
phones
CT1+ 885-887, 930-
932
CT2 864-868
DECT 1880-1900
PACS 1850-1910,
1930-1990
PACS-UB 1910-1930
PHS 1895-1918
JCT 245-380
Wireless LANs
802.11b/g 2412-2472 802.11b/g 2412-2462 802.11b 2412-2484
802.11g 2412-2472
Other RF
systems
27, 128, 418, 433,
868
315, 915 426, 868
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• Multiplexing in 4 dimensions
– space (s
i
)
– time (t)
– frequency (f)
– code (c)

• Goal: multiple use
of a shared medium

• Important: guard spaces needed!
s
2

s
3

s
1

Multiplexing
f
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
f
t
c
channels k
i

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Frequency multiplexing
• Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller
frequency bands
• A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the
whole time
– no dynamic coordination
necessary
– works also for analog signals

– waste of bandwidth
if the traffic is
distributed
unevenly
– inflexible
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
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f
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

Time division multiplexing
• A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain
amount of time

– only one carrier in the
medium at any time
– throughput high even
for many users

– precise
synchronization
necessary
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f
Time and frequency multiplex
• Combination of both methods
• A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain
amount of time
• Example: GSM

– better protection against
tapping
– protection against frequency
selective interference
• but: precise coordination
required
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

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Code multiplex
• Each channel has a unique code

• All channels use the same spectrum
at the same time
– bandwidth efficient
– no coordination and synchronization
necessary
– good protection against interference
and tapping
– varying user data rates
– more complex signal regeneration
• Implemented using spread spectrum technology
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
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Example
• Lack of coordination requirement is an
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Aside: Digital Communications
• What is coding?
• What is source coding?
• What are line codes?
• What is channel coding?

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Transceivers
• How are signals sent and received in
wireless communications?
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• Radiation and reception of electromagnetic waves,
coupling of wires to space for radio transmission
• Isotropic radiator: equal radiation in all directions
(three dimensional) - only a theoretical reference
antenna
• Real antennas always have directive effects
(vertically and/or horizontally)
• Radiation pattern: measurement of radiation around
an antenna

z y
x
z
y x
ideal
isotropic
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Antennas: simple dipoles
• Real antennas are not isotropic radiators but, e.g., dipoles with lengths
ì/4 on car roofs or ì/2 as Hertzian dipole
 shape of antenna proportional to wavelength

• Example: Radiation pattern of a simple Hertzian dipole

• Gain: maximum power in the direction of the main lobe compared to the
power of an isotropic radiator (with the same average power)
side view (xy-plane)
x
y
side view (yz-plane)
z
y
top view (xz-plane)
x
z
simple
dipole
ì/4
ì/2
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Antennas: directed and sectorized
side view (xy-plane)
x
y
side view (yz-plane)
z
y
top view (xz-plane)
x
z
top view, 3 sector
x
z
top view, 6 sector
x
z
• Often used for microwave connections or base stations
for mobile phones (e.g., radio coverage of a valley)
directed
antenna
sectorized
antenna
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Antennas: diversity
• Grouping of 2 or more antennas
– multi-element antenna arrays
• Antenna diversity
– switched diversity, selection diversity
• receiver chooses antenna with largest output
– diversity combining
• combine output power to produce gain
• cophasing needed to avoid cancellation

+
ì/4 ì/2 ì/4
ground plane
ì/2
ì/2
+
ì/2
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Antenna Gain
• Antenna gain
– Power output, in a particular direction,
compared to that produced in any direction
by a perfect omnidirectional antenna
(isotropic antenna)
• Effective area
– Related to physical size and shape of
antenna
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Antenna Gain
• Relationship between antenna gain and
effective area

• G = antenna gain
• A
e
= effective area
• f = carrier frequency
• c = speed of light (~ 3 × 10
8
m/s)
• ì = carrier wavelength
2
2
2
4 4
c
A f A
G
e e
t
ì
t
= =
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Back to modulation
• Digital modulation
– digital data is translated into an analog signal (baseband)
– ASK, FSK, PSK - main focus in this chapter
– differences in spectral efficiency, power efficiency, robustness
• Analog modulation
– shifts center frequency of baseband signal up to the radio carrier
• Motivation
– smaller antennas (e.g., ì/4)
– Frequency Division Multiplexing
– medium characteristics
• Basic schemes
– Amplitude Modulation (AM)
– Frequency Modulation (FM)
– Phase Modulation (PM)
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Modulation and demodulation
synchronization
decision
digital
data
analog
demodulation
carrier
analog
baseband
signal
101101001
digital
modulation
digital
data
analog
modulation
carrier
analog
baseband
signal
101101001
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Digital modulation
• Modulation of digital signals known as Shift Keying
• Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK):
– very simple
– low bandwidth requirements
– very susceptible to interference

