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The Cell Cycle

Chapter 8 Sections 8.2 & 8.3

Cell Growth and Reproduction
Section 8.2

Cell Size

Cells can come in many different sizes

Red Blood Cells ~ 8 micrometers Nerve cells ~ 1 m long Yolk of Ostrich egg ~ 8 cm

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Cell Size  Most living cells are between 2 and 200 micrometers in diameter Why may this be? What advantage does a cell have with staying small? .

its surface area and volume change.Cell Size  As a cell gets bigger. .

area of each surface  Length x Width Volume.Cell Size  Surface area.L x W x H  .

Cell Size  Cells rely on diffusion to move particles throughout the cell. How would the diffusion rate of substances into and out of the cell change as the cell gets larger?  .

Calculate the SA & V 4 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 2 mm 2 mm 4 mm 4 mm 2 mm Surface Area = (l * w) * 6 Volume = l * w * h .

SA cube 1 = 6 cm² Volume cube 1 = 1cm³ Ratio: 6 / 1 = 6 .Cell Size • Compare the surface area to the volume of each cell by dividing the surface area by the volume.

it would either starve to death or be poisoned from the buildup of waste products due to the slow rate of diffusion! If a cell is too large. diffusion cannot work efficiently enough  .Cell Size  If a cell got too large.

Cell Size  2 major factors that limit cell size   Rate of Diffusion DNA  What is the function of DNA? .

Cell Size  DNA contains the instructions for making proteins Proteins perform critical cell functions  .

Cell Size  The cell can’t survive if it doesn’t have enough DNA to support its protein needs .

Cell Size  How can a large cell compensate for being so big? Have more than one nucleus!  .

it must replicate itself and divide Why?   Prevent itself from getting “too big for its britches" Replication usually ensures survival Worn out cells need to be replaced   .Cell Reproduction  When a cell gets too big.

Cell Reproduction  Remember the cell theory?  “All cells come from preexisting cells…” .

Cell Reproduction   Cell reproduction (cell division) is the process by which cells produce new cells Results in two cells that are identical to the original parent cell Identical sets of genetic information! .

Cell Reproduction  Cell reproduction is a well orchestrated event Division is different in prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes  .

Prokaryotic Cell Division  Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission  DNA is copied and cell splits in half .

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle  Eukaryotic cell division is a highly orchestrated event The cell cycle is the sequence of growth and division of a eukaryotic cell  .

What process is shown here? .

. the more demands the cell places on its DNA and the more trouble the cell has moving enough nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane.Yesterday’s Highlights The larger a cell becomes.

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle  There are three major parts to the cell cycle    Interphase Mitosis Cytokinesis .

genetic information exists as chromatin wrapped around histones (structural proteins)  Like beads on a string Chromatin .Chromosomes *Cell division results in two cells that are identical to the original parent cell*  Histone When a cell is not dividing.

Chromosomes  Just before cell division. chromosomes become visible as chromatin is tightly packed or supercoiled to avoid damage during division Supercoils .

chromosomes are duplicated so that each cell has a copy Each copy is called a sister chromatid and is held together by a centromere  .Chromosomes  Finally.

Chromosomes  What is the difference between chromosomes and chromatin? Nothing! – Just how it’s arranged. Chromatin  Chromosomes  Condensing and doubling .

The Cell Cycle  INTERPHASE .busiest time in a cell’s life Cell performs its normal functions and produces proteins so it can perform its particular job   Most of a cell’s life is spent in this phase .

Interphase   Divided into three parts Part 1 (G1)  Cell grows and protein production is high Part 1 .

Interphase  Part 2 (S phase)Chromatin is copied Part 2 .

Interphase  Part 3 (G2) Cell prepares for division • Centrioles and other organelles are copied to aid in cell division Part 3 .


Cell Reproduction .

The Phases of Mitosis  There are four important phases that occur during mitosis Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Prophase .

Prophase     Chromatids condense Nuclear envelope disappears Centrioles align near nucleus Spindle fibers form Sister Chromatids .

Metaphase   Chromosomes attach to spindle fibers Line up along the middle of the cell .

Anaphase  Sister chromatids are separated and pulled to opposite sides of the cell Caused by the shortening of the microtublues in the spindle fibers  .

nucleolus and nuclear envelope reappears New membrane forms between the cells  .Telophase  Prophase reverses Chromosomes unwind for use in the new cell   Spindle fibers break down.

cell plate is laid down and new cell walls and membranes form around it Cell plate forming   . plasma membrane pinches at the equator forming cleavage furrow In plant cells.Cytokinesis  “Cytoplasm splitting” In animal cells.