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5.1 5.2 5.3

Understanding the Mitosis Understanding the Meiosis The movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis

1. Cell division helps the body to produce new cells in order to replace cells that are worn out and damaged. 2. The continuous production of new cell for the growth through a process called mitosis. 3. Mitosis involves nuclear division to produce two daughter cell, each containing the same number and genetically identical chromosomes as the parent cell. 4. Mitosis occurs in all somatic cells ( all body cell except the reproductive cell).

For human (2n)=46. . The number of chromosomes present in each cell is constant for the species. Somatic cell contain two set of chromosomes. 2.Significant of Mitosis 1. a human cell has 46 chromosomes. These cells contain a diploid number of chromosomes (2n). one set inherited from each parent. Example .

Each member of the pair is called a homologue. Mitosis ensure that the new cell are genetically identical to the chromosomal number of the species.3. Gametes contain only one set of chromosomes or one of each pair of chromosomes and are said to contain haploid number of chromosomes. . Chromosomes exist in pairs. 4. The chromosomes in each pair have the same structural features and are referred to as the homologous chromosomes. 5.

The cell cycle .

M phase (Mitosis cell division) . G2 phase iv. G1 phase ii. • The cell cycle can be divide into the following phase: i. S phase Interphase iii.The cell cycle • It is the period that each cell undergoes from the time the cell is produced until the cell completes cell division.

b) S phase (DNA synthesis) i. The chromosomes appear as thread-like structures called chromatin. DNA is synthesised at this stage and undergoes the replication process. ii. The cell growth by producing proteins and new cytoplasmic organelles. Interphase is the stage for cells to grow larger and prepare for cell division.Interphase 1. Interphase is divided into three stages: a) G1 phase (gap or growth phase 1) i. . 2.

. The cell continues to grow.ii. The cell prepares for cell division. c) G2 phase (gap or growth phase 2) i. Each duplicate DNA contains two identical sister chromatids joined together by centromeres. ii.

2. a) b) c) d) Cell division takes place in the M phase.The M phase 1. 3. 4. i. Consists of two parts: Mitosis Cytokinesis The nucleus divides during mitosis followed by division of cytoplasm called cytoinesis. Mitosis is divided into: Prophase Metaphase Anaphase telophase . ii.



• The nucleolus disappear. that is the shorten and thicken and finally becomes visible. • centrioles migrate to opposite poles of the cell. .Prophase • The chromosomes condense. • Each chromosomes consist of sister chromatids attached at a point called the centromere. • The spindle fibres begin to form and extend between the centrioles. the nuclear membrane breaks down/disintegrates. • Centrioles are absent in plant cells.

Metaphase • The spindle fibres are fully formed. . • All chromosomes are arranged with their centromers along the equator of the spindle. • Two sister chromatids are still attached at the centromers.

.Anaphase • Anaphase begins with the separation of the centromers. • The sister chromatids are drawn to opposite poles of the cell by contraction of the spindle fibres. • Anaphase ends when the chromosomes reach the two opposite poles of the cell. • Once the sister chromatids are separated they are referred to as daughter chromosomes.

• Spindle fibres disappear • A new nuclear membrane forms • The nucleolus reforms .Telophase • Telophase begins when the two sets of daughter chromosomes have reached the two poles of the cell. • The chromosomes appear as thread-like structure (chromatin) and are not visible.

• Cytokinesis usually begins before nuclear division is completed. Cleavage furrow • In animal cell.Cytokinesis • Cytokinesis is the process of cytoplasmic division to form two daughter cells. cytokinesis form A groove called a cleavage furrow. .

• The vesicles fuse. producing the cell wall. . • The cell plate extends outwards to the existing cell wall. cytokinesis start with the formation of cell plate at the equator of the cell.• In plant cell cells. and separate the two daughter cells.

.• • • • The Importance of mitosis To replace dead cell. To increase the number of cells thus allowing growth and development in living organisms. The basic of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms. To repair or regenerate damaged cells.

• A tumor is a lump or growth of tissue made up from abnormal cells. • Two type of tumor a) Benign tumor b) Malignant tumor .Uncontrolled mitosis in living things • What happen if the cells fail to divide or begin to divide at the wrong time or even divide uncontrollably? • Cancer is a genetic disease caused by uncontrollably mitosis due to severe disruption to mechanism that control the cell cycle.