• Frequency Shift Keying (FSK):
– needs larger bandwidth

• Phase Shift Keying (PSK):
– more complex
– robust against interference
1 0 1
t
1 0 1
t
1 0 1
t
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Advanced Frequency Shift Keying
• bandwidth needed for FSK depends on the distance
between the carrier frequencies
• special pre-computation avoids sudden phase shifts
 MSK (Minimum Shift Keying)
– bit separated into even and odd bits, the duration of each bit is
doubled
– depending on the bit values (even, odd) the higher or lower
frequency, original or inverted is chosen
– the frequency of one carrier is twice the frequency of the other
– Equivalent to offset QPSK

• even higher bandwidth efficiency using a Gaussian low-
pass filter  GMSK (Gaussian MSK), used in GSM
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Example of MSK
data
even bits
odd bits
1 1 1 1 0 0 0
t
low
frequency
high
frequency
MSK
signal
bit
even 0 1 0 1
odd 0 0 1 1
signal h n n h
value - - + +
h: high frequency
n: low frequency
+: original signal
-: inverted signal
No phase shifts!
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Advanced Phase Shift Keying
• BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying):
– bit value 0: sine wave
– bit value 1: inverted sine wave
– very simple PSK
– low spectral efficiency
– robust, used e.g. in satellite systems
• QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift
Keying):
– 2 bits coded as one symbol
– symbol determines shift of sine wave
– needs less bandwidth compared to
BPSK
– more complex
• Often also transmission of relative,
not absolute phase shift: DQPSK -
Differential QPSK (IS-136, PHS)
11 10 00 01
Q
I
0 1
Q
I
11
01
10
00
A
t
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• . Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
– combines amplitude and phase modulation
– it is possible to code n bits using one symbol
– 2
n
discrete levels, n=2 identical to QPSK
• Bit error rate increases with n, but less errors
compared to comparable PSK schemes
– Example: 16-QAM (4 bits = 1 symbol)
– Symbols 0011 and 0001 have
the same phase φ, but different
amplitude a. 0000 and 1000 have
different phase, but same amplitude
0000
0001
0011
1000
Q
I
0010
φ
a
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Hierarchical Modulation
• DVB-T modulates two separate data streams onto a
single DVB-T stream
• High Priority (HP) embedded within a Low Priority
(LP) stream
• Multi carrier system, about 2000 or 8000 carriers
• QPSK, 16 QAM, 64QAM
• Example: 64QAM
– good reception: resolve the entire
64QAM constellation
– poor reception, mobile reception:
resolve only QPSK portion
– 6 bit per QAM symbol, 2 most
significant determine QPSK
– HP service coded in QPSK (2 bit),
LP uses remaining 4 bit
Q
I
00
10
000010 010101
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Signal propagation basics
Many different effects have to be
considered
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Signal propagation ranges
• Transmission range
– communication possible
– low error rate
• Detection range
– detection of the signal
possible
– no communication
possible
• Interference range
– signal may not be
detected
– signal adds to the
background noise

