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 Mass

Audience: products created for broad appeal.  Niche Audience: a small audience targeted to consume a niche media product.  Primary Audience: the main or intended audience.  Secondary Audience: an additional and unintentional audience.  Demographic social grade scale used in UK to judge audience type.  Other scales are based on audiences values, lifestyles, political beliefs and activities. This is known as Psychographics.

A – Upper Middle Class – high managerial, administrative or professional.  B – Middle Class – Intermediate managerial, administrative or professional.  C1 – Lower Middle Class – Supervisory or clerical and junior managerial, administrative or professional.  C2 – Skilled Working Class – Skilled normal workers.  D – Working Class – Semi and unskilled manual workers.  E – These are the lowest levels of subsidence – casual or lowest grade workers, pensioners and others who depend on the welfare state for their income.

 This

model suggests that audiences passively absorb the content of media texts.  According to this model there is a direct correlation between the content of TV, video games etc. and the behaviours and values of audiences.  Modern anti-social and criminal behaviour can be largely attributed to the influence of the media.

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The belief that audiences passively receive messages is long gone. Katz and Blumler proposed from their research into audience behaviour that audiences use media texts for a variety of reasons. Information: finding out about events, satisfying curiosity gaining a sense of security through knowledge. Personal Identity: reinforcement for personal values, finding models of behaviours, insight intro one’s self. Integration and Social Interaction: insight into circumstances of others: social empathy, identifying with others and gaining a sense of belonging, interaction, enabling one to connect with family, friends and society. Entertainment: escaping, diversion from problems, relaxing, getting enjoyment, filling time, emotional release.

Audiences read texts. Hall’s reception theory states that texts are encoded for a specific and preferred reading.  If the construction of meaning needs the audience, it is now believed that, at best audiences ‘negotiate’ reading as they modify, select and discard parts of the text based upon personal experiences etc.  Oppositional or subversive readings occasionally happen when the audience read a text is a way unintended and unexpected by the text producers. Polysemic texts are open to multiple readings.


Hypodermic Needle Theory is applied through the fact that Madonna, no matter what she does, will always do the right things. The audience empathises and watches her through her journey of the music video trying to be the best person the can be.