2 Meiosis .5.

Process of nuclear division to produce four daughter cells. The daughter cell recieves one set chromosomes from each pair of homologous chromosomes and is called a haploid cell.5. . Parent cell that carries out meiosis is diploid (2n). each containing half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. 3. Gamates that are produces form meiosis are haploid (n). 2.2 Meiosis 1. 4.

to produce egg cells in ovules . In plant meiosis occurs in a) Anthers of flowers – to produce male gamates in pollen b) Ovaries of flowers . 6. In animal and human meiosis occurs in a) Testes in males – to produce sperms b) Ovaries in females – to produce ovum 7. The genetic materials in the gamates differs from the parent cell and from each other.5.

b) To maintain diploid number in each generation. .The significant of meiosis a) To allow traits inheritances in offspring. c) To ensure the production of haploid gamates in sexual reproduction . d) To produce genetic variation among offspring.

Meiosis involves two nuclei division: a) Meiosis I (the first meiotic division) b) Meiosis II (the second meiotic division) Meiosis I Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Meiosis II Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II .The process of Meiosis 1.

The Stages of Meiosis I • Interphase (same like Mitosis) .

The non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes exchanges segments of DNA in a process called crossing over. . 3. Chromosomes condense – become shorter. Each pair of homologous chromosomes consisting of four chromatids is called a bivalent or a tetrad. Each chromosomes consist two sister chromatids. 5. thicker and visible. 4.Prophase I 1. 2. Homologous chromosomes pair up through a process called sinapsis.

The points where the chromatids cross over are called Chiasmata.6. 8. Crossing over results in new combination of genes and is an important sources of variation. Nucleolus and nuclear membrane dissapper. 7. The two pairs of centrioles which spindle fibre radiate move to opposite poles. .

Centromers does not divide .Metaphase I 1. 3. Chromosomes of each pair is attached to the spindle fibre. the chromosomes are line up side by side as tetrads on the metaphase plate/ homologous chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell. 2.

• The spindle fibre pull the homologous chromosomes apart. • Each chromosomes still consist of two sister chromatids which move as a single unit.Anaphase I • The chromosomes of each homologous pair move to opposite poles of the cell. .

2. .Telophase I 1. Cytokinesis occurs to produce two haploid daughter cell because the nucleus contain only one set of chromosomes. Nuclear membrane reforms 4. Spindle fibre disappear 3. Nucleolus reappear 5. The chromosomes fibres disappear arrive at opposite poles of the cell.

• Meiosis II follows immediately after cytokinesis • No Interphase (DNA replication does not occur again and the chromosomes remain in a condense state) • Meiosis II results in the separation of sister chromatids .

The spindle fibre reform in each daughter cell.Prophase II 1. . 2. The nuclear membrane of the daughter cells disintegrate again.

.Metaphase II 1. each made up of sister chromatids. line up at the equator. Each sister chromatid is attached to the spindle fibre at the centromers. The sister chromatids of each chromosomes face opposite poles. 2. The chromosomes. 3.

Anaphase II • The centromers separate. . • The chromatids separate and move face opposite of the cells.

2. Spindle fibre break down.Telophase II 1. 4. 3. Each with half number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Nucleoli and Nuclear membrane reform. . Cytokinesis occur and produce four daughter cell.

Homologous chromosomes separate and move towards opposite poles II.Similarities and Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis mitosis Somatic cell Aspect Place it occur meiosis Reproductive organs Does not occur Synapsis of homologous chromosomes Occurs during prophase I Does not occur Sister chromatids split and move towards opposite poles Crossing over between Occur during Prophase I non-sister chromatids Anaphase I.sister chromatids split and move towards opposite poles .

Mitosis Aspect Meiosis One 2 Haploid (n) Number of division Number of daughter cells Number of chromosomes two 4 Diploid (2n) Occur once All daughter cell are genetically same as parent cell Cytokinesis Occur twice Genetic content All daughter cell are of daughter cell genetically different as parent cell .

arrangement or number of DNA in the chromosome.5.3 Appreciating the movement of Chromosomes during Mitosis and Meiosis Mutation • A sudden changes in structure. .

Mental retarded 5. Pairs of chromosomes do not separate properly during meiosis which produce an ovum containing 24 chromosomes. Has one extra chromosomes at chromosomes 21. .Down’s syndrome 1. 2. 3. Typical facial 6. Shorter stature 8. Shorter life. Slanting eyes 7. Weak body resistances 4. Prone to disease 9.

Women sterile 5. characteristic 7. Lack of ovaries and menstrual cycle 4. Short . 22+ XO 3.Turner’s syndrome 1. Lack secondary sexual 6. 2. Genetic disorder of women caused by the absences of the second sex chromosomes.

Underdeveloped testes 4.Klinefelter’s syndrome 1. Extra X chromosomes so their sex chromosomes are XXY 3. Breast enlargement . Genetic disorder affecting men 2. Infertility 5.