distance
sender
transmission
detection
interference
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Signal propagation
• Propagation in free space always like light (straight line)
• Receiving power proportional to 1/d² in vacuum – much more in real
environments
(d = distance between sender and receiver)
• Receiving power additionally influenced by
• fading (frequency dependent)
• reflection at large obstacles
• refraction depending on the density of a medium
• scattering at small obstacles
• diffraction at edges
reflection scattering diffraction shadowing refraction
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Real world example
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Propagation Modes
• Ground-wave propagation
• Sky-wave propagation
• Line-of-sight propagation
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Ground Wave Propagation
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Ground Wave Propagation
• Follows contour of the earth
• Can Propagate considerable distances
• Frequencies up to 2 MHz
• Example
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Sky Wave Propagation
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Sky Wave Propagation
• Signal reflected from ionized layer of
atmosphere back down to earth
• Signal can travel a number of hops,
back and forth between ionosphere and
earth’s surface
• Reflection effect caused by refraction
• Examples
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Line-of-Sight Propagation
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Line-of-Sight Propagation
• Transmitting and receiving antennas must be
within line of sight
– Satellite communication – signal above 30 MHz
not reflected by ionosphere
– Ground communication – antennas within effective
line of site due to refraction
• Refraction – bending of microwaves by the
atmosphere
– Velocity of electromagnetic wave is a function of
the density of the medium
– When wave changes medium, speed changes
– Wave bends at the boundary between mediums
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Line-of-Sight Equations
• Optical line of sight

• Effective, or radio, line of sight

• d = distance between antenna and horizon
(km)
• h = antenna height (m)
• K = adjustment factor to account for
refraction, rule of thumb K = 4/3
h d 57 . 3 =
h d K = 57 . 3
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Line-of-Sight Equations
• Maximum distance between two
antennas for LOS propagation:

• h
1
= height of antenna one
• h
2
= height of antenna two

( )
2 1
57 . 3 h h K + K
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LOS Wireless Transmission
Impairments
• Attenuation and attenuation distortion
• Free space loss
• Atmospheric absorption
• Multipath (diffraction, reflection,
refraction…)
• Noise
• Thermal noise
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Attenuation
• Strength of signal falls off with distance over
transmission medium
• Attenuation factors for unguided media:
– Received signal must have sufficient strength so
that circuitry in the receiver can interpret the signal
– Signal must maintain a level sufficiently higher
than noise to be received without error
– Attenuation is greater at higher frequencies,
causing distortion
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Free Space Loss
• Free space loss, ideal isotropic antenna

• P
t
= signal power at transmitting antenna
• P
r
= signal power at receiving antenna
• ì = carrier wavelength
• d = propagation distance between antennas
• c = speed of light (~ 3 × 10 8 m/s)
where d and ì are in the same units (e.g.,
meters)
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
4 4
c
fd d
P
P
r
t
t
ì
t
= =
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Free Space Loss
• Free space loss equation can be recast:

|
.
|

\
|
= =
ì
td
P
P
L
r
t
dB
4
log 20 log 10
( ) ( ) dB 98 . 21 log 20 log 20 + + ÷ = d ì
( ) ( ) dB 56 . 147 log 20 log 20
4
log 20 ÷ + =
|
.
|

\
|
= d f
c
fd t
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Free Space Loss
• Free space loss accounting for gain of
other antennas

• G
t
= gain of transmitting antenna
• G
r
= gain of receiving antenna
• A
t
= effective area of transmitting antenna
• A
r
= effective area of receiving antenna
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
t r t r t r r
t
A A f
cd
A A
d
G G
d
P
P
2
2 2
2
2 2
4
= = =
ì
ì
t
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Free Space Loss
• Free space loss accounting for gain of
other antennas can be recast as
( ) ( ) ( )
r t dB
A A d L log 10 log 20 log 20 ÷ + = ì
( ) ( ) ( ) dB 54 . 169 log 10 log 20 log 20 + ÷ + ÷ =
r t
A A d f
Multipath Propagation
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Multipath propagation
• Signal can take many different paths between sender
and receiver due to reflection, scattering, diffraction

• Time dispersion: signal is dispersed over time
– interference with “neighbor” symbols, Inter Symbol
Interference (ISI)
• The signal reaches a receiver directly and phase
shifted
– distorted signal depending on the phases of the different
parts
signal at sender
LOS pulses
multipath
pulses
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Atmospheric absorption
• Water vapor and oxygen contribute
most
• Water vapor: peak attenuation near
22GHz, low below 15Ghz
• Oxygen: absorption peak near 60GHz,
lower below 30 GHz.
• Rain and fog may scatter (thus
• Low frequency band usage helps…
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Effects of mobility
• Channel characteristics change over time and
location
– signal paths change
– different delay variations of different signal parts
– different phases of signal parts
–  quick changes in the power received (short term

• Additional changes in
– distance to sender
– obstacles further away
–  slow changes in